Pataka, Patākā, Paṭāka, Patāka, Pātaka, Pāṭaka, Paṭaka, Paṭākā: 24 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Pataka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Patāka (पताक, “flag”) refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with a ‘single hand’ (asaṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

2) Patākā (पताका, “episode”) refers to one of the “five elements of the plot” (arthaprakṛti), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. These five elements represents the five means of attaining objects of the Plot (itivṛtta or vastu).

The associated ‘stage of action’ (avasthā) of patākā is the prārambha (beginning). These stages represent a Hero’s striving towards the object in a dramatic playwright (nāṭaka).

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Twenty-eight Single Hands (hasta):—Patāka (flag): the thumb bent to touch the fingers, and the fingers extended. Usage: beginning a dance, cloud, forest, forbidding things, bosom, night, river, world of the gods, horse, cutting, wind, reclining, walking, prowess, graciousness, moonlight, strong sunlight, knocking, meaning of the seven cases, wave, entering a street, equahty, applying sandal paste, one’s self, taking an oath, silence, benediction, a good king, palmyraleaf, slap, touching, saying “Such and such”, the sea, the wayof good deeds, addressing (a person some distance away), goingin front, the form of a sword, month, year, rainy season, day, sprinkling water.

According to another book, the thumb is bent against the baseof the forefinger and the palm and fingers extended. When Brahmā, the Shaper, went to Parabrahmā, as he saluted him with the cry of “Victory!” he held his hand like a flag, since when it has been called the “flag hand”. It is the first of all hands, it originates from Brahmā, its colour is white, its sage Śiva, its race Brāhmaṇa, its patron deity Parabrahmā. Usage:saying “Victory, victory!”, clouds, forbidding things, forest, night, saying “Go!”, going, conveyance, wind, chest, front, merit (puṇya), preëminence, flow, abode of the wise, crying “Ha! ha!”, moonlight, sunlight, abode of the gods, removal of hindrance, wall, cutting, pleasing others, cheek, applying sandal paste, mustering an army, boundary, removing fear, having no refuge, decrease, covering, reclining, the earth, flame, pouring rain, wave, wings of a bird, petitioning a king, saying “Thus”, eye, saying “Like what?” and “Like that”, slap, touching, lake, massage, closing a dispute, strong wind, end of the robe (ancala), cold, heat, radiance, shadow, ear, season, half-year, day, fortnight, month, purity, high birth, approach,saying “Protect”, or “Caress”, Brāhmaṇa caste, pure colour.

Note: The Patāka hand is commonly seen in the abhaya-mudrā of images, but is sometimes replaced by ardha-candra.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

1) Patāka (पताक, “flag”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with a single hand (asaṃyuta-hasta);—(Instructions): The fingers extended and close against one another, and the thumb bent.

(Uses): To represent an administration of blows, scorching heat, urging, attainment of happiness and arrogant reference of one’s ownself this hand is to be raised on a level with the forehead. To represent the glare of heat, torrential rain and shower of flowers two Patāka hands with the fingers separated and moving, are to be joined together. A shallow pool of water, present of flowers, grass and any design [lit. object] made on the ground are to be represented by two such hands separated from the Svastika position. The same Patāka hands with their fingers pointing downwards are to be used to represent anything closed, made open, protected, covered, dense or private (to be concealed)

2) Patākā (पताका).—One of the five elements of the plot (arthaprakṛti);—The event which is introduced in the interest of the Principal Plot and is treated like it, is called an Episode (patākā).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā

Patākā (पताका):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Dhvaja, the fourth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (eg. Patākā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Pātaka (पातक) refers to “sin”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12, while explaining details of worship:—“[...] without worship and charitable gifts, sin (pātaka) cannot be kept at bay. As long as there is a vestige of sin (pātaka) in the body, achievement need not be expected. When the sin is wiped off, all rites will bear fruit. If there is dirt in the cloth the dyeing process cannot be carried out effectively. After the cloth is bleached any dye can be applied to it effectively. Similarly when the body is freed of its dirty stuff by proper worship of deities, the dye of knowledge can stick to it whence true knowledge will arise”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Patākā (पताका).—A river of the Bhadra continent.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 43. 30.

