Ara, Ārā, Arā: 17 definitions

Introduction

Ara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Ārā (आरा) is a Sanskrit word referring to a kind of aquatic bird (“cobbler’s owl bird”). The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Ārā is part of the sub-group named Ambucārin, refering to animals “which move on waters”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dhanurveda (science of warfare)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dhanurveda

Ārā (आरा) refers to a weapon (“knife”). It is a Sanskrit word defined in the Dhanurveda-saṃhitā, which contains a list of no less than 117 weapons. The Dhanurveda-saṃhitā is said to have been composed by the sage Vasiṣṭha, who in turn transmitted it trough a tradition of sages, which can eventually be traced to Śiva and Brahmā.

Dhanurveda book cover
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Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Ara (अर) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Aranṛsiṃha or Aranarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Āra (आर).—Substitute आर (āra) for ऋ () in the words पितृ (pitṛ) and मातृ (mātṛ); e.g. पितरामातरा (pitarāmātarā); cf. P. VI.3.33.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Arā (अरा).—(arajas) Daughter of Śukra maharṣi. Ikṣvāku begot three sons, Daṇḍa, Vikukṣi and Nimi. After his father’s death Daṇḍa became king of the country between the Vindhya and the Himālayas. In the course of a hunting expedition once Daṇḍa saw and was immediately attracted by the charms of Arā, daughter of Śukra maharṣi. He committed rape on her and she told her father about the attack by Daṇḍa. The Maharṣi asked his daughter to do tapas, and further told her that he would burn Daṇḍa’s kingdom by a rain of fire. Arā did tapas, and at the behest of the Maharṣi Indra destroyed Daṇḍa’s kingdom by a downpour of a rain of fire. Afterwards this place became a terrible forest where neither birds nor animals lived, and came to be known as Daṇḍakāraṇya. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Ara (अर):—The eighteenth Tīrthaṅkara (Janism recognizes 24 such teachers or Siddhas). He is also known as Aranātha. His colour is gold (kāñcana), according to Aparājitapṛcchā (221.5-7). His height is 30 dhanuṣa (a single dhanuṣa (or, ‘bow’) equals 6 ft), thus, roughly corresponding to 55 meters. His emblem, or symbol, is a Nandyāvarta or fish.

Ara’s father is Sudarśana and his mother is Devī according to Śvetāmbara or Mitrā according to Digambara. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

Source: Jain eLibrary: 7th International Summer School for Jain Studies

The entire time period from beginningless point to eternity is into time cycles called ārās. Each ārā or epoch has two parts namely period of rising happiness (utsarpiṇī) and period of decreasing happiness (avasarpiṇī). Each ārā has a series of twenty four ford makers (tīrthaṅkaras) over different time periods who rejuvenate the religion so that the living beings can move forward to attain their worldly and spiritual objectives.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

ara : (nt.) spoke of a wheel. || āra (m.), a needle. ārā (f.), an awl. (ind.), away or far from; remote.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Ara, (Vedic ara fr. , ṛṇoti; see etym. under appeti & cp. more esp. Lat. artus limb, Gr. a(ρma chariot, also P. aṇṇava) the spoke of a wheel D. II, 17 (sahass’âra adj. with thousand spokes), cp. Miln. 285; J. IV, 209; VI, 261; Miln. 238; DhA. II, 142; VvA. 106 (in allegorical etym. of arahant = saṃsāra-cakkassa arānaṃ hatattā “breaker of the spokes of the wheel of transmigration”) = PvA. 7 (has saṃsāra-vaṭṭassa); VvA. 277. (Page 76)

— or —

1) Ārā, 2 (indecl.) (Vedic ārād, Abl. as adv. ; orig. a root der. fr. *ara remoteness, as in Sk. araṇa foreign & araṇya solitude q. v. under araṇa1 and arañña) far from, remote (from) (adv. as well as prep. with Abl.) Sn. 156 (pamādamhā), 736; Dh. 253 (āsavakkhayā; DhA. III, 377 expls. by dūragata); J. II, 449 (jhānabhūmiyā; = dūre ṭhita C.); V, 78 (saṃyame; = dūrato C.). See also ārakā.

