Pataka, aka: Patākā, Paṭāka, Patāka, Pātaka, Pāṭaka, Paṭaka, Paṭākā; 16 Definition(s)


Pataka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Patāka (पताक, “flag”) refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with a ‘single hand’ (asaṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

2) Patākā (पताका, “episode”) refers to one of the “five elements of the plot” (arthaprakṛti), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. These five elements represents the five means of attaining objects of the Plot (itivṛtta or vastu).

The associated ‘stage of action’ (avasthā) of patākā is the prārambha (beginning). These stages represent a Hero’s striving towards the object in a dramatic playwright (nāṭaka).

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

One of the Twenty-eight Single Hands (hasta):—Patāka (flag): the thumb bent to touch the fingers, and the fingers extended. Usage: beginning a dance, cloud, forest, forbidding things, bosom, night, river, world of the gods, horse, cutting, wind, reclining, walking, prowess, graciousness, moonlight, strong sunlight, knocking, meaning of the seven cases, wave, entering a street, equahty, applying sandal paste, one’s self, taking an oath, silence, benediction, a good king, palmyraleaf, slap, touching, saying “Such and such”, the sea, the wayof good deeds, addressing (a person some distance away), goingin front, the form of a sword, month, year, rainy season, day, sprinkling water.

According to another book, the thumb is bent against the baseof the forefinger and the palm and fingers extended. When Brahmā, the Shaper, went to Parabrahmā, as he saluted him with the cry of “Victory!” he held his hand like a flag, since when it has been called the “flag hand”. It is the first of all hands, it originates from Brahmā, its colour is white, its sage Śiva, its race Brāhmaṇa, its patron deity Parabrahmā. Usage:saying “Victory, victory!”, clouds, forbidding things, forest, night, saying “Go!”, going, conveyance, wind, chest, front, merit (puṇya), preëminence, flow, abode of the wise, crying “Ha! ha!”, moonlight, sunlight, abode of the gods, removal of hindrance, wall, cutting, pleasing others, cheek, applying sandal paste, mustering an army, boundary, removing fear, having no refuge, decrease, covering, reclining, the earth, flame, pouring rain, wave, wings of a bird, petitioning a king, saying “Thus”, eye, saying “Like what?” and “Like that”, slap, touching, lake, massage, closing a dispute, strong wind, end of the robe (ancala), cold, heat, radiance, shadow, ear, season, half-year, day, fortnight, month, purity, high birth, approach,saying “Protect”, or “Caress”, Brāhmaṇa caste, pure colour.

Note: The Patāka hand is commonly seen in the abhaya-mudrā of images, but is sometimes replaced by ardha-candra.

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

1) Patāka (पताक, “flag”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with a single hand (asaṃyuta-hasta);—(Instructions): The fingers extended and close against one another, and the thumb bent.

(Uses): To represent an administration of blows, scorching heat, urging, attainment of happiness and arrogant reference of one’s ownself this hand is to be raised on a level with the forehead. To represent the glare of heat, torrential rain and shower of flowers two Patāka hands with the fingers separated and moving, are to be joined together. A shallow pool of water, present of flowers, grass and any design [lit. object] made on the ground are to be represented by two such hands separated from the Svastika position. The same Patāka hands with their fingers pointing downwards are to be used to represent anything closed, made open, protected, covered, dense or private (to be concealed)

2) Patākā (पताका).—One of the five elements of the plot (arthaprakṛti);—The event which is introduced in the interest of the Principal Plot and is treated like it, is called an Episode (patākā).

Source: Natya Shastra
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Patākā (पताका):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Dhvaja, the fourth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (eg. Patākā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

Source: Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Pataka in Purana glossary... « previous · [P] · next »

Pātaka (पातक) refers to “sin”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12, while explaining details of worship:—“[...] without worship and charitable gifts, sin (pātaka) cannot be kept at bay. As long as there is a vestige of sin (pātaka) in the body, achievement need not be expected. When the sin is wiped off, all rites will bear fruit. If there is dirt in the cloth the dyeing process cannot be carried out effectively. After the cloth is bleached any dye can be applied to it effectively. Similarly when the body is freed of its dirty stuff by proper worship of deities, the dye of knowledge can stick to it whence true knowledge will arise”.

Source: Siva Purana - English Translation

1) Patākā (पताका).—A river of the Bhadra continent.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 43. 30.

