Rupaka, Rūpaka: 26 definitions


Rupaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Rupak.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Rūpaka (रूपक).—See under Pattu (Ten)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Rūpaka (रूपक).—A western country.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 60.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Rūpaka (रूपक, “metaphor”) refers to one of the four “figures of speech” (alaṃkāra), used when composing dramatic compositions (kāvya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17. (Description): “An image of slight likeness which is conceived due to indecision from objects characterised by similar limbs, is called Metaphor (rūpaka)”.

2) Rūpaka (रूपक, “representation”).—The terms like rūpaka or rūpa (representation) and prekṣā (spectacle), all denoting dramatic works, also characterise the Hindu dramas and show their difference from the drama of the Greeks who laid emphasis on action and not on the spectacle.

Source: Google Books: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi: A Medieval Handbook of Indian Music

Rūpaka (रूपक, “form”).—When there is scope for developing the melodic form (rāga) and other elements (rāgādhyāropa), the composed music is called a rūpaka (lit. “form”).. One should known that prabandha, vastu and rūpaka are the three names of composed music (nibaddha) based on regular words (pada) and the other phrasal elements (aṅga). (cf. Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 13.6)

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Rūpaka (रूपक, “metaphor”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—Rūpaka or metaphor consists in the representation of the subject of description, which (subject) is not concealed, as identified with another (a well-known standard). Thus, herein this figure, there is no difference between the upameya i.e. the object of comparison and the upamāna, the standard of comparison, on account of the superimposition of the later on the former. Maṅkhaka applies Rūpaka, abundantly in his poem (Śrīkaṇṭhacarita).

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Rūpaka (रूपक) refers to one of the two types of the Dṛśyakāvyas division of Kāvya (“poetry”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—There are two broad divisions of kāvya (poetry) viz., dṛśyakāvya and śravyakāvya. Drama belongs to dṛśyakāvya variety, which is mainly divided into two groups, viz., rūpaka and uparūpaka.

The Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa accepts twelve types of rūpaka viz.,

  1. nāṭaka,
  2. nāṭikā,
  3. prakaraṇa,
  4. prakaraṇī,
  5. utsṛṣṭakāṅka,
  6. bhāṇa,
  7. samavakāra,
  8. ihāmṛga,
  9. vyāyoga,
  10. vīthī,
  11. ḍima and
  12. prahasana.
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Rūpaka (रूपक, “metaphor”) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound). Rūpaka or metaphor has been admitted as an alaṃkāra from the very ancient times. Bharata in his Nāṭyaśāstra has mentioned the four basic alaṃkāras. One of them is rūpaka. Most of the Ālaṃkārikas are of opinion that when there is an super imposition of the upamāna (the object compared to) over the upameya (the object compared) we get the figure rūpaka. Ālaṃkārikaslike Daṇḍin etc. have admitted rūpaka in the case of identity (abheda) between the upameya and upamāna.

Cirañjīva has defined rūpaka in the line of Daṇḍin and Mammaṭa. He says—“rūpakaṃ syādaikyabodhe upamānopameyayoḥ”.—“When the identity of upamāna and upameya is cognized, it is the figure rūpaka”. So the condition of identity of upameya and upamāna prevails in rūpaka.

Example of the rūpaka-alaṃkāra:—

pratāpodyaddāvānalabahaladagdhāritṛṇataḥ samudgacchaddhūmāñjanitagaganaprāṅgaṇabhuvi |
sphuliṅgābhāstārāḥ parita iti sambhāṣaṇaparāstavā’rīṇāṃ dārā hṛdayanṛpakārāgṛhagatāḥ ||

“The wives of your enemies who are in conversation and shining as star-like sparks in the base of the field in the form of the sky, which is stained by smoke rising out of the grass in the form of enemies burnt by enkindled huge forest fire in the form of prowess have gone to the royal prison in the form of heart”.

Notes: In this verse the word pratāpodyaddāvānala has been explained as prātāpa eva udyaddāvānala. Here the compound is rūpaka karmadhāraya. By the rule rūpakamabhede here pratāpa prowess is upameya and udyaddāvānala (enkindled forest fire) is upamāna. Their identity (abheda) has been expressed. So it is an example of rūpaka. Similarly the word aritṛṇa may be explained as arayaḥ eva tṛṇāni. Here also the compound is rūpaka karmadhāraya. The word ari is upameya and the word tṛṇa is upamāna. There identity (abheda) has been established. So it is a case of the figure rūpaka. Similar rūpakas are there in gaganaprāṅgaṇabhuvi and hṛdayanṛpakārāgṛha.

