Ruksha, Rūkṣa: 26 definitions


Ruksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Rūkṣa can be transliterated into English as Ruksa or Ruksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Rūkṣa (रूक्ष, “dry”) refers to one of the eight kinds of Vīrya (potency), representing characteristics of medicinal drugs, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “the rasa, vīrya and vipāka of the drugs should be noted (studied) carefully. [...] By vīrya [eg., Rūkṣa], the working capacity and potency is meant”.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Rūkṣa (रूक्ष) is another name for Marica, a medicinal plant identified with Piper nigrum Linn. or “black pepper” from the Piperaceae or “pepper” family of flowering plants, according to verse 6.30-32 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu.—The sixth chapter (pippalyādi-varga) of this book enumerates ninety-five varieties of plants obtained from the market (paṇyauṣadhi). Together with the names Rūkṣa and Marica, there are a total of seventeen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Rūkṣa (रूक्ष) refers to “astringent” and represents a particular dietetic effect according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Accordingly, the dietetic effect rūkṣa is associated with the following conditions: Food utensils made of brass (paittala-pātra) and Food-utensils made of Kumudapatra (white water-lilly leaf), Raktotpalapatra (red lotus leaf) or Utpalapatra (blue lotus leaf).

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Rūkṣa (रूक्ष, “dry”).—One of the twenty Gurvādiguṇa, or, ‘ten opposing pairs of qualities of drugs’.—Rūkṣa is the characteristic of a drug referring to the ‘dryness’, while its opposing quality, Snigdha, refers to its ‘greasiness’. It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

The quality of Rūkṣa, present in drugs and herbs, increases the Vāta (bodily humour in control of motion and the nervous system), while it aggrevates the Kapha (bodily fluids, or ‘phlegm’). It exhibits a predominant presence of the elements Air (vāyu) and Fire (agni).

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Rūkṣa (रूक्ष) refers to “skimmed”, as mentioned in verse 5.29-31 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Of sour digestion and taste, constipating, heavy, (and) warming (are) curds [viz., dadhi]; (they are) destructive of wind (and) generative of fat, sperm, strength, phlegm, hemorrhage, (gastric) fire, and cutaneous swellings. (As they are) appetizing, (they are) commended in anorexia, cold irregular fever, catarrh, and strangury; skimmed [viz., rūkṣa], however, in dysentery”.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Rukṣa (रुक्ष):—Dryness; one of the 20 gurvadi guna; caused due activated Vayu mahabhuta; denotes physiological & pharmacological dryness; manifested by dryness of body parts, stoppage of flow in body channels; pacifies kapha, increases vata.

2) [rukṣam] Dry parching, Poison aggravates the bodily vayu in virtue of its parching quality.

Source: National Mission for Manuscripts: Traditional Medicine System in India

Rūkṣa (रूक्ष, “dry”) and Snigdha (“oily”) refers to one of the ten counterpart-couples of the twenty Śārīraguṇa (or Gurvādiguṇa), which refers to the “twenty qualities of the body”—where guṇa (property) represents one of the six divisions of dravya (drugs).—Śārīraka-guṇas are twenty in number. There are ten guṇas with their opposite guṇas. [...] Snigdha (“oily”) has the predominant bhūta (element) of water and the associated actions of “moistening/kledana”; while Rūkṣa (“dry”) has the predominant bhūta (element) of earth, fire, air and is associated with the action “absorbing/śoṣaṇa”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi

Rūkṣa (रूक्ष, “rough”) refers to one of the seven defects (doṣa) of the voice (śabda), according to the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 14.72-75, where they are commonly known as the śabdadoṣa. The Saṅgītaśiromaṇi (“crest-jewel of music”) is a 15th-century Sanskrit work on Indian musicology (gāndharvaśāstra).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Rukṣa (रुक्ष) or Rukṣāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Kiraṇāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Rukṣa Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Kiraṇa-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Rūkṣa (रूक्ष) refers to “sharp (rays of the sun)”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If, in Varṣā, when the rays are sharp [i.e., rūkṣa], the sun be white then the Brāhmins, if of blood colour the Kṣatriyas, if yellow the Vaiśyas, and if black the Śūdras will perish. If, as said above, the rays be soft, mankind will be happy. [...]”.

2) Rūkṣa (रूक्ष) refers to a “pale color” [?], according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 9).—Accordingly, “If Venus (śukra) should be of the colour of fire, there will be fear from fire; if of blood colour, there will be wars in the land; if of the colour of burnished gold, there will be disease; if green, there will be asthmatic complaints; if ashy-pale or black [i.e., bhasma-rūkṣa-asita-ābhā], there will be drought in the land. [...]”.

