Kapola, Kapolā: 20 definitions

Introduction:

Kapola means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Kapol.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kapola (कपोल) refers to the “cheeks”. It is one of the parts of the human body with which gestures (āṅgika) are performaned, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya). Kapola (cheeks) is also known as gaṇḍa.

There are six different ‘gestures of the cheeks’ (kapola) defined:

  1. kṣāma (depressed),
  2. phulla (blown),
  3. pūrṇa (full),
  4. kampita (trembling),
  5. kuñcita (contracted)
  6. sama (natural).
Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)

Kapola (कपोल, “cheeks”) refers to one of the twelve “subsidiary limbs” (upāṅga), which represents a division of Āṅgikābhinaya (gesture language of the limbs) as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Āṅgika-abhinaya is the gesture language of the limbs. Dance is an art that expresses itself through the medium of body, and therefore, āṅgikābhinaya is essential for any dance and especially for any classical dance of India. Upāṅgas or the subsidiary limbs consist of the eyes, the eye-brows, pupils, cheeks [viz., Kapola], nose, jaws, lips, teeth, tongue, chin, face, and the head.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Kapola (कपोल):—[kapolaḥ] Cheek. Side of the face forming the lateral wall of the mouth below the eye

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Kapola (कपोल) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Kapola] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Wisdom Library: India History

Kapola (or, Kapolā) refers to one of the 84 castes (gaccha) in the Jain community according to Mr. P. D. Jain. The Jain caste and sub-caste system was a comparatively later development within their community, and it may have arisen from the ancient classification of Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya, Vaiśya and Śūdra. Before distinction of these classes (such as Kapola), the society was not divided into distinct separate sections, but all were considered as different ways of life and utmost importance was attached to individual chartacter and mode of behaviour.

According to Dr. Vilas Adinath Sangava, “Jainism does not recognise castes (viz., Kapola) as such and at the same time the Jaina books do not specifically obstruct the observance of caste rules by the members of the Jaina community. The attitude of Jainism towards caste is that it is one of the social practices, unconnected with religion, observed by people; and it was none of its business to regulate the working of the caste system” (source).

The legendary account of the origin of these 84 Jain castes (e.g., Kapola) relate that once a rich Jain invited members of the Jain community in order to establish a vaiśya-mahāsabhā (i.e. Central Association of Traders). In response, 84 representatives came from different places, and they were later seen as the progenitors of these castes. Various sources however mention differences in the list.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kapola : (m.) the cheek.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kapola, (Sk. kapola, cp. kapalla, orig. meaning “hollow”) the cheek Vism. 263, 362; DhA. I, 194. (Page 187)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kapōla (कपोल).—m S A cheek.

--- OR ---

kāpōḷā (कापोळा).—m R (Or kāpaḷā) Slices of the pulp of uṇḍa.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kapōla (कपोल).—m A cheek.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kapola (कपोल).—[Uṇādi-sūtra 1.66] A cheek; क्षामक्षामकपोलमाननम् (kṣāmakṣāmakapolamānanam) Ś.3.9,6.15; R.4.68.

-lī The knee-cap.

Derivable forms: kapolaḥ (कपोलः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapola (कपोल).—m.

(-laḥ) A cheek. f. (-lī) The forepart of the knee, the knee-cap or pan. E. kapi to quiver, and olac Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapola (कपोल).—m. A cheek, [Pañcatantra] [distich] 225.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapola (कपोल).—[masculine] cheek.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kapola (कपोल):—m. (ifc. f(ā). ), (√kap, [Uṇādi-sūtra i, 67]) the cheek (of men or elephants etc.), [Suśruta; Yājñavalkya; Raghuvaṃśa] etc.

2) m. [plural] Name of a school belonging to the white Yajur-veda

3) Kāpola (कापोल):—m. [plural] Name of a school of the Sāma-veda.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kapola (कपोल):—(laḥ) 1. m. A cheek. () f. The forepart of the knee.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kapola (कपोल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kavola.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kapola in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kapola (कपोल) [Also spelled kapol]:—(nm) cheek; —[kalpanā] a cock and bull story, tale of a tube; fancy, fantastic imagination; ~[kalpita] false, fantastic, fabricated.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kapōla (ಕಪೋಲ):—[noun] either side of the face between the nose and ear, below the eye; the cheek.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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