2) Pātaka (पातक).—To kill one to advance one's own interest is sin; but not so, if done for the sake of many.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 161-2.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (dharma)

Pātaka (पातक, “sin”) represents an aspect of Dharmaśāstra, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Sin (pātaka) is a word that belongs to the terminology of religion. In a general way it may be said that sin is an act which is regarded as a willful rebellion against or disobedience of some law supposed to be laid down by God or Revealation; it is opposition to the will of God manifested in an authoritative work or at least failure to abide by the regulations contained therein.

Thus a sin (pātaka) is considered as such because it is antisocial. It implies lack of self-restraint, a tendency to trespass into others right. Hence theft, murder, adultery, envy and avarice are considered sins . The sin of an individual adversely affects the whole society. Sins are said to be of various kinds50 and for different sins the dharmaśāstras describe different methods of expiations (prāyaścitta).

Chapter fifty-two of Saurapurāṇa describes that sins (pātaka) are of two types—expressed or concealed. In the Purāṇas most of the expiations are mentioned in connection with the great sins (mahāpātaka) which are five in number viz. the killing of a Brāhmaṇa, drinking wine, theft, violating the bed of the preceptor and association with a person that has committed any of the sins mentioned above.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Pātaka (पातक) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Pātakī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Pātaka] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: archive.org: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions

Pāṭaka (पाटक) is a word denoting a ‘village’ or ‘hamlet’ and can be seen as a synonym for grāma, often used in inscriptions.—Terms such as pāṭaka are in many cases, associated with the names of the villages so as to become the ending part of the different place-names. Inscriptions throw light on the location of the villages in different ways. Firstly, they communicate us an idea about the country, the division and the sub-division to which these villages belonged. Secondly, the inscriptions provide information regarding theboundaries of the donated villages.

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Pāṭaka (पाटक) refers to a name-ending for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions (reigned from 3rd century CE). Pāṭaka literally means “a splittler” or “divider”; it means the half or any part, or a kind of village. Pāṭaka is also the name of a land measure, hence earlier pāṭaka, pāḍaga or pāḍā may have denoted a large but private house, or settlement within a village. Gradually the village and sometimes the city also came to be called after it.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pātaka.—(IE 8-1-2), ‘five’. Cf. pañca-mahāpātaka. Note: pātaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Pāṭaka.—(IE 8-4; EI 4, 24; IA 18), ‘part of a village’, a quarter; the outlying part of a village; a hamlet; often prefixed to the name of localities; often modified to vāṭaka. (EI 15, 17, 28), a land measure. (IE 8-6), a land measure equal to forty droṇavāpas or to five kulyavāpas; part of a village. (EI 23, 24), a territorial division. (SITI), portion of a field. (SITI), anklet worn by women. (LP), same as Gujarātī pāḍo, a street or the division of a town. Note: pāṭaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume 4 (1896-97)

Patāka refers to the “banners” (viz., of a temple), as mentioned in the “Kaḍaba plates of Prabhūtavarṣa” (9th century A.D.). Accordingly, “(This temple) which, covered with thousands (sahasra) of coloured banners (vicitra-patāka), shone honoured, as it were, through devotion to Parameśvara, by the one crest-jewel of the word (the sun) which, out of fear of moving above (in the sky), had descended of its own accord, in the guise of its image that was reflected in the jewel-paved floor; where the peacocks, their passion being roused by hearing the deep sounds of the beaten drums, commenced to perform their dances, as if the beginning of the rainy season had caused their exultation”.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

patākā : (f.) a flag; banner.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Paṭāka, (nt.) (cp. Sk. paṭāka, connected with paṭa) a flag M. I, 379; Miln. 87; Vism. 469; ThA. 70. (Page 391)

— or —

Patākā, (f.) (cp. later Sk. patākā) a flag, banner (cp. dhaja) J. I, 52; VvA. 31, 173. (Page 405)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paṭakā (पटका).—m (paṭṭa S through H) A cloth about a span in breadth worn round the waist, a girdle.

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paṭakā (पटका).—m (paḍaṇēṃ) Great and rapid falling (as of men or cattle under plague or murrain, of fruits in a high wind &c.) v lāga.

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pataka (पतक).—n m A body of horse; about a hundred, and generally under an independent chieftain. 2 The office or business of patakī.