2) Ārā, 1 (f.) (Sk. ārâ; *ēl “pointed”, as in Ohg. āla = Ger. ahle, Ags. āēl = E awl; Oicel. alr) an awl; see cp. āragga. Perhaps a der. of ārā is āḷakā (q. v.). (Page 108)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

āra (आर).—f An iron spike (as of a top, a handmill, surprise &c. oh! a wooden axle, a goad &c.) 2 Urgency, pressing, hurrying. v lāva, lāga. 3 A spoke of a wheel. 4 A painful tumor in ano &c. See āraī. 5 A tuft or ring of hair on the body. 6 A term in the play of iṭīdāṇḍū,--the number six. 7 m A large serpent of the Boa-kind. 8 Applied fig. to a dull, heavy, sluggish fellow; a lubbard. 9 An acuminated or pointed end (of a stick, rope &c.) 10 The old-age-sproutings of nāgavallī (Piper betel). On their appearance the plant is unwound from its supports, and set, according to the manner of Arcuation, well covered over with mould. Ex. nāgavallīcī āra ēkadā rujalī mhaṇajē vēla vāḍhatō. 11 A tendril. 12 āra as the common termination of the words descriptive of the artisans, e. g. sōnāra, sutāra, lōhāra, kāṃsāra, cāmhāra, kumbhāra &c. is from the Sanskrit kāra Doer or maker; thus describing them as doers or workers in gold, iron, brass &c. saṃsārācī-prapañcācī-rōjagārācī-āra The goading of worldly affairs, earthly necessities &c. v lāva, lāga.

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ārā (आरा).—m (Better āharā m) A ring of grass &c. 2 ( P) A saw. 3 (Or āra) A spoke.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ārā (आरा).—m A ring of grass. A saw. A spoke.

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āra (आर).—m A large serpent. A sluggish fel- low. f An iron–spike. Urgency. A spoke of a wheel.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ara (अर).—a. [iyarti gacchatyanena, ṛ-ac]

1) Speedy, swift.

2) Little. यदा ह्येवैष एतस्मिन्नुदरमन्तरं कुरुते (yadā hyevaiṣa etasminnudaramantaraṃ kurute) T. Up.2.7.1.

3) Going (at the end of comp.),

-raḥ 1 The spoke or radius of a wheel; अरा इव रथानाभौ (arā iva rathānābhau) Muṇd.2.2.6; Praśna.2.6. (°ram also); अरैः संधार्यते नाभिर्नाभौ चाराः प्रतिष्ठिताः (araiḥ saṃdhāryate nābhirnābhau cārāḥ pratiṣṭhitāḥ) Pt.1.81. cf. also अरव्यक्तिर्नष्टा स्थितमिव जवाच्चक्रवलयम् (aravyaktirnaṣṭā sthitamiva javāccakravalayam) Pratima 3.2.

2) A spoke of the time-wheel; a Jaina division of time.

3) A corner (koṇa) or angle; त्रिपञ्चरे पीठे (tripañcare pīṭhe) Śyāmāstava.

4) Moss (śaivāla).

5) = पर्पट (parpaṭa) q. v.

6) Name of an ocean in Brahmā's world; यदरण्यायनमित्याचक्षते ब्रह्मचर्यमेव तत्तदरश्च ह वैण्यश्चार्णवौ ब्रह्मलोके (yadaraṇyāyanamityācakṣate brahmacaryameva tattadaraśca ha vaiṇyaścārṇavau brahmaloke) Chān. Up.8.5.3.

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Āra (आर).—[ā-ṛ-ghañ]

1) Brass; ताम्रारकोष्ठां परिखादुरासदाम् (tāmrārakoṣṭhāṃ parikhādurāsadām) Bhāg.1.41.2.

2) Oxide of iron.

3) An angle, corner.

4) Name of a tree (madhurāmraphala).

-raḥ 1 The planet Mars.

2) The planet Saturn.

3) Going.

4) Distance.

5) nearness, as in आरात् (ārāt) q. v.

6) Extremity (prāntabhāga).

-rā (ā-ṛ-ac)

1) A shoemaker's awl. °मुखम् (mukham) An arrow-head shaped like an awl; आरामुखेन चर्मच्छेदनम् (ārāmukhena carmacchedanam) | Dhanur.66.

2) A knife, probe, instrument of iron.

3) A spoke; cf. अर (ara).

4) A goad, or whip; उद्यम्याराम- ग्रकायोत्थितस्य (udyamyārāma- grakāyotthitasya) Śi.18.7.