2) Pātaka (पातक).—To kill one to advance one's own interest is sin; but not so, if done for the sake of many.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 161-2.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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India history and geogprahy

Pāṭaka (पाटक) is a word denoting a ‘village’ or ‘hamlet’ and can be seen as a synonym for grāma, often used in inscriptions.—Terms such as pāṭaka are in many cases, associated with the names of the villages so as to become the ending part of the different place-names. Inscriptions throw light on the location of the villages in different ways. Firstly, they communicate us an idea about the country, the division and the sub-division to which these villages belonged. Secondly, the inscriptions provide information regarding theboundaries of the donated villages.

Source: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions

Pāṭaka (पाटक) refers to a name-ending for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions (reigned from 3rd century CE). Pāṭaka literally means “a splittler” or “divider”; it means the half or any part, or a kind of village. Pāṭaka is also the name of a land measure, hence earlier pāṭaka, pāḍaga or pāḍā may have denoted a large but private house, or settlement within a village. Gradually the village and sometimes the city also came to be called after it.

Source: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Pātaka.—(IE 8-1-2), ‘five’. Cf. pañca-mahāpātaka. Note: pātaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Pāṭaka.—(IE 8-4; EI 4, 24; IA 18), ‘part of a village’, a quarter; the outlying part of a village; a hamlet; often prefixed to the name of localities; often modified to vāṭaka. (EI 15, 17, 28), a land measure. (IE 8-6), a land measure equal to forty droṇavāpas or to five kulyavāpas; part of a village. (EI 23, 24), a territorial division. (SITI), portion of a field. (SITI), anklet worn by women. (LP), same as Gujarātī pāḍo, a street or the division of a town. Note: pāṭaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Pataka in Pali glossary... « previous · [P] · next »

patākā : (f.) a flag; banner.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Paṭāka, (nt.) (cp. Sk. paṭāka, connected with paṭa) a flag M. I, 379; Miln. 87; Vism. 469; ThA. 70. (Page 391)

— or —

Patākā, (f.) (cp. later Sk. patākā) a flag, banner (cp. dhaja) J. I, 52; VvA. 31, 173. (Page 405)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

paṭakā (पटका).—m (paṭṭa S through H) A cloth about a span in breadth worn round the waist, a girdle.

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paṭakā (पटका).—m (paḍaṇēṃ) Great and rapid falling (as of men or cattle under plague or murrain, of fruits in a high wind &c.) v lāga.

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pataka (पतक).—n m A body of horse; about a hundred, and generally under an independent chieftain. 2 The office or business of patakī.

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patākā (पताका).—f (S) sometimes patāka f A small flag or banner. 2 An emblem carried as an ensign or banner, a symbol.

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pātaka (पातक).—n (S That causes falling.) Sin or crime: also a sin or a crime. pā0 khāṇēṃ in. con. To undergo the gnawing or stinging of conscious sin. Ex. pāpiyāsi nijapātaka khātēṃ||.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paṭakā (पटका).—m A cloth about a span in breadth worn round the head.

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pataka (पतक).—n m A body of horse.

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patākā (पताका).—f sometimes patāka f A small flag or banner. An emblem carried as an ensign or banner.

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pātaka (पातक).—n Sin or crime.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paṭaka (पटक).—

1) A camp, an encampment.

2) Cotton-cloth.

3) The half of a village.

Derivable forms: paṭakaḥ (पटकः).

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Paṭāka (पटाक).—A bird.

Derivable forms: paṭākaḥ (पटाकः).

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Paṭākā (पटाका).—(= patākā q. v.).

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Pataka (पतक).—a. Falling, descending.

-kraḥ An astronomical table.

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Patāka (पताक).—

1) पताका (patākā) q. v.

2) A particular position of the hands or fingers in shooting of an arrow; cf. त्रिपताक (tripatāka).

Derivable forms: patākaḥ (पताकः).

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Patākā (पताका).—

1) A flag, banner (fig. also); पताकाभिर्वरार्हाभिर्ध्वजैश्च समलंकृताम् (patākābhirvarārhābhirdhvajaiśca samalaṃkṛtām) Rām.2.7.3; यं काममञ्जरी कामयते स हरतु सुभगपताकाम् (yaṃ kāmamañjarī kāmayate sa haratu subhagapatākām) Dk.47. 'let him carry the palm of beauty or good fortune'.

2) A flag-staff.

3) A sign, emblem, mark, symbol.

4) An episode or episodical ineident in a drama; see पताकास्थानक (patākāsthānaka) below.

5) Auspiciousness, good fortune or luck.