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Rūpaka (रूपक, “metaphor”) refers to one of the various Alaṅkāras (‘figures of speech’) classified as Artha (‘sense’), as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—Like ‘upamā’ our poet has also used ‘rūpaka’, frequently in Bhīṣmacarita. For illustration we may refer to II.49. Here our poet metaphorically represents Devavrata as the rising Sun in the hearts of people as well as like the Moon of the night removing the worries of people. For another example of ‘rūpaka’, V.52 of the Bhīṣmacarita is cited. Here in this verse very intelligently our poet has used the phrase “nija-janaka-diddakṣā-śṛṅkhalā-baddhacetāḥ”. Another apt use of ‘Rūpaka’ is found in XVII.44 in which the society is represented as the chariot in which men and women are the two wheels of the chariot without which a chariot cannot run. The other examples of ‘Rūpaka’ are II.17, II.28, II.29, V.35, VI.2, VI.4, VI.27, VII.18, XII.3, XII.57, XIII.8, XV.26, XV.49, XVII.2, XVII.6, XVIII.20, XVIII.31, XIX.20, XIX.36, etc.

Kavyashastra book cover
context information

Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Rūpaka (रूपक) refers to a “statue” (from rūpa), and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 18.12.—The meaning of the word [rūpaka] has been discussed in I.A (1913, p. 27). There is, however, no doubt that rūpa very often means a “statue”. Kathāsaritsāgara distinguishes between rūpakṛt and citrakṛt. Cf. Upamitibhavaprapañcā-kathā, p. 55; p. 123.

The word [rūpaka] occurs also in Naiṣadhacarita 2.83 where it may have the same meaning, though differently explained by the commentators. The form rūpaka in the sense of “an image” is found in Tilakamañjarī. The word is used thrice in Udayasundarīkathā.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (Advaita Vedanta)

Rūpaka (रूपक) refers to “(that which has) form” (as opposed to Arūpaka—“formless”) and is used to describe Brahma, according to the Māṇḍūkyopaniṣatkārikā 3.35cd-36.—Accordingly, while discussing Brahma (without attributes): “That very [mind, free of thought and restrained,] is fearless Brahma, [which is] the light of gnosis [pervading] everywhere. [It is] unborn, devoid of sleep and dreaming, unnamed, formless (arūpaka), manifested [all] at once and omniscient [This statement] is not figurative in any way”.

context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Rūpaka (रूपक) refers to “figures” (suitable for an offering ritual), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān said]: “Now I shall teach the offering manual which is auspicious and can bring about any effect. [...] Seven coiling figures (rūpaka-valaya) should be made and rice spirals. Twenty-one figures should be prepared one after the other. Boiled rice, milk rice, a dish of rice and peas, yoghurt and thickened milk should be placed. Fruits and flowers should be placed. Four jars should be placed. Preceded by a great offering barley-meal should be placed as foremost. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Rūpaka.—(IE 8-8; EI 30; CII 4), name of a coin of silver; cf. kṛṣṇarāja-rūpaka (EI 25; CII 4), a silver coin issued by the Kalacuri king Kṛṣṇarāja; silver coin (1/16) of the value of a gold dīnāra in the Gupta age (JNSI, Vol. II, p. 5); same as dramma. Note: rūpaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Rūpaka.—silver coin; silver coin (1/16) (about 20 ratis) of a gold dīnāra, etc.; also called dramma, purāṇa, kārṣāpaṇa, etc.; same as modern rupee; cf. kṛṣṇarāja-rūpaka. Note: rūpaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

rūpaka : (nt.) a small figure; a simile.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Rūpaka, (nt.) (fr. rupa) form, figure; likeness of, image (-°); representation Vin. II, 113 (rūpak’okiṇṇāni pattāni, of painted bowls); Th. 2, 394 (see ruppa°); DhA. I, 370 (maṇi° jewelled image); II, 69 (assa° toy horse); Mhvs 25, 26 (rāja°); 27, 30 (devatā° shape of devas); VvA. 213. —dūrūpaka of squalid appearance J. II, 167; cp. durūpa. (Page 575)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rūpaka (रूपक).—n S A class of rhetorical or poetical figures. 2 m A measure of music.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

rūpaka (रूपक).—n A class of rhetorical figures. A measure of music.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rūpaka (रूपक).—a. [rūp-ṇvul] Bodily, corporeal.

2) Figurative (as words &c.).

-kaḥ A particular coin, a rupee.

-kam 1 Form, figure, shape (at the end of comp.).

2) Any manifestation or representation.

3) A sign, feature.

4) A kind, species.

5) A statue; चित्रतत्तदनुकार्यविभ्रमाधाय्य- नेकविधिरूपरूपकम् (citratattadanukāryavibhramādhāyya- nekavidhirūparūpakam) N.18.12; द्वारशाखोपशोभारूपकमात्रम् (dvāraśākhopaśobhārūpakamātram) Ks.

