A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas

by Sujin Boriharnwanaket | 129,875 words

A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas is a guide to the development of the Buddha's path of wisdom, covering all aspects of human life and human behaviour, good and bad. This study explains that right understanding is indispensable for mental development, the development of calm as well as the development of insight The author describes in detail all ment...

Appendix 3 - To Rupa

28 Types Of Rupa

28 Types of Rūpa

Rupa is the paramattha Dhamma which does not know anything. Rupa is sankhata Dhamma, conditioned Dhamma, Dhamma which arises and falls away. There must be the appropriate conditions for the arising of rupa. The derived rupas, upādāya rupas, arise in dependence on the four Great Elements, the maha-bhūta rupas. However, there must be causes for the arising of the derived rupas and the four Great Elements, and these are the Dhammas which are the origination factors of all rupas which arise. Rupas could not arise without these origination factors. There are four origination factors, samuṭṭhāna, which cause the arising of rupas, namely: kamma, citta, temperature (utu) and nutrition (āhāra).

  • Rupas which originate from kamma are called kammaja rupas [1]
  • Rupas which originate from citta are called cittaja rupas
  • Rupas which originate from temperature are called utuja rupas
  • Rupas which originate from nutrition are called āhāraja rupas

Kammaja Rupa

Rupas which originate from kamma do not originate from the other three factors. There are nine kinds of kammaja rupas:

  1. eye-sense, cakkhuppasāda rupa
  2. ear-sense, sotappasāda rupa
  3. smelling-sense, ghānappasāda rupa
  4. tasting-sense, jivhāppasāda rupa
  5. body-sense, kāyappasāda rupa
  6. femininity, itthibhāva rupa
  7. masculinity, purisabhāva rupa
  8. heart-base, hadaya rupa
  9. life faculty, jīvitindriya rupa

What seems to be alive but does not originate from akusala kamma or kusala kamma, such as different kinds of vegetation, does not have kammaja rupa.

Some people do not have all kammaja rupas. They lack eye-sense, ear-sense, smelling-sense, tasting-sense, body-sense, femininity or masculinity. However, for living beings in the planes where there are five khandhas (nama and rupa), there must be heart-base, hadaya rupa, a base where citta arises, and there must be life faculty, jīvitindriya rupa. Jīvitindriya rupa arises in each group of rupas, kalāpa, originated from kamma.

For beings of the Brahma plane who are without consciousness, asañña satta [2] , there is only rupa, not nama. So long as they are asañña satta brahmas, citta and cetasika do not arise. There is for them only the kalapa, group of rupas, with life faculty. They do not have the rupas which are the senses, sex or heart-base.

The nine types of kammaja rupas are derived rupas, upādāya rupas, which have to arise together with the eight inseparable rupas, avinibbhoga rupas [3] . There are the following groups or kalāpas originated from kamma:

  1. the decad of the eye-sense, cakkhudasaka [4] kalāpa, consisting of the eight inseparable rupas, eye-sense and life faculty.
  2. the decad of ear-sense, sotadasaka kalāpa, consisting of the eight inseparable rupas, ear-sense and life faculty.
  3. the decad of smelling-sense, ghānadasaka kalāpa, consisting of the eight inseparable rupas, smelling-sense and life faculty.
  4. the decad of tasting-sense, jivhādasaka kalāpa, consisting of the eight inseparable rupas, tasting-sense and life faculty.
  5. the decad of body-sense, kāyadasaka kalāpa, consisting of the eight inseparable rupas, body-sense and life faculty.
  6. the decad of femininity, itthibhāvadasaka kalāpa, consisting of the eight inseparable rupas, femininity and life faculty.
  7. the decad of masculinity, purisabhāvadasaka kalāpa, consisting of the eight inseparable rupas, masculinity and life faculty.
  8. the decad of heart-base, hadayadasaka kalāpa, consisting of the eight inseparable rupas, heart-base and life faculty.
  9. the vital nonad, jīvitanavaka [5] kalāpa, consisting of the eight inseparable rupas and life faculty.