3) Rūkṣa (रूक्ष) refers to the “sharp” rays of the Ketus (i.e., luminous bodies such as comets and meteors), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11).—Accordingly, “The Ketus or comets whose tails are bent and which are of sharp rays and black [i.e., rūkṣarūkṣāḥ kṛṣṇāśca] are the sons of Yama ; they are 25 in number; they appear in the south; when they appear there will be deaths in the land. The Ketus or comets that appear like a mirror, are round in shape without tails but with rays and looking like oil or water are the sons of the Earth; they are 23 in number, and appear in the north-east; when they appear mankind will be afflicted with fear and hunger”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Rūkṣa (रूक्ष, “soft”) refers to one of the eight types of Sparśa (touch), representing one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the touch attribute to the body are called touch (sparśa) body-making karma (e.g., rūkṣa).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Ruksha [रूक्षा] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Baliospermum solanifolium (Burm.) Suresh from the Euphorbiaceae (Castor) family having the following synonyms: Baliospermum axillare, Baliospermum montanum, Jatropha montana. For the possible medicinal usage of ruksha, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rukṣa (रुक्ष).—a (S) Wanting succulency, unctuousness, blandness. 2 Dry, harsh, rough, unsavory, not bland or sapid--an article of food. 3 Desert, arid, adust, wanting trees or water--a country. 4 Dry, jejune, frigid, wanting pathos or harmony--speech, composition, music, singing.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

rukṣa (रुक्ष).—a Dry, harsh, desert.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rukṣa (रुक्ष).—a.

1) Ved. Shining, brilliant.

2) = रूक्ष (rūkṣa) q. v.

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Rūkṣa (रूक्ष).—a. (written as rukṣa also)

1) Rough, harsh, not smooth or soft (as touch sound &c.); पुंस्कोकिलगिरं श्रुत्वा रूक्षा ध्वाङ्खस्य वागिव (puṃskokilagiraṃ śrutvā rūkṣā dhvāṅkhasya vāgiva) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.2.384; रूक्षस्वरं वाशति वायसोऽयम् (rūkṣasvaraṃ vāśati vāyaso'yam) Mṛcchakaṭika 9.1; Kumārasambhava 7.17.

2) Astringent (taste).

3) Rough, uneven, difficult, austere.

4) Sullied, soiled, dirtied; रथतुरगरजोभिस्तस्य रूक्षालकाग्रा (rathaturagarajobhistasya rūkṣālakāgrā) R.7.7; Mu.4.5.

5) Cruel, unkind, harsh; नितान्तरूक्षाभिनिवेशमीशम् (nitāntarūkṣābhiniveśamīśam) R.14.43; संरम्भरूक्षमिव सुन्दरि यद् यदासीत् (saṃrambharūkṣamiva sundari yad yadāsīt) V.3.2; Ś.7.32; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4. 91.

6) Arid, parched up, dry, dreary; स्निग्धश्यामाः क्वचिदपरतो भीषणाभोगरूक्षाः (snigdhaśyāmāḥ kvacidaparato bhīṣaṇābhogarūkṣāḥ) Uttararāmacarita 2.14.

7) Not oily (as food); Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 17.9. (rūkṣīkṛ means 'to make rough', 'soil', 'besmear').

-kṣaḥ 1 A tree.

2) Harshness, hardness.

-kṣā 1 Croton Polyandrum (Mar. dantī).

2) Honey sugar.

-kṣam 1 The thick part of curds.

2) A good kind of iron.

3) Black pepper.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Rukṣa (रुक्ष).—adj., and -tva, abstr. n. (semi-MIndic for Sanskrit rūkṣa; compare ruccha, and see under lūkha); (1) adj., coarse, of food: Śikṣāsamuccaya 131.4; (2) n. °tvaṃ, harshness, evil: Mahāvastu iii.388.5.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rukṣa (रुक्ष).—mfn.

(-kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣaṃ) 1. Harsh, unkind. 2. Rough, hard. 3. Rough to the taste or feeling harsh. 4. Rugged, uneven. 5. Dry, arid. E. ruh to grow, Unadi aff. ksa; it is more properly written rūkṣa, as derived from rūkṣ to be rough.

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Rūkṣa (रूक्ष).—mfn.

(-kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣaṃ) 1. Harsh, rough, not smooth or soft. 2. Rough to the taste, astringent, austere, not bland or sapid. 3. Rugged, uneven. 4. Harsh, unkind, unfriendly. 5. Dry. m.

