Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the sixteen kalpa, nine graiveyaka and five anuttara which is verse 4.19 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 19 of the chapter The Celestial Beings and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 4.19 - The sixteen Kalpa, nine Graiveyaka and five Anuttara

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 4.19:

सौधर्मेशानसानत्कुमारमाहेन्द्रब्रह्मब्रह्मोत्तरलान्तवकापिष्ठशुक्रमहाशुक्रशतारसहस्रारेष्वानतप्राणतयोरारणाच्युतयोर्नवसु ग्रैवेयकेषु विजयवैजयन्तजयन्तापराजितेषु सर्वार्थसिद्धौ च ॥ ४.१९ ॥

saudharmeśānasānatkumāramāhendrabrahmabrahmottaralāntavakāpiṣṭhaśukramahāśukraśatārasahasrāreṣvānataprāṇatayorāraṇācyutayornavasu graiveyakeṣu vijayavaijayantajayantāparājiteṣu sarvārthasiddhau ca || 4.19 ||

The heavenly deva (vaimānika) reside in kalpa called Saudharma, Aiśāna, Sānatkumāra, Māhendra, Brahma, Brahmottara, Lāntava, Kāpiṣṭha, Śukra, Mahāśukra, Śatāra, Sahasrāra, in Ānata-Prāṇata, Āraṇa-Acyuta, in nine graiveyaka, and in Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparājita and Sarvārthasiddhi also. (19)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: सौधर्म-ईशान, सानत्कुमार-माहेन्द्र, ब्रह्म-बह्मोत्तर, लान्तव-कापिष्ठ, शुक्र-महाशुक्र, शतार-सहस्रार इन छह युगलों के बारह स्वर्गों में, आनत-प्राणत इन दो स्वर्गों में, आरण-अच्युत इन दो स्वर्गों में, नव ग्रैवेयक विमानों में, नव अनुदिश विमानों में और विजय, वैजयन्त, जयन्त, अपराजित तथा सर्वार्थसिद्धि इन पाँच अनुत्तर विमानों में वैमानिक देव रहते हैं।

Anvayartha: saudharma-ishana, sanatkumara-mahendra, brahma-bahmottara, lantava-kapishtha, shukra-mahashukra, shatara-sahasrara ina chaha yugalom ke baraha svargom mem, anata-pranata ina do svargom mem, arana-acyuta ina do svargom mem, nava graiveyaka vimanom mem, nava anudisha vimanom mem aura vijaya, vaijayanta, jayanta, aparajita tatha sarvarthasiddhi ina pamca anuttara vimanom mem vaimanika deva rahate haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

How are Saudharma and the rest called kalpa? How are these the names of the lords (indra)? Naturally, or by association. How is it? It is as follows. ‘Sudharmā’ is the name of the courtroom. That which has this courtroom in it is called Saudharma kalpa, and the lord who is associated with this kalpa is called Saudharma. The lord (indra) has this natural name ‘Īśāna’. That which is the habitation of Īśāna is Aiśāna. By association with it the lord also is called Aiśāna. Again, ‘Sanatkumāra’ is the natural name of the lord (indra). The kalpa got the name Sānatkumāra and, by association with it, the lord also is called Sānatkumāra. ‘Mahendra’ is the natural name of the lord (indra). The kalpa which is his habitation is Māhendra. By association with it the lord also is called Māhendra. Similarly it must be understood with regard to the rest. The arrangement must be understood in accordance with the Scripture. Due to the phrase ‘uparyupari’ (see sūtra 4-18), the kalpa must be taken in pairs, and ‘one above the other’. The first pair consists of Saudharma and Aiśāna kalpa. Higher up are Sānatkumāra and Māhendra, higher still is Brahma and Brahmottara, and then Lāntava and Kāpiṣṭha. Further up are Śukra and Mahāśukra. Then come Śatāra and Sahasrāra, Ānata and Prāṇata, and, finally, Āraṇa and Acyuta. In two rows at the top and at the bottom, each kalpa must be understood to have one lord (indra) each. In the four rows in the middle there is one lord (indra) for every row of two kalpa. This is the purport. There are four lords (indra) in the four kalpa of Saudharma, Aiśāna, Sānatkumāra and Māhendra. There is one lord (indra) named Brahma for the two kalpa of Brahma and Brahmottara. Lāntava is the lord (indra) of Lāntava and Kāpiṣṭha kalpa. Śukra is the lord (indra) of Śukra and Mahāśukra kalpa. Śatāra is the lord (indra) of Śatāra and Sahasrāra kalpa. There are four lords (indra) for the four kalpa of Ānata, Prāṇata, Āraṇa and Acyuta. Thus there are twelve lords (indra) of the deva residing in the sixteen kalpa.

Mount Meru (or Mahāmandara) of Jambūdvīpa is embedded in the earth to a depth of 1,000 yojana and is 99,000 yojana high. Below it is the lower world (adholoka). That which extends transversely within this range (namely, the height of Mount Meru) is the transverse-world (tiryagloka). Above it is the upper world (ūrdhvaloka). The crest of Mount Meru (Sudarśana Meru) is forty yojana high. And the celestial-car, called ãjuvimāna or ãtuvimāna (the vehicle of Saudharma kalpa), is only one hair’s distance from the crest of Mount Meru. Other details must be ascertained from the Scripture.

Why is the word ‘nava’ mentioned separately in the phrase ‘navasu graiveyakeṣu’? It indicates that there are other nine vimāna called the anudiśa vimāna. By this the anudiśa must be understood to have been included.

It is clear now that the sixteen heavens, called ‘kalpopapanna’, have only twelve lords (indra). Or, the twelve lords (indra) of the heavenly deva live in sixteen kalpa.

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