Groups of rupa originated from kamma arise at the arising moment, the upāda khaṇa, of the rebirth-consciousness, paṭisandhi- citta, in accordance with the plane of existence where one is born. Kamma produces rupa at the three moments of each citta, namely, at the arising moment, uppāda khaṇa, the moment of presence, tiṭṭhi khaṇa, and the moment of falling away, bhanga khaṇa [6] . Kamma ceases to produce rupa shortly before death, that is to say, from the seventeenth moment of citta reckoned backward from the dying-consciousness. Thus, all kammajarupa falls away together with the dying-consciousness, cuti-citta, at the end of a lifespan [7] .

For those who are born by way of the womb, in the human plane of existence, there are three kalāpas of kammajarupa, groups of rupa originated from kamma, arising together with the rebirth-consciousness. These three kalāpas are: the decad of heart-base, the decad of body-sense and the decad of sex. As the newborn being develops, the kalāpas which are the decads of the eye-sense, the ear-sense, the smelling-sense and the tasting-sense arise at the appropriate time.

For those who have a spontaneous birth (opapātika), without the instrumentality of parents [8] , namely, heavenly beings (devas), petas (ghosts), demons (asurakāyas) and beings born in hell planes, there are immediately all seven decads of kammajarupa. Thus, they have a complete body with the decads of heart-base, body-sense and sex, and in addition the decads of eye-sense , ear-sense, smelling-sense and tasting-sense. However, it may happen that kamma does not condition the arising of specific rupas, and then these rupas are lacking at the time of birth (paṭisandhi kāla) as well as in the course of life (pavatti kāla).

For those who have a spontaneous birth in the rupa-brahma plane there are only four kalāpas of kammaja rupa: the decads of heart-base, eye-sense, ear-sense and the vital nonad (the kalāpa with life faculty). There are no smelling-sense, tasting-sense, body-sense and sex. This is the result of the subduing of clinging to sense objects by the strength of the jhānacitta which conditioned birth as a being in the rupa-Brahma plane.

For those who are asañña satta brahmas, who have only rupa, not nama, there is one kalāpa of kammaja rupas, the vital nonad. Someone who is born as an asañña satta brahma has developed the fifth stage of jhāna and abandoned attachment to nama. He has seen the danger of nama, because so long as there is nama one may be involved in defilements; therefore he wished to be without nama. If someone’s skill in the jhāna of the fifth stage does not decline and kusala jhānacitta of the fifth stage arises shortly before the dying-consciousness, and he turns away from nama Dhamma, the jhānacitta conditions rebirth with only rupa (rupa paṭisandhi) in the Brahma-plane of the asañña satta, where he will be for five hundred kappas. Since nama Dhamma does not arise he cannot move at all. In whatever posture he died before his rebirth as asaññā satta, in that posture he is reborn until he passes away from that plane. Then, kusala kamma can condition the arising of rebirth-consciousness and kammajarupa in a happy sensuous plane. So long as defilements have not been eradicated one will go around in the cycle of defilements, of kamma and of vipāka.

Cittaja Rupa

There are six kalāpas of rupa originated from citta:

1. the pure octad, suddhatthaka [9] kalāpa, a group of eight rupas consisting of only the eight inseparable rupas (avinibbhoga rupas).

When the rebirth-consciousness has fallen away it is succeeded by bhavanga-citta. Cittajarupa which is a pure octad is produced at the arising moment (upāda khaṇa) of the first bhavanga-citta, and also after that, throughout life, it is produced at the arising moment of citta. However, the five pairs of sense-cognitions do not produce any rupa, they are too weak to produce rupa.

There are sixteen cittas in all which do not produce cittajarupa: four types of arupa-jhāna vipākacittas, the rebirth-consciousness, the five pairs of sense-cognitions, and the dying-consciousness of the arahat.

The four types of arupa-jhāna vipākacittas do not produce any rupa, because they are the results of arupa-jhāna kusala citta which sees the disadvantage of rupa, the Dhamma bound up with defilements. Someone who sees the danger and disadvantage of rupa develops arupa-jhāna kusala which does not have an object connected with materiality. When the arupa-jhāna vipākacitta performs the function of rebirth in one of the arupa-jhāna planes, there is no condition at all for the arising of any rupa.

The rebirth-consciousness does not produce cittajarupa, because it is the first citta in a plane of existence and therefore, it does not have enough strength for the origination of cittajarupa.

The dying-consciousness of the arahat does not produce rupa because it is the last citta of the cycle of birth and death, and thus, there are no longer conditions for the arising of rupa.

