Prakrita, Prākṛta: 20 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Prakrita means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Prākṛta can be transliterated into English as Prakrta or Prakrita, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Prakrat.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Prākṛta (प्राकृत, “natural”) refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyeballs (tārā), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Prākṛta (प्राकृत, “natural”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyeballs (tārā);—Instructions: eyeballs in the natural (glance). Uses: in the in the remaining Sentiments (rasa).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Prakṛta (प्रकृत).—In context, in question; the word is frequently used in connection with words in the preceding rules which are drawn on to the following rules by anuvrtti or continuation; cf. प्रकृतं गुणवृद्धिग्रहणमनुवर्तते (prakṛtaṃ guṇavṛddhigrahaṇamanuvartate), M.Bh. on I.1.3 Vart. 2:

2) Prakṛta.—Found or available in a large quantity; cf. तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् । प्राचुर्येण प्रस्तुतं प्रकृतम् । (tatprakṛtavacane mayaṭ | prācuryeṇa prastutaṃ prakṛtam |) Kas. on P. V. 4.21.

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1) Prākṛta (प्राकृत).—Original, primary,belonging to the Prakrti as contrasted with a वैकृत (vaikṛta) modification or a modified thing; cf प्रकृतिः स्वभावः, तत्संबन्धी प्राकृतः (prakṛtiḥ svabhāvaḥ, tatsaṃbandhī prākṛtaḥ). com. on T. Pr. XIV. 28: cf. एतद्विकारा एवान्ये, सर्वे तु प्राकृताः समाः (etadvikārā evānye, sarve tu prākṛtāḥ samāḥ) R. Pr. XVII. 23; cf. also तहीन् (tahīn) ... पशूंस्तकारपरः (paśūṃstakāraparaḥ) (नकारः (nakāraḥ)) सकारं प्राकृतो नित्ये (sakāraṃ prākṛto nitye) T. Pr. VI. 14;

2) Prākṛta.—Natural, which can be so ordinarily, without any specific effort; cf. तस्मात् प्राकृत-मेवैतत् कर्म यथा कटं करोति (tasmāt prākṛta-mevaitat karma yathā kaṭaṃ karoti), M. Bh. on P. II. 3.5, cf. also M. Bh. on P. III 1.5 Vart. 8, 9.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Prakrita in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Prākṛta (प्राकृत).—A Yakṣa. He became very rich within twelve days. (Śloka 19, Chapter 134, Vana Parva).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Prākṛta (प्राकृत) refers to three [6th-8th] classes of cosmic creation (sarga), namely: [mahatsarga, sūkṣmabhūtasarga, vaikārikasarga], according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.15:—“[...] Brahmā evolved three types of creation from Prakṛti. The first one was the creation of Mahat (the cosmic principle of intellect) [viz., Mahatsarga]. The second was that of the subtle elements [viz., Sūkṣmabhūtasarga]. The third was Vaikārika (of the nature of transformations and ramifications) [viz., Vaikārikasarga]. Thus with five Vaikṛta types and three later Prākṛtas there were eight types of creation. [...]”.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Prākṛta (प्राकृत) refers to one of the four kinds of destruction, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, chapter thirty-two contains accounts of Manvantaras while the chapter thirty-three contains descriptions of four kinds of destruction viz. Nitya, Naimittika, Prākṛta and Ātyantika.

Prākṛta refers to “dissolution at the end of the span of life of Brahmā”.—Prakṛta-pralaya occurs when the span of life of Brahmā is over. The span of life of Brahmā continues for two parārdhas. At the end of the two parārdhas Lord Kālāgni-Rurdra having burnt the Universe resorts to Tāṇḍava-dance. Then the earth with its qualities merge in water, water in turn merges in Agni, Agni merges in vāyu while vāyu merges in ākāśa. Ākāśa merges in bhūtādi while the sense organs merge in taijasa and the gods merge in vaikārika. Further these three types of ahaṃkāra merge in mahat and the mahat merges in Virañci (Brahmā). As the abode of Brahmā is avyakta, so Brahmā finally merges in avyakta who is also said to be prakṛti or pradhāna and also Śiva in the Saurapurāṇa. Thus Śiva annihilates everything in this process and remains alone and pralaya occurs according to the will of Lord Śiva and not otherwise. This pratisarga is called prākṛta because all the principles get merged at the end in prakṛti.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Prākṛta (प्राकृत) refers to:—Material. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Prakṛta.—cf. saṅgha-prakṛta. Note: prakṛta is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Prākṛta.—see Prakrit. Note: prākṛta is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prakṛta (प्रकृत).—a S That is in hand or under present view or consideration, present. 2 Used as ad At present, now.

