The Padma Purana

by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | 1,261,945 words | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291

This page describes bharatavarsha: its rivers and regions which is chapter 6 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the sixth chapter of the Svarga-khanda (section on the heavens) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

Chapter 6 - Bhāratavarṣa: Its Rivers and Regions

The sages said:

1. Tell us about the auspicious Bharata country which endows merit, (since) you are intelligent in our opinion.

Sūta said:

2-6. I shall now describe to you the excellent country Bharata of the god dear to his friends, of Manu the son of Vivasvān, of Pṛthu, of the wise Vainya; also of the high-souled Ikṣvāku, of Yayāti, Ambarīṣa, Māndhātṛ and Nahuṣa; also of Mucakunda, Kuberośīnara, Ṛṣabha; also of Aila, and king Nṛga; of Kuśika, of the royal sage Gādhi the magnanimous one, also of Soma, and of the royal sage Dilīpa; also, O glorious ones, of other powerful kṣatriyas and is dear to all beings.

7-8a. Now I shall describe the country as I learnt about it, O brāhmaṇas. These seven are principal mountains; Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Śuktimān, and also Ṛkṣavān; so also Vindhya and Pāriyātra.

8b-9a. O brāhmaṇas, there are thousands of (other) mountains near them. They are not (so well)-known, (but) possess excellences and have many variegated peaks.

9b-27a. Other smaller mountains are known (to exsit) and they are inhabited by low tribes. Aryans and Mlecchas and many men of mixed (blood) drink (the water of) the pure rivers Gaṅgā, Sindhu, Sarasvatī; also (of) Godāvarī, Narmadā having profuse water, (of) the great river Śatadru, Candrabhāgā, (of) the great river Yamunā, (of) Dṛṣadvatī, Vitastā, and Vipāpā of pure sands; also (of) the river Vetravatī, Kṛṣṇaveṇī, (of) Irāvatī, Vitastā, Payoṣṇī and Devikā; also (of) Vedasmṛti, Vedasīrā, Tridivā, Sindhulākṛmi, Karīṣiṇī, Citravahā, and (of) the river Trisenā, also Gomatī, Dhūtapāpā, and (of) the great river Candanā, Kauśikī, the charming Tridivā, Nācitā, Rohitāraṇī, Rahasyā, Śatakumbhā, and Śarayū also, O best of brāhmaṇas; similarly (of) Carmaṇvatī, Vetravatī, Hastisomā, Diś; Śarāvatī, Payoṣṇī, Bhīmā; also Bhīmarathī, Kāverī, Culukā, and Ahitāpī, and also Śatamalā; and Nīvārā, Mahitā, also (of) the river Suprayogā, Pavitrā, Kṛṣṇalā, Sindhu, Vājinī and Puramālinī, Pūrvābhirāmā, Vīrā and Bhīmā, also Mālāvatī, Palāśinī, Pāpaharā, Mahendrā, Paṭalāvatī, Kariṣiṇī, Masiknī, and (of) the great river Kuśacīrī, Marutā, Pravarā, Menā, Hemā; also Ghṛtavatī, Anāvatī, Anuṣṇā, and Savyā, O best brāhmaṇas; and Sadāvirā, Adhṛṣyā, and (of) the great river Kuśacīrā, Rathacitrā, Jyotirathā, Viśvāmitrā and Kapiñjalā, Candrāvahaphalī, and (of) the river Kucīrā, Vainadī, Piṅgalā, and (of) the great river Tuṅgavegā, Vidiśā, Kṛṣṇaveṇā, and Tāmrā and Kapilā also; Dhenu, Sakāmā, Vedasvā, Havisrāvā, and Mahāpathā; also (of) Śiprā, Picchalā, and the river Bhāradvājī, Kaurṇikī, the river Śoṇā, Bāhudā and Candramā; Durgā, Antaḥśilā, and Brahmamedhyā and Dṛṣadvatī, Parokṣā and Roḥī; also Jambūnadī; Sunāsā, Tamasā, Dāsī, Sāmānyā, Varaṇā, Asī, Nīlā, and Dhṛtikarī, and the great river Parṇāśā, Mānavī, Vṛṣabhā, Bhāsā, Brahmamedhya, Dṛṣadvatī.

27b-30. These and others are the many great rivers, O best brāhmaṇas. (Aryans and Mlecchas drink the water of) the always pure Kṛṣṇā, Mandagā, Mandavāhinī, Brāhmaṇī, Mahagaurī, and Durgā also, O best ones; (and of) Citrotpalā, Citrarathā, Atulā and Rohiṇī; Mandākinī, Vaitaraṇī, and the great river Kokā, Śuktimatī, Anaṅgā, also Vṛṣasāhvayā; Lohityā, Karatoyā, also Vṛṣakātvayā; Kumārī and Ṛṣitulyā, and Mārīṣā and Sarasvatī; Mandākinī, Supuṇyā, and Sarvā, Gaṅgā, O best ones.