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patākā (पताका).—f (S) sometimes patāka f A small flag or banner. 2 An emblem carried as an ensign or banner, a symbol.

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pātaka (पातक).—n (S That causes falling.) Sin or crime: also a sin or a crime. pā0 khāṇēṃ in. con. To undergo the gnawing or stinging of conscious sin. Ex. pāpiyāsi nijapātaka khātēṃ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

paṭakā (पटका).—m A cloth about a span in breadth worn round the head.

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pataka (पतक).—n m A body of horse.

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patākā (पताका).—f sometimes patāka f A small flag or banner. An emblem carried as an ensign or banner.

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pātaka (पातक).—n Sin or crime.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paṭaka (पटक).—

1) A camp, an encampment.

2) Cotton-cloth.

3) The half of a village.

Derivable forms: paṭakaḥ (पटकः).

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Paṭāka (पटाक).—A bird.

Derivable forms: paṭākaḥ (पटाकः).

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Paṭākā (पटाका).—(= patākā q. v.).

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Pataka (पतक).—a. Falling, descending.

-kraḥ An astronomical table.

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Patāka (पताक).—

1) पताका (patākā) q. v.

2) A particular position of the hands or fingers in shooting of an arrow; cf. त्रिपताक (tripatāka).

Derivable forms: patākaḥ (पताकः).

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Patākā (पताका).—

1) A flag, banner (fig. also); पताकाभिर्वरार्हाभिर्ध्वजैश्च समलंकृताम् (patākābhirvarārhābhirdhvajaiśca samalaṃkṛtām) Rām.2.7.3; यं काममञ्जरी कामयते स हरतु सुभगपताकाम् (yaṃ kāmamañjarī kāmayate sa haratu subhagapatākām) Dk.47. 'let him carry the palm of beauty or good fortune'.

2) A flag-staff.

3) A sign, emblem, mark, symbol.

4) An episode or episodical ineident in a drama; see पताकास्थानक (patākāsthānaka) below.

5) Auspiciousness, good fortune or luck.

6) Celebrity, publicity; रम्या इति प्राप्तवतीः पताकाः (ramyā iti prāptavatīḥ patākāḥ) Śi.3.53. (com. 'anyatra ramyā ityevaṃ patākāḥ prāptavatīḥ | prasiddhiṃ gatā ityarthaḥ |').

7) A particular high number; तत्र शङ्कुपताके द्वे युगान्तं कल्पमेव च (tatra śaṅkupatāke dve yugāntaṃ kalpameva ca) Mb.13.17.63.

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Pāṭaka (पाटक).—[paṭ ṇvul]

1) A splitter, divider.

2) Part of a village.

3) The half of a village.

4) A kind of musical instrument.

5) A bank, shore.

6) A flight of steps leading to the water.

7) Loss of capital or stock.

8) A long span.

9) Throwing dice.

Derivable forms: pāṭakaḥ (पाटकः).

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Pātaka (पातक).—[pātayati naraṃ, pat-ṇvul] Sin, crime; (Hindu law-givers enumerate five great sins:-brahmahatyā surāpānaṃ steyaṃ gurvaṅganāgamaḥ | mahānti pātakānyāhuḥ saṃsargaścāpi taiḥ saha Ms.11.54).

Derivable forms: pātakaḥ (पातकः), pātakam (पातकम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Paṭaka (पटक).—m. (compare Sanskrit paṭa, AMg. paḍaga), cloth, according to Tibetan on Mahāvyutpatti 9169 a large piece of cotton cloth (ras yug chen); Divyāvadāna 308.12 f.; 547.16; Avadāna-śataka ii.112.8.

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Paṭākā (पटाका).—(= Sanskrit Lex. id., Sanskrit patākā; Pali records paṭāka, nt., [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary], beside patākā; AMg. paḍāgā; ṭ doubt- less due to blending influence of Sanskrit paṭa), banner: Lalitavistara 273.20; 295.15; 359.4; 365.9; 367.9; 413.4; 424.1; 430.10, 13 (in all these Lefm. paṭ°, sometimes with all mss., but often v.l. pat°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paṭaka (पटक).—m.