6) Celebrity, publicity; रम्या इति प्राप्तवतीः पताकाः (ramyā iti prāptavatīḥ patākāḥ) Śi.3.53. (com. 'anyatra ramyā ityevaṃ patākāḥ prāptavatīḥ | prasiddhiṃ gatā ityarthaḥ |').

7) A particular high number; तत्र शङ्कुपताके द्वे युगान्तं कल्पमेव च (tatra śaṅkupatāke dve yugāntaṃ kalpameva ca) Mb.13.17.63.

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Pāṭaka (पाटक).—[paṭ ṇvul]

1) A splitter, divider.

2) Part of a village.

3) The half of a village.

4) A kind of musical instrument.

5) A bank, shore.

6) A flight of steps leading to the water.

7) Loss of capital or stock.

8) A long span.

9) Throwing dice.

Derivable forms: pāṭakaḥ (पाटकः).

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Pātaka (पातक).—[pātayati naraṃ, pat-ṇvul] Sin, crime; (Hindu law-givers enumerate five great sins:-brahmahatyā surāpānaṃ steyaṃ gurvaṅganāgamaḥ | mahānti pātakānyāhuḥ saṃsargaścāpi taiḥ saha Ms.11.54).

Derivable forms: pātakaḥ (पातकः), pātakam (पातकम्).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paṭaka (पटक).—m.

(-kaḥ) A camp, an encampment. E. paṭa to surround, vun aff.

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Paṭāka (पटाक).—m.

(-kaḥ) A kind of bird. f.

(-kā) A flag, a banner. E. paṭa to go, āka Unadi aff.

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Pataka (पतक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) 1. Who or what falls, descends, &c. m.

(-kaḥ) An astronomical table. E. pat to fall, to go, vun aff.

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Patākā (पताका).—f.

(-kā) 1. A flag or banner. 2. A flagstaff. 3. An emblem carried as an ensign or banner, a symbol, a sign. 4. A mark. 5. An episode, or episodical incident in a drama. 6. Good fortune, auspiciousness. E. pat to go, akan Unadi aff. patyate jñāyate yodho anayā pata-ṇi-āka .

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Pāṭaka (पाटक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. The half of a village. 2. A shore, a bank, a flight of steps leading to water. 3. Casting dice. 4. A musical instrument. 5. A large span. 6. Expense or loss of capital or stock. 7. A splitter, a divider. E. paṭ to go, lyul aff.

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Pātaka (पातक).—n.

(-kaṃ) 1. Sin, crime. 2. The cause of falling, literally or figuratively. For particulars see pañcapātaka. E. pat to fall or descend, (from virtue,) causal form, aff. ṇvul.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 162 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Mahāpātaka (महापातक) refers to “five great sins”, as mentioned in the commentary of Manusmṛti v...
Tripatāka (त्रिपताक).—1) the hand with three fingers stretched out or erect. 2) the forehead ma...
Jayapatākā (जयपताका).—trophy for the winner in a contest, in fig. use: (Gopā nāma Śākyakanyā) °...
ajñāta-pātaka (अज्ञात-पातक).—n A sin of ignorance.
Akṣapāṭaka (अक्षपाटक).—m. (-kaḥ) A judge. E. akṣa law suit, and pāṭa to arrange affix vun .
Ardhapatāka (अर्धपताक) or Ardhapatākahasta refers to “dvaita philosophy” and represents one of ...
Patākāsthānaka (पताकास्थानक).—(in dramaturgy) intimation of an episodical incident, when instea...
Patākāṃśuka (पताकांशुक).—a flag. Derivable forms: patākāṃśukam (पताकांशुकम्).Patākāṃśuka is a S...
Svacchandapāṭaka (स्वच्छन्दपाटक) is a place-name classified as a pāṭaka and mentioned in the Gu...
Patākādaṇḍa (पताकादण्ड).—a flag-staff. Derivable forms: patākādaṇḍaḥ (पताकादण्डः).Patākādaṇḍa i...
Kāṇḍapaṭaka (काण्डपटक).—a screen surrounding a tent, curtain (Mar. kanāta); उत्क्षिप्तकाण्डपटका...
Ahipatāka (अहिपताक).—a kind of snake (not venomous). Derivable forms: ahipatākaḥ (अहिपताकः).Ahi...
Viralapātaka (विरलपातक).—a. sinning rarely. Viralapātaka is a Sanskrit compound consisting of t...
Viyatpatākā (वियत्पताका).—lightning; सौदामिनी स्फुरति नाद्य वियत्पताका (saudāminī sphurati nādy...
Patākāsthāna (पताकास्थान, “episode indication”).—When some matter being taken in hand (lit. alr...

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