31-33a. All these are the mothers of the (whole) world. Like these there are hundreds and thousands of renowned rivers. O brāhmaṇas, I have thus described (to you) the rivers as I remembered them.

33b-65. Hereafter listen to the description of the countries when I am giving it. Among them are Kurupāñcāla, Śalva, Mādreya, Jāṅgala, Śūrasena, Pulinda, Baudha, and Māla also; Matsya, Kuśīla, Saugandhya, Kutsapa, Kāśi-kośala; Cedi, Matsya, Karuṣa, Bhoja, Sindhu and Pulindaka, and Uttama, Daśārṇa, Mekala with Utkala, Pañcāla, Kośala, Nikapṛṣtha, Yugandhara, Bodha, Madra, Kaliṅga, Kāśā, Parakāśa, Jaṭhara and Kukura, also Daśārṇa, O extremely good ones; Kunti, Avanti, also Aparakunti, Gomanta, Mallaka, Puṇḍra, Vidarbha and Nṛpavāhika; the (South) and North Aśmaka, and the smaller Goparāṣṭra, Adhirājya, Kuśaṭṭa, Mallarāṣṭra and Kerala; Mālava, Upavāsya, Cakra, Vakra, Ālaya and Śaka; Videha, Magadha, Sadma, Malaja and also Vijaya; Aṅga, Vaṅga, Kaliṅga and in the same way Yakṛllomāna; Malla, Sudeṣṇā, Prahlāda, Mahiṣa and also Śaśaka; Bālhika, Vāṭadhāna, Ābhīra, Kālatoyaka, Aparānta, Parānta and Paṅkala and Carmacaṇdika, Aṭavīśekhara, and Merubhūta, O best ones; Upāvṛta, Anupāvṛta, Suraṣṭra and also Kekaya; Kuṭṭa, Aparānta, Māheya, Kakṣa, Samudra, Niṣkuṭa; O brāhmaṇas, Andha and the many hilly tribes, also the tribes residing in the mountains, Aṅga, Malada, Magadha, Mālava, Arghaṭa, Sattvatara, Prāvṛṣeya, and Bhārgava, O best brāhmaṇas; Puṇḍra, Bhārga, Kirāta and Sudeṣṇa and Bhāsura; Śaka, Niṣāda, Niṣadha, also Anārta and Naiṛta; Pūrṇala, Pūtimatsya, Kuntala and also Kuśaka; Tarigraha, Śūrasena, Ījika, Kalpa and Kāraṇa; Tilabḥāga, Masāra, Madhumatta, Kakundaka, Kāśmīra, Sindhu, Sauvīra, Gāndhāra, and Darśaka; Abhisāra, Kudruta, Saurila and Bālhīka, Darvī and Mālava, Darva, Vātaja and Amarathoraga; also, O brāhmaṇas, Balaraṭṭa, Sudāman, Sumallika, Bandha, Karīṣa and also Kulinda and Gandhika, Vanayu, Daśa, Pārśvaroman, Kuśabindu; Kāccha, Gopālakaccha, Jāṅgala, Kuruvarṇaka; Kirāta, Barbara, Siddha, Vaideha, Tāmraliptika, Auḍra, Mleccha with Sairindra, Pārvatīya (mountaineers), O best ones. O best sages, and other countries are on the south: Draviḍa, Kerala, Prācya, Mūṣika and Bālamūṣika; Karṇāṭaka, Māhiṣaka, Vikandha and Mūṣika also; Jhallika, Kuntala, also Sauhṛda, Anala and Kānana; also Kaukkuṭaka, Bola, Kokaṇa, Maṇivālaka; Samaṅga, Kanaka and Kuṅkura, Aṅgāra and Māriṣa; Dhvajinyutsavasaṃketa, Trivarga and Mālyaseni; Vyūḍhaka, Koraka, Proṣṭa, Saṅgavegadhara also; also Vindhya, Rulika, Pulinda with Balvala; Mālava, Malara also, and also Aparavartaka; Kulinda, Kālada, also Candaka and Kurata; Muśala, Tanavāla, Satīrtha, Pūtisṛñjaya; Anidāya, Śivāṭa, and also Tapana and Sūtapa; and Ṛṣika and Vidarbha, Taṅgana and Aparataṅgaka; O best sages, the others at the north are Mlecchas; the Yavanas with Kāmbojas are terrible Mleccha tribes; Śakṛgḥṛhas, Kulaṭyas Hūṇas with Pārasikas, also Ramaṇas and others (like) Daśamālikas are other tribes. There are kṣatriya colonies and also the families of vaiśyas and śūdras. (There are the tribes called) Śūra, Ābhīra, Darada, Kāśmīra with Paśu; also Khāṇḍīka, Tuṣāra, Padmaga, Girigahvara, Ādreya with Bharadvāja, also Stanapoṣaka; Droṣaka, Kaliṅga, and Kirāta tribes, (those) killing with javelins and Karabhañjaka. These and others are the countries which are on the eastern and northern sides; O brāhmaṇas, I described them by way of an illustration; so (I explained) the great fruit, according to their virtue and power, the three goals (of human life).

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