2. The nonad of bodily intimation, kāya-viññatti, a kalāpa of nine rupas, which are the eight inseparable rupas and bodily intimation. The citta which conveys a specific meaning produces at its arising moment this kalāpa.

3. The decad of speech intimation, vaci-viññatti, a kalāpa of ten rupas, which are the eight inseparable rupas, speech intimation and sound, sadda rupa. The citta which originates speech sound produces at its arising moment this kalāpa.

4. The undecad of lightness, lahutā, a kalāpa of eleven rupas which are the eight inseparable rupas and the three vikāra rupas, the rupas of changeability, namely: lightness, lahutā, plasiticity, mudutā, and wieldiness, kammaññatā. The citta which wants to assume different postures produces at its arising moment this kalāpa.

5. The dodecad of bodily intimation and lightness, a kalāpa of twelve rupas which are the eight inseparable rupas, the three vikāra rupas and bodily intimation. The citta which wants by way of bodily expression or different gestures to convey a specific meaning produces at its arising moment this kalāpa.

6. The tridecad of speech intimation, sound and lightness, a kalāpa of thirteen rupas which are the eight inseparable rupas, the three vikāra rupas, speech intimation and sound. The citta which wants the utterance of a specific sound produces at its arising moment this kalāpa. That sound arises in dependence on the vikāra rupas at the rupa which is the base of that sound [10] .
Each kalāpa of cittajarupa is produced by citta at its arising moment (uppāda khaṇa), not at the moment of its presence (tiṭṭhi khaṇa) nor at the moment of its falling away (bhanga khaṇa).

Utuja Rupa

There are four kalāpas of rupa which originate from utu, temperature, which is the element of heat.

1. The pure octad, which is a kalāpa consisting of only the eight inseparable rupas. As we have seen, kamma produces in a living being rupa from the moment the rebirth-consciousness arises; it produces rupa at all three moments of citta: at its arising moment, at the moment of its presence and at the moment of its falling away. At the moment of presence (tiṭṭhi khaṇa) of the rebirth-consciousness, utu, that is the element of heat, present in the kalāpa of rupas produced by kamma at the arising moment of the rebirth-consciousness, can in its turn produce new rupas. Utu which is present, after it has arisen, originates a pure octad, the eight inseparable rupas, and from that moment on utu originates at the moment of its presence other rupas [11].

2. The sound nonad, which is a kalāpa of nine rupas: the eight inseparable rupas and sound. If sound does not originate from citta, in the case of speech intimation, sound originates from temperature, such as the sound of traffic, or of a waterfall.

3. The undecad of lightness, which is a kalāpa of eleven rupas: the eight inseparable rupas and the three vikāra rupas. Temperature is one of the factors which causes rupa to be light, soft and workable. If utu is not balanced, that is, the right temperature, there will be sickness. Even if citta intends to originate rupa in order to move the limbs, it cannot do so if there are no vikāra rupas conditioned by the right temperature.

4. The dodecad of sound and lightness, which is a kalāpa consisting of twelve rupas: the eight inseparable rupas, the three vikāra rupas and sound. When there is sound by snapping the fingers or applauding, there are the vikāra rupas arising together with sound.

Āhāraja Rupa

Āhāraja rupa is rupa originated from ojā rupa, nutritive essense present in food consisting of morsels which can be swallowed (kabalinkāra [12] āhāra). The kalāpas of āhāraja rupa arise only in the body of living beings. There are two kalāpas of āhāraja rupa:

1. The pure octad, consisting of only the eight inseparable rupas.

2. The undecad with lightness, lahutā, a kalāpa of eleven rupas which are the eight inseparable rupas and the three vikāra rupas. Apart from citta and temperature which produce the three vikāra rupas, also nutrition produces these rupas. Even if utu which originates the vikāra rupas is of the right temperature, but food is lacking, the vikāra rupas do not have enough strength to enable someone to move his limbs with ease and swiftness.

Āhāraja rupa can arise when the nutritive essence present in morsel food has been absorbed, and at the moment of its presence ojā rupa can produce other rupas [13] .

Summary of the Rupas originating from one of the four factors:

The 8 inseparable rupas originate from the 4 factors:

some kalāpas originate from kamma, some from citta, some from temperature and some from nutrition.