(-kṣaḥ) A tree in general. E. rūkṣ to be harsh or rough, aff. ka .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rukṣa (रुक्ष).—rūkṣa, adj. 1. Rugged, rough, difficult, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 61 (). 2. Harsh, unkind, [Pañcatantra] iv. [distich] 62 (rūº); uncouth, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 6 (rŭº, but cf. Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 805); [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 59 (rŭº); cruel, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 191 (rūº). 3. Austere, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 42, 8 ().

— Cf. [Anglo-Saxon.] rug, ruh, ruw; Engl. rough, rugged.

Rukṣa can also be spelled as Rūkṣa (रूक्ष).

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Rūkṣa (रूक्ष).—see rukṣa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rukṣa (रुक्ष).—[adjective] shining, bright.

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Rūkṣa (रूक्ष).—[adjective] rough, dry, arid, unpleasant, harsh, [abstract] † [feminine], tva† [neuter], bhāva† [masculine]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rukṣa (रुक्ष):—1. rukṣa m. ([probably]) a tree (cf. vṛkṣa), [Ṛg-veda vi, 3, 7.]

2) 2. rukṣa [wrong reading] for rūkṣa q.v.

3) Rūkṣa (रूक्ष):—[from rūkṣ] 1. rūkṣa mf(ā)n. ([probably] [from] √rūṣ; cf. 2. rukṣa) rough, dry, arid, dreary, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

4) [v.s. ...] emaciated, thin, [Suśruta]

5) [v.s. ...] rough to the taste, astringent, [Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

6) [v.s. ...] not greasy or oily (as food or medicine), [Kathāsaritsāgara; Suśruta]

7) [v.s. ...] hard, harsh, unkind, cruel (as a person or speech), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] unpleasant, disagreeable, not soft (to the sight, smell etc.), [ib.]

9) [v.s. ...] dismal (as a house), [Pañcatantra]

10) [v.s. ...] soiled, smeared, dirtied, [Rāmāyaṇa; Mudrārākṣasa]

11) [v.s. ...] having the smell of an elephant in rut, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] m. hardness, harshness, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] the smell of the rut of an elephant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] a kind of grass (= varaka), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) Rūkṣā (रूक्षा):—[from rūkṣa > rūkṣ] f. Croton Polyandrum or Tiglium, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) Rūkṣa (रूक्ष):—[from rūkṣ] n. a good kind of iron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] the thick part of curds, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) 2. rūkṣa m. ([probably] for Prākṛt rukkha = vṛkṣa) a tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rukṣa (रुक्ष):—[(kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣaṃ) a.] Harsh, rough.

2) Rūkṣa (रूक्ष):—[(kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣaṃ) a.] Harsh, rough, rugged, unkind. m. A tree.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Rukṣa (रुक्ष) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Lūha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ruksha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Rukṣa (रुक्ष) [Also spelled ruksh]:—(a) arid, hard; harsh, curt, blunt; dry; uneven; rough, rugged; ~[] aridity; curtness; bluntness; dryness.

2) Rūkṣa (रूक्ष):—(a) see [rukṣa] ; ~[] see [rukṣatā].

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Rukṣa (ರುಕ್ಷ):—

1) [noun] any of a family (Ursidae) of large, heavy, omnivorous carnivores that walk flat on the soles of their feet and have shaggy fur and a very short tail; a bear.

2) [noun] any of the self-luminous celestial objects seen as points of light in the sky during night; a star.

3) [noun] (astrol.) any of the twelve mansions of the zodiac.

4) [noun] the constellation Ursa Major or Ursa Minor; the Bear.

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Rukṣa (ರುಕ್ಷ):—

1) [adjective] harsh; rude, brute, not gentle.

2) [adjective] rough; not smooth or nice.

3) [adjective] bitter; astringent.

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Rukṣa (ರುಕ್ಷ):—

1) [noun] the quality of being harsh, rude, brutal; absence of gentleness; harshness.

2) [noun] the quality of being rough, roughness; unevenness.

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Rūkṣa (ರೂಕ್ಷ):—

1) [adjective] rough; hard; harsh; not smooth.

2) [adjective] unkind; cruel; merciless; brutal.

3) [adjective] intense; strong; extreme.

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Rūkṣa (ರೂಕ್ಷ):—

1) [noun] the quality of being rough, hard; roughtness; hardness.

2) [noun] unkind, harsh words or speech (used in rebuking).

3) [noun] an unkind, cruel, merciless man; a brute.

4) [noun] irascibility; anger; wrath.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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