Derivable forms: āraḥ (आरः), āram (आरम्).

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Āra (आर).—1 P.

1) To delight in, take pleasure in, sport; आरमन्तं परं स्मरे (āramantaṃ paraṃ smare) Bk.8.52,3.38.

2) To cease, stop (to speak); leave off; अन्तर्वत्नी त्वहं भ्रात्रा ज्येष्ठेनारम्यतामिति (antarvatnī tvahaṃ bhrātrā jyeṣṭhenāramyatāmiti) Mb. 1.14.11; विरामोऽस्त्विति चारमेत् (virāmo'stviti cāramet) Ms.2.73.

3) To rest, take rest.

Derivable forms: āram (आरम्).

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Ārā (आरा).—See under आर (āra).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Āra (आर).—nt., the hither or nearer side or part, in contrast to pāra: Mahāvyutpatti 2662 = Tibetan tshu rol, this side (2663 pāraṃ); Śatasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 1360.9 (kasyacid dharmasyotpādaṃ vā nirodhaṃ vā…) āraṃ vā pāraṃ vopalabhate. (Cf. AMg. āra, nt., this world, this life, this existence. Doubtless the stem from which is derived the Sanskrit adverb ārāt near, see Edgerton, Mīmāṃsā Nyāya Prakāśa, Gloss. Ind. s.v. ārād-upakāraka.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ara (अर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) Swift, speedy. n.

(-raṃ) 1. The spoke or radius of a wheel. 2. adv. Swiftly. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A Jaina division of time, the sixth of an Avasarpini or Utsarpini. See avasarpiṇī, &c. 2. The eighteenth Jaina Tirthakara, or deified saint. E. to go, ap aff.

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Āra (आर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. The planet Mars. 2. The planet Saturn. n.

(-raṃ) 1. An angle, a corner. 2. End, extremity. 3. Brass. 4. Oxide of iron. f.

(-rā) 1. A shoe-maker’s awl or knife. 2. A probe. E. to go, affix ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ara (अर).—i. e. ṛ + a, m. The spoke of a wheel, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 166.

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Ārā (आरा).—f. An awl.

— Cf. [Old High German.] āla; [Anglo-Saxon.] āl, ael.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ara (अर).—[masculine] spoke of a wheel.

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Āra (आर).—[masculine] [neuter] ore, metal; [neuter] sting, point, corner, angle.

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Ārā (आरा).—[feminine] awl, prick.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ara (अर):—a mfn. (√), swift, speedy, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) little (only for the [etymology] of udara) [commentator or commentary] on [Taittirīya-upaniṣad]

3) ifc. ‘going’ cf. samara

4) m. the spoke or radius of a wheel, [Ṛg-veda] etc.

5) the spoke of an altar formed like a wheel, [Śulba-sūtra]

6) a spoke of the time-wheel, viz. a Jaina division of time (the sixth of an Avasarpiṇī or Utsarpiṇī)

7) the eighteenth Jaina saint of the present Avasarpiṇī

8) Name of an ocean in Brahmā’s world (only for a mystical interpretation of araṇya), [Chāndogya-upaniṣad]

9) n. the spoke of a wheel, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [from aram] b (in [compound] -aram).

11) Arā (अरा):—f. (= ārā), an awl [commentator or commentary] on [Mahābhārata xv, 19.]

12) Āra (आर):—1. āra n. brass, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa x, 41, 20]

13) iron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) a sting [commentator or commentary] on [Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

15) an angle

16) a corner

17) m. cavity, [Sūryasiddhānta]

18) Name of a tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) Name of a lake, [Kauṣītaki-upaniṣad]

20) the planet Mars, *῎αρης

21) the planet Saturn, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) Ārā (आरा):—[from āra] a f. a shoemaker’s awl or knife

23) [v.s. ...] a bore

24) [v.s. ...] a probe, [Ṛg-veda; Suśruta etc.]

25) [v.s. ...] an aquatic bird.

26) Āra (आर):—2. āra n. [varia lectio] for ara q.v., a spoke, [Mahābhārata i, 1498] ([edition] [Bombay edition] i, 33, 4 reads ara).

27) a multitude of enemies, [Śiśupāla-vadha xix, 27].

28) Ārā (आरा):—b ārā-mukha, etc. See 2. āra.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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