  1. The 5 pasāda rupas, senses, originate from kamma.
  2. The 2 bhāva-rupas, sex, originate from kamma.
  3. The heart-base, hadaya rupa, originates from kamma.
  4. The life faculty, jīvitindriya rupa, originates from kamma.
  5. The 3 vikāra rupas, rupas of changeability, originate from 3 factors: some kalāpas originate from citta, some from temperature and some from nutrition.
  6. The 2 rupas which are intimation, viññatti rupas, originate only from citta.
  7. Sound, sadda rupa, can originate from 2 factors: some kalāpas originate from citta and some from temperature.
  8. Pariccheda rupa or space (akāsa), which delimits kalāpas, originates from 4 factors: it originates from kamma when it separates kalāpas originated from kamma. In the same way it originates from citta, from temperature or from nutrition when it separates the kalāpas originated from citta, temperature or nutrition.

The 4 lakkhaṇa rupas (origination, continuity, decay and falling away, characteristics inherent in all rupas) do not originate from any of the 4 factors, because they are only characteristics of the 18 sabhāva rupas[14] .

The 28 rupas can be classified according to different methods. They can be classified as sabhāva rupas and asabhāva rupas:

  • 18 sabhāva rupas, rupas with their own distinct characteristics:
    The 8 inseparable rupas, the 5 pasāda rupas, the 2 bhāva rupas (sex), the heart-base, the life faculty and sound.
  • 10 asabhāva rupas, rupas without their own distinct nature or characteristic:
    the 3 vikāra rupas, the 2 viññatti rupas, the pariccheda rupa and the 4 lakkhaṇa rupas.

Rupas can be classified as internal or personal, ajjhattika, and external, bāhira:

  • ajjhattika rupas, internal rupas, which are the 5 pasāda rupas.
  • bāhira rupas, external rupas, which are the other 23 rupas.

Rupas can be classified as vatthu, base, and avatthu, non-base,:

  • 6 vatthu rupas, the bases where citta arises, namely, 5 pasāda rupas and the heart-base.
  • avatthu rupas, the other 22 rupas.

Rupas can be classified as dvāra rupas, doorways, and advāra rupas, non-doorways, :

  • dvāra rupas are the 5 pasāda rupas,
    the doorways through which a sense object is received, and 2 rupas which can be the doorways for kamma, namely, kāya-viññatti rupa, body intimation, and vaci-viññatti rupa, speech intimation.
  • advāra rupas are the other 21 rupas.

Rupas can be classified as indriya rupas, faculties, and anindriya rupas, non-faculties,:

  • 8 indriya rupas, rupas which are "leaders", with a controlling power each with regard to their own task, in their own field.
    They are 5 pasāda rupas, 2 rupas which are sex, bhāva rupas, and jīvitindriya rupa, life faculty.
  • anindriya rupas, the 20 other rupas.

Rupas can be classified as oḷārika, coarse and sukhuma, subtle:

  • 12 oḷārika rupas, the 7 visaya rupas,
    rupas which are the objects experienced through the senses [15] , and the 5 pasāda rupas.
  • 16 sukhuma rupas, the other 16 rupas.

Rupas can be classified as santike, near, and dūre far:

  • rupas which are santike, near, can be considered, understood and penetrated,
    namely, the 5 pasāda rupas and the 7 objects, visaya rupas.
  • rupas which are dure, far, are difficult to penetrate,
    namely, the other 16 rupas.

Rupas can be classified as sappaṭigha [16] rupas, rupas striking each other, and asappaṭigha rupas:

  • 12 sappaṭigha rupas,
    namely the 5 pasāda rupas which are impinged on by the objects, and the 7 visaya rupas, the objects which impinge.
  • 16 asappaṭigha rupas,
    the other 16 rupas which do not impinge and are not impinged on.

Rupas can be classified as gocaraggāhika rupas (taking external objects [17] ) and agocaraggāhika rupas:

  • 5 gocāraggāhika rupas which can be impinged on by external objects, namely, the 5 pasāda rupas.
  • 23 agocāraggāhika rupas, the other 23 rupas which cannot be impinged on by any object.

Rupas can be classified as avinibbhoga rupas, inseparable rupas, and vinibbhoga rupas, separable rupas.

