Pra, Prā: 14 definitions


Pra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Pra (प्र).—A conventional term for हृस्व (hṛsva) (short) generally applied to vowels in the Jainendra Vyakarana.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Pra (प्र) refers to the “first” (unknown) as it represents an abbreviation of prathama, according to the principles of Bījagaṇita (“algebra” or ‘science of calculation’), according to Gaṇita-śāstra, ancient Indian mathematics and astronomy.—Lack of an efficient symbolism is bound to give rise to a certain amount of ambiguity in the representation of an algebraic equation especially when it contains more than one known. [...] To avoid such ambiguity, in one instance which contains as many as five unknowns, the abbreviations of ordinal numbers, such as pra (from prathama, first), dvi (from dvitīya, second), tṛ (from tṛtīya, third), ca (from caturtha, fourth) and paṃ (from pañcama, fifth), have been used to represent the unknowns.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pra.—(PJS), abbreviation of pratimā (especially in medieval Jain inscriptions). (IE 8-1), abbreviation of prathama. Note: pra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pra (प्र).—S A particle and prefix implying I. Progressive motion (forth, forward, away &c.) II. Excess or excellence (very, much, exceeding). Abundant examples follow.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pra (प्र).—ind.

1) As a prefix to verbs it means 'forward', 'forth', 'in front', 'onward', 'before', 'away', as in प्रगम्, प्रस्था, प्रचर्, प्रया (pragam, prasthā, pracar, prayā) &c.

2) With adjectives it means 'very', 'excessively', 'very much' &c.; प्रकृष्ट, प्रमत्त (prakṛṣṭa, pramatta) &c., see further on.

3) With nouns whether derived from verbs or not, it is used in the following senses according to G. M. :-(a) beginning, commencement; (prayāṇam, prasthānam, prāhṇa); (b) length (pravālabhūṣika); (c) power (prabhu); (d) intensity, excess (pravāda, prakarṣa, pracchāya praguṇa); (e) source or origin (prabhava, prapautra); (f) completion, perfectness, satisfaction (prabhuktamannam); (g) destitution, separation, being without (proṣitā, praparṇavṛkṣaḥ); (h) apart (prajñu); (i) excellence (prācāryaḥ); (j) purity (prasannaṃ jalam); (k) wish (prārthanā); (l) cessation (praśama); (m) adoration, respect (prāñjaliḥ who respectfully folds his hands together); (n) prominence (praṇasa, pravāla). In the Veda it is often used as a separable adverb; cf. प्र आदिकर्मदीर्घेशभृशसंभवतृप्तिवियोगशुद्धिशक्तीच्छाशान्तिपूजाग्रहर्शनेषु (pra ādikarmadīrgheśabhṛśasaṃbhavatṛptiviyogaśuddhiśaktīcchāśāntipūjāgraharśaneṣu).

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Prā (प्रा).—2 P. (prāti) To fill; अप्रासीदिषुभिर्मुखम् (aprāsīdiṣubhirmukham) Bk.

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Prā (प्रा).—f. Matted hair; Nigh. Ratna.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pra (प्र).—Ind. A particle and prefix, implying. 1. Progressive motion, (forth, forward, away, &c.) 2. Excess or excellence, (very, much, exceeding.) 3. Appearance, manifestation. It corresponds with the Latin particles Pro and Præ, as in prakarttuṃ To do much or well; prakramituṃ To go forth or over; prakarṣituṃ To excel; prakāśituṃ To display; prasthātuṃ To go forth, set out; prakamam Very willingly; pramṛgam When the deer go forth, (the time, &c.) See the following compounds. E. prath to be famous, &c. aff. ḍa.

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Prā (प्रा).—r. 2nd cl. (prāti) To fill. adā0 para0 saka0 aniṭ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pra (प्र).—prep. 1. Before. 2. Forward. 3. Away. 4. Pre-eminent. 5. Excessive. 6. Beginning. I. Combined and compounded with verbs and derivatives. Ii. Compounded with nouns.

— Cf. [Latin] prŏ, e. g. in pronepos; [Gothic.] frums; A. S. form; see pranaptṛ and purā.

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Prā (प्रा).— (akin to pṛ10 for par + ā), ii. 2, [Parasmaipada.] To fill. Ptcple. of the pf. pass. prāṇa, Full.

— Cf. etc.; Lat plenus (= prāṇa), implere, etc., plebes.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pra (प्र).—1. [adverb] forward, onward, forth, away, fore (mostly °— in subst. & verbs); very, much, greatly (°— in adjectives).

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Pra (प्र).—2. filling, sating, nourishing (—°); [neuter] fulfilment.

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Prā (प्रा).—1. [participle] prāta = 1 pṛ.

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Prā (प्रा).—2. = 2 pra (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pra (प्र):—1. pra ind. before

2) forward, in front, on, forth (mostly in connection with a verb, [especially] with a verb of motion which is often to be supplied; sometimes repeated before the verb cf. [Pāṇini 8-1, 6]; rarely as a separate word e.g. [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa ii, 40])

3) as a prefix to [substantive] = forth, away cf. pra-vṛtti, pra-sthāna

4) as pref. to [adjective (cf. [masculine, feminine and neuter; or adjective])] = excessively, very, much cf. pra-caṇḍa, pra-matta

5) in nouns of relationship = great- cf. pra-pitāmaha, pra-pautra

6) (according to native lexicographers it may be used in the senses of gati, ā-rambha, ut-karṣa, sarvato-bhāva, prāthamya, khyāti, ut-patti, vy-avahāra), [Ṛg-veda]; etc.

7) cf. puras, purā, pūrva; [Zend] fra; [Greek] πρό; [Latin] pro; [Slavonic or Slavonian] pra-, pro-; [Lithuanian] pra-; [Gothic] faúr, faúra; [German] vor; [English] fore.

8) 2. pra mfn. (√pṝ or prā) filling, fulfilling

9) (n. fulfilment ifc.; cf. ākūti-, kakṣya-, kāma-)

10) like, resembling (ifc.; cf. ikṣu-, kṣura-).

11) Prā (प्रा):—1. prā [class] 2. [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxiv, 53]) prāti ([perfect tense] [Parasmaipada] paprau or paprā, 2. sg. paprātha, p. paprivas f. pruṣī, [Ṛg-veda]; [Ātmanepada] papre, 2. sg. priṣe, [ib.; Atharva-veda]; papre as [Passive voice], Bhatt [Aorist] 3. sg. aprāt or aprās, [Ṛg-veda]; [subjunctive] prās or prāsi, [ib.]; [Aorist] [Passive voice] aprāyi, [Atharva-veda]), to fill, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa; Bhaṭṭi-kāvya]

12) cf. [Greek], πλή-ρης; [Latin] plē-nus.

13) 2. prā mfn. filling (ifc.= 2. pra; cf. antarikṣa-, kāma-, kratuetc.)

14) 3. prā Vṛddhi or lengthened form of 1. pra in [compound] (cf. [Pāṇini vi, 3, 122]). Observe in the following derivatives, only the second member of the simple compound from which they come is given in the parentheses, leaving the preposition pra (lengthened to prā in the derivatives) to be supplied.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pra (प्र):—prep. Forth; very.

2) Prā (प्रा):—(la) prāti 2. a. To fill.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pra (प्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Pa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Pra (प्र):—— a Sanskrit prefix imparting the meanings of before; forward; in front; on; forth; away; excessively, eminently, excellently, very much.

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