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prakṛta (प्रकृत).—f (Popular contraction of prakṛti) Constitution (of body); disposition or temper (of mind). prakṛtaṃ anusarāmaḥ Let us follow the matter before us or in hand; let us pursue our present business.

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prākṛta (प्राकृत).—a (S Adj. from prakṛti Nature.) Natural, i.e. common, vulgar, according to the course of mere nature;--applied to persons, diction, words, and to languages considered as derived from and distinguished from the Sanskrit, and, particularly, to the Maraṭhi language. 2 Natural, native, not artificial or acquired. 3 Natural, i.e. common, customary, ordinary, usual. Ex. mahā siddhi tyajilyā sarva hī || tēthēṃ pāḍa kāya prākṛtācā ||. prā0 bōlaṇēṃ or prākṛtāvara yēṇēṃ To begin to use low, vulgar, or abusive language.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prakṛta (प्रकृत).—a That is in hand. Present. ad At present, now.

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prakṛta (प्रकृत).—f See prakṛti.

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prākṛta (प्राकृत).—a Natural. Common, ordinary, usual. prā?B bōlaṇēṃ or prākṛtāvara yēṇēṃ To begin to use vulgar, or abusive language.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prakṛta (प्रकृत).—p. p.

1) Accomplished, completed; प्रकृतजपविधीनामास्यमुद्रश्मिदन्तम् (prakṛtajapavidhīnāmāsyamudraśmidantam) Śi.11.42.

2) Commenced, begun.

3) Appointed, charged.

4) Genuine, real.

5) Forming the subject of discussion, that which is under consideration, the subject in hand (often used in works on Alaṃkāra for upameya) संभावनमथोत्प्रेक्षा प्रकृतस्य समेन यत् (saṃbhāvanamathotprekṣā prakṛtasya samena yat) K. P.1.

6) Important, interesting.

7) Wished, expected.

8) Original.

-tam The original subject, the matter or subject in hand; यातु, किमनेन, प्रकृतमेव अनुसरामः (yātu, kimanena, prakṛtameva anusarāmaḥ) 'come to the point'.

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Prākṛta (प्राकृत).—a. (-tā, -tī f.) [प्रकृतेरयं प्रकृत्या निर्वृत्तो वा अण् (prakṛterayaṃ prakṛtyā nirvṛtto vā aṇ)]

1) Original, natural, unaltered, unmodified; स्याताममित्रौ मित्रे च सहजप्राकृतावपि (syātāmamitrau mitre ca sahajaprākṛtāvapi) Śi.2.36 (see Malli, thereon).

2) Usual, common, ordinary.

3) Uncultivated, vulgar, unrefined, illiterate; प्राकृत इव परिभूयमानमात्मानं न रुणत्सि (prākṛta iva paribhūyamānamātmānaṃ na ruṇatsi) K.146; Bg.18.28.

4) Insignificant, unimportant; trifling; Mu.1.

5) Derived from Prakṛti, q. v.; प्राकृतो लयः (prākṛto layaḥ) 'reabsorption into Prakṛti'; विमुञ्चेत् प्राकृतान् ग्रामांस्तान् मुक्त्वाऽमृतमश्नुते (vimuñcet prākṛtān grāmāṃstān muktvā'mṛtamaśnute) Mb.12.24.12.

6) Provincial, vernacular (as a dialect); see below.

-taḥ 1 A low man, an ordinary or vulgar man. कार्षापणं भवेद्दण्डयो यत्रान्यः प्राकृतो जनः (kārṣāpaṇaṃ bhaveddaṇḍayo yatrānyaḥ prākṛto janaḥ) Ms.8.336.

2) A kind of fever; वर्षाशरद्वसन्तेषु वाताद्यैः प्राकृतः क्रमात् (varṣāśaradvasanteṣu vātādyaiḥ prākṛtaḥ kramāt) Mādhava; (see -jvaraḥ)

-tam A vernacular or provincial dialect derived from and akin to Sanskrit; प्रकृतिः संस्कृतं तत्र भवं तत आगतं च प्राकृतम् (prakṛtiḥ saṃskṛtaṃ tatra bhavaṃ tata āgataṃ ca prākṛtam) Hemachandra. (Many of these dialects are spoken by the female characters and inferior personages of Sanskrit plays and are usually divided into 4 dialects :-śaurasenī, māhārāṣṭrī, apabhraṃśa and paiśācī); तद्भवस्तत्समो देशीत्यनेकः प्राकृत- क्रमः (tadbhavastatsamo deśītyanekaḥ prākṛta- kramaḥ) Kāv.1.33; also 34, 35; त्वमप्यस्मादृशजनयोग्ये प्राकृतमार्गे प्रवृत्तोऽसि (tvamapyasmādṛśajanayogye prākṛtamārge pravṛtto'si) Vb.1.