  • 8 avinibbhoga rupas, rupas which cannot be separated.
  • 20 vinibbhoga rupas, rupas which can be separated, namely the other 20 rupas.

Questions With Regard To The Appendix

  1. Is the citta not accompanied by the hetus of alobha, adosa and amoha akusala citta?
  2. In which way are asobhana citta and akusala citta different?
  3. How many asobhana cittas are there? Which are they?
  4. What type of citta performs the function of determining, votthapana?
  5. Of which jāti is the five-sense-door adverting-consciousness, pañca-dvārāvajjana-citta?
  6. When sound impinges on the ear-sense, what is the first citta which experiences that sound?
  7. Which type of citta precedes the hasituppāda citta (smile-producing citta of the arahat)?
  8. Is the mind-door adverting-consciousness, mano-dvārāvajjana- citta, the mind-door?
  9. How many functions has the mano-dvārāvajjana-citta? In how many doorway processes does it arise? Which objects does it experience?
  10. Which paramattha Dhamma is hetu, root?
  11. Of which khandha is hetu?
  12. Is nibbāna hetu or na-hetu (not root)? Is it ahetuka or sahetuka?
  13. What are the Dhammas which are na-hetu and not saṅkhārakkhandha?
  14. How many hetus are saṅkhārakkhandha?
  15. Of which khandhas are the paramattha Dhammas that are hetus?
  16. Is lokuttara citta asankhata Dhamma, unconditioned Dhamma?
  17. Of which khandha is kusala Dhamma?
  18. Of which khandha is avyākata Dhamma, indeterminate Dhamma (neither kusala nor akusala)?
  19. Is there a khandha which is not avyākata Dhamma?
  20. Is there avyākata Dhamma which is not khandha?
  21. Is there kusala Dhamma which is not khandha?
  22. Which jāti is the akusala citta arising in the arupa-brahma plane?
  23. Of which plane, bhūmi, is vedanā cetasika?
  24. Is nibbāna feeling? Explain your answer.
  25. Which cetasikas are not accompanied by vedanā cetasika?
  26. Of which plane of citta is there only one jāti?
  27. Of which plane of citta are there two jātis?
  28. Of which plane of citta are there 3 jātis?
  29. Does the rupa originated by moha-mūla-citta (cittaja rupa) arise because of hetu-paccaya, root-condition?
  30. Is moha cetasika arising with moha-mūla-citta sahetuka, accompanied by hetu?

Footnotes and references:

1.

Ja means arisen, from janati, to produce. Kammaja: originated from or produced by kamma.

2.

Asañña, literally, without perception or memory; satta means being.

3.

In each group of rupas there are the four Great Elements of Earth (solidity), Water (cohesion), Fire (temperature) and Wind (motion or pressure), and in addition the rupas of color, odor, flavor and nutritive essence. These are the eight inseparable rupas.

4.

Dasaka means decad.

5.

Navaka means nonad.

6.

Each moment of citta can be divided into three infinitesimally short moments: the moment of arising, of presence and of falling away.

7.

Rupa lasts as long as seventeen moments of citta.

8.

Living beings can be born in four different ways: there are egg-born beings, womb-born beings, moisture-born beings and beings who have a spontaneous birth.

9.

suddha means pure, and attha means eight.

10.

The rupa which is the sound base is produced by kamma. Speech intimation is an asabhāva rupa, a rupa without a distinct nature or characteristic. A certain change in the rupas produced by citta conditions the impact between the sound base and the element of solidity produced by citta.

11.

Temperature, utu, and nutrition, āhāra, can produce other rupas only at the moments of their presence, not at their arising moment. Rupa is too weak at its arising moment to produce another rupa. Compared with the duration of citta, rupa lasts 17 moments of citta. After its arising moment it exists 15 more moments, and then there is the moment of its falling away.

12.

Kabala means morsel.

13.

Thus, not at the moment of its arising, since it is then weak. It must have arisen already and then it can produce other rupas.

14.

Sabhāva rupa is rupa with its own distinct nature and characteristic.

15.

There are 7 sense objects, because through the body-sense the 3 objects of solidity, temperature and motion can be experienced. Visaya means object.

16.

Sa, meaning: with, and paṭigha, meaning: impingement.

17.

Gocara means field, object and gāhī means taker.

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