(-kaḥ) A camp, an encampment. E. paṭa to surround, vun aff.

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Paṭāka (पटाक).—m.

(-kaḥ) A kind of bird. f.

(-kā) A flag, a banner. E. paṭa to go, āka Unadi aff.

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Pataka (पतक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) 1. Who or what falls, descends, &c. m.

(-kaḥ) An astronomical table. E. pat to fall, to go, vun aff.

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Patākā (पताका).—f.

(-kā) 1. A flag or banner. 2. A flagstaff. 3. An emblem carried as an ensign or banner, a symbol, a sign. 4. A mark. 5. An episode, or episodical incident in a drama. 6. Good fortune, auspiciousness. E. pat to go, akan Unadi aff. patyate jñāyate yodho anayā pata-ṇi-āka .

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Pāṭaka (पाटक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. The half of a village. 2. A shore, a bank, a flight of steps leading to water. 3. Casting dice. 4. A musical instrument. 5. A large span. 6. Expense or loss of capital or stock. 7. A splitter, a divider. E. paṭ to go, lyul aff.

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Pātaka (पातक).—n.

(-kaṃ) 1. Sin, crime. 2. The cause of falling, literally or figuratively. For particulars see pañcapātaka. E. pat to fall or descend, (from virtue,) causal form, aff. ṇvul.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patākā (पताका).—i. e. 1. pat + āka, f. 1. A flag or banner, Mahābhārata 3, 3014. 2. A certain great number, Mahābhārata 13, 5234. 3. An episode in a drama, [Daśa-Rūpa, (ed. Fitz-Edward Hall.)] 1, 13, 33.

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Pāṭaka (पाटक).—i. e. paṭ + aka, m. One who divides, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 9767.

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Pātaka (पातक).—i. e. pat, [Causal.], + aka, m. and n. Sin, crime, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 88.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patākā (पताका).—[feminine] flag, banner; the flag or symbol of (—°).

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Pāṭaka (पाटक).—[masculine] who splits or tears asunder.

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Pātaka (पातक).—[adjective] causing to fall (—°); [masculine] crime, sin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paṭaka (पटक):—[from paṭ] m. cotton-cloth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] a camp, encampment, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] the half of a village, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([varia lectio] for pāṭ).

4) Paṭāka (पटाक):—m. a bird, [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 14 [Scholiast or Commentator]] (cf. paiṭ)

5) Paṭākā (पटाका):—[from paṭāka] f. a flag, banner, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. patākā).

6) Pataka (पतक):—[from pat] mfn. who or what falls or descends etc.

7) [v.s. ...] m. an astronomical table, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) Patāka (पताक):—[from pat] m. (‘flying’), a flag or banner (perhaps incorrect for ), [Adbhuta-brāhmaṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] a [particular] position of the hand or the fingers in shooting off an arrow, [Śārṅgadhara-paddhati] (cf. tri-p)

10) Patākā (पताका):—[from patāka > pat] a f. See next.

11) [v.s. ...] b f. (ifc. f(ā). ) a flag, pennon, banner, sign, emblem, [Brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (kāṃ-√labh or hṛ, ‘to win the palm’ [Daśakumāra-carita; Vikramāṅkadeva-carita, by Bilhaṇa])

12) [v.s. ...] a flag-staff, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] a [particular] high number, [Mahābhārata] (= mahā-padma, [Nīlakaṇṭha])

14) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) an episode or episodical incident, [Daśarūpa]

15) [v.s. ...] good fortune, auspiciousness, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] Name of [work]

17) Pāṭaka (पाटक):—[from pāṭa] m. a splitter, divider, [Harivaṃśa]

18) [v.s. ...] (only [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) the half or any part or a kind of village

19) [v.s. ...] a shore, bank

20) [v.s. ...] a flight of steps leading to the water

21) [v.s. ...] a kind of musical instrument

22) [v.s. ...] a long span (= mahā-kiṣku)

23) [v.s. ...] expense or loss of capital or stock

24) [v.s. ...] throwing dice

25) Pātaka (पातक):—[from pāt] mfn. causing to fall (See garbha-)

26) [v.s. ...] n. (rarely m.; ifc. f(ā). ), ‘that which causes to fall or sink’, sin, crime, loss of caste, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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