6) A drama, play, a dramatic composition; (one of the two main subdivisions of dramatic compositions; it is divided into ten classes; there are eighteen minor divisions of it called uparūpaka); दृश्यं तत्राभिनेयं तद्रूपारोपात्तु रूपकम् (dṛśyaṃ tatrābhineyaṃ tadrūpāropāttu rūpakam) S. D.272-3; also नाटकमथ प्रकरणं भाणव्यायोगसमव- कारडिमाः । ईहामृगाङ्कवीथ्यः प्रहसनमिति रूपकाणि दश (nāṭakamatha prakaraṇaṃ bhāṇavyāyogasamava- kāraḍimāḥ | īhāmṛgāṅkavīthyaḥ prahasanamiti rūpakāṇi daśa) S. D.; उच्चैरुच्च- रितपदां पपाठ नान्दीं प्रारम्भे द्रुतमययानरूपकस्य (uccairucca- ritapadāṃ papāṭha nāndīṃ prārambhe drutamayayānarūpakasya) Śiva B.24.68.

7) (In Rhet.) A figure of speech corresponding to the English metaphor, in which the upameya is represented as being identical with the upamāna; तद्रूपकमभेदो य उपमानोपमेययोः (tadrūpakamabhedo ya upamānopameyayoḥ) K. P.1 (see ad loc. for details).

8) A kind of weight (= the gunjas).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rūpaka (रूपक).—n.

(-kaṃ) 1. A drama, a dramatic poem. 2. Shape, form, figure. 3. A figure of rhetoric in general. 4. A particular class of rhetorical or poetical figures, including various modes of poetical description, or the illustration and exhibition of visible things and persons. 5. Identification of the objects of a comparison; their being not only like, but the very same. 6. Symptom of disease. m.

(-kaḥ) A coin. f.

(-pikā) Swallow wort. E. rūpa form, figure, aff. kan .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rūpaka (रूपक).—[rūpa + ka], n. 1. Shape. 2. A drama. 3. A kind of coin (cf. rūpya), [Pañcatantra] 127, 8; 252, 13.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rūpaka (रूपक).—[adjective] figurative; [masculine] a cert. coin; [feminine] rūpakā bitch-fox or female jackal, rūpikā [Name] of a plant; [neuter] form, appearance, shape, image, kind, species; a cert. figure of speech ([rhetorie]), a drama.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rūpaka (रूपक):—[from rūp] mfn. having form, figurative, metaphorical, illustrating by figurative language, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] m. a [particular] coin ([probably] a rupee), [Varāha-mihira; Pañcatantra] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] (in music) a kind of measure, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha] (cf. -tāla)

4) Rūpakā (रूपका):—[from rūpaka > rūp] f. a female fox or jackal, [Atharva-veda xi, 9, 15]

5) Rūpaka (रूपक):—[from rūp] cf. [Zend] urupi

6) [from rūp] n. form, figure, shape, appearance (mostly ifc., with f(ā). , = having the form of, composed or consisting of, similar to), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] image, likeness, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara]

8) [v.s. ...] feature, sign, symptom, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) [v.s. ...] kind, species, [Maitrī-upaniṣad]

10) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) a figure of speech, metaphor, comparison, simile ([especially] one in which iva, vat etc. are omitted e.g. bāhu-latā, ‘a creeper-like arm’, paṇi-padma, ‘a lotus-like hand’ ; there are 3 or 4 varieties of Rūpaka e.g. the ardha-r, ‘partial metaphor’, khaṇḍa-r, ‘imperfect m°’, and lalāma-r, ‘flowery m°’), [Kāvyādarśa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa] etc. (cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 458])

11) [v.s. ...] a drama, play, theatrical performance ([especially] of the principal class, as opp. to the upa-rūpakas or inferior dramas; of the former there are 10 species including the Nāṭaka or higher order of play and the Prahasana or farce), [Daśarūpa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa] etc. ([Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 471])

12) [v.s. ...] a [particular] weight (= 3 Guñjās), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] = mūrta or dhūrta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rūpaka (रूपक):—(kaṃ) 1. n. Drama; form; figure of speech. f. Swallow wort.

[Sanskrit to German]

Rupaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Rūpaka (रूपक) [Also spelled rupak]:—(nm) a metaphor; an allegory; a play, feature; —[alaṃkāra] a metaphor; —[viṣayaka/saṃbaṃdhī] metaphorical; allegorical; —, [sāṃga] sustained metaphor; [rūpakātmaka] allegorical; metaphorical; hence [rūpakātmakatā] (nf).

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Rūpaka (ರೂಪಕ):—

1) [noun] the shape, outline or configuration of anything; structure as apart from colour, material, etc.; form.

2) [noun] that quality or combination of qualities which delights the senses or mental faculties; beauty; loveliness.

3) [noun] the state, fact or quality of resembling; similarity; resemblance.

4) [noun] a kind; a type.

5) [noun] a rupee coin.

6) [noun] a play or drama (that is enacted, presented to the audience).

7) [noun] (rhet.) a figure of speech containing an implied comparison; a metaphor.

8) [noun] a story in which people, things, and happenings have a hidden or symbolic meaning, used for teaching or explaining ideas, moral principles, etc.

9) [noun] (mus.) a time-cycle having two groups rhythmic beats the second having two sub-groups of of equal rhythmic length each of which is equal to first in respect of time.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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