2) Resolution or reabsorption into प्रकृति (prakṛti); the dissolution of the universe.

3) A particular ritual or यज्ञ (yajña); Bhāg.1.84.52.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Prakṛta (प्रकृत).—(-prakṛta), adj.-ppp. ifc. (= Pali -pakata), …by nature, in īrṣyā-prakṛta, jealous (= Pali issā-pakata): °tena Mahāvastu i.36.12; 44.13; °taiḥ Avadāna-śataka i.199.4. For another meaning of prakṛta (= Sanskrit) see s.v. 2 Prakṛti.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prakṛta (प्रकृत).—mfn.

(-taḥ-tā-taṃ) 1. Made, completed, accomplished. 2. Commenced. 3. Continuing or engaged in what has been begun. 4. That which is under consideration, the Subject in hand, (In this Sense it is often used for the “Upameya” in works of rhetoric). 5. Genuine, real. 6. Appointed, charged. 7. Wished, expected. 8. Important, interesting. n.

(-taṃ) The original subject. E. pra before, kṛta done.

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Prākṛta (प्राकृत).—mfn.

(-taḥ-tā-taṃ) Low, common, vulgar, thence especially applicable to a provincial and peculiar dialect of the Sanskrit language. 2. Natural. 3. Belonging to or derived from the philosophical Prakriti, illusory, material, &c. m.

(-taḥ) A low man or one following a degraded profession. n.

(-taṃ) Any dialect not Sanskrit, it is especially spoken by the female characters and the inferior personages of plays, E. prakṛti nature, and aṇ aff., or pra pre-eminently and akṛta not made.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prākṛta (प्राकृत).—i. e. prakṛti + a, I. adj., f. . 1. Natural. 2. Material. 3. Low, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 336. 4. Common, [Pañcatantra] 25, 2. Ii. n. A peculiar dialect, or rather some peculiar dialects akin to the Sanskrit language used particularly in dramatic compositions.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prakṛta (प्रकृत).—[adjective] made, done; commenced, mentioned, in question.

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Prākṛta (प्राकृत).—[feminine] ā & ī natural, normal, usual, common, vulgar, vernacular; [neuter] the vulgar language, the Prakrit.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Prakṛta (प्रकृत):—[=pra-kṛta] [from pra-kāra > pra-kṛ] mfn. made, done, produced, accomplished, prepared, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] appointed, charged, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

3) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) made or consisting of (tat-p), [Pāṇini 5-4, 21]

4) [v.s. ...] commenced, begun or one who has c° or b°, [iii, 4, 71]

5) [v.s. ...] put forward, mentioned, under discussion or in question, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kathāsaritsāgara; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) = upa-meya, [Kāvyaprakāśa]

7) [v.s. ...] wished, expected, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) [v.s. ...] genuine, real, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

9) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a man [gana] aśvādi

10) [v.s. ...] n. something begun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] original subject, present case, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

12) Prākṛta (प्राकृत):—[=prā-kṛta] [from prā] a See sub voce

13) b mf(ā, or ī)n. ([from] pra-kṛti) original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

14) low, vulgar, unrefined, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

15) provincial, vernacular, Prākritic, [Vikramāṅkadeva-carita, by Bilhaṇa]

16) (in Sāṃkhya) belonging to or derived from Prakṛti or the original element

17) (in [astronomy]) Name of one of the 7 divisions of the planetary courses (according to Parāśara comprising the Nakṣatras Svāti, Bharaṇī, Rohiṇī and Kṛttikā)

18) m. a low or vulgar man, [Manu-smṛti viii, 338; Mahābhārata] etc.

19) (with or [scilicet] laya, pralaya etc.) resolution or reabsorption into Prakṛti, the dissolution of the universe, [Purāṇa]

20) n. any provincial or vernacular dialect cognate with Saṃskṛt ([especially] the language spoken by women and inferior characters in the plays, but also occurring in other kinds of literature and usually divided into 4 dialects, viz. Śaurasenī, Māhārāṣṭrī, Apabhraṃśa and Paiśācī), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara; Kāvyādarśa etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Prakrita in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Prakṛta (प्रकृत) [Also spelled prakrat]:—(a) natural; spontaneous; unsophisticated; habitual; genuine; normal; ~[vāda] naturalism; ~[vādī] a naturalist; naturalistic.

2) Prākṛta (प्राकृत) [Also spelled prakrat]:—(a) natural; unsophisticated, unprocessed; inherent, innate; common; —[jana] common man; ~[vāda/ ~vāditā] naturalism; ~[vādī] a naturalist; naturalistic.

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