The Natyashastra

by Bharata-muni | 1951 | 240,273 words | ISBN-13: 9789385005831

The English translation of the Natyashastra, a Sanskrit work on drama, performing arts, theater, dance, music and various other topics. The word natyashastra also refers to a global category of literature encompassing this ancient Indian tradition of dramatic performance. The authorship of this work dates back to as far as at least the 1st millenn...

Chapter XVI - Metrical Patterns (chandas)

Tanu-madhyā

1. Tanu-madhyā is a variety [of metres] of the Gāyatrī class. [In each of its feet] the first two and the last two syllables are heavy[1]. Example:

2. santyakta-vibhūṣā bhraṣṭāñjana-netrā |
hastārpitagaṇḍā kiṃ tvaṃ tanu-madhyā ||

Tr. O fair lady (lit. slim-waisted one), why[2] have you cast off your ornaments; why are your eyes without collyrium and why are you resting the cheek on the palm of your hand?

Makaraka-śīrṣā

3. [Of the same class is] Makaraka-śīrṣā which has [in each of its feet] the first four syllables light and the last two heavy.[3] Example:

4. svayam upayāntaṃ bhajasi na kāntam |
bhayakari kiṃ tvaṃ makaraka-śīrṣā ||

Tr. You are not greeting the beloved one who has come for you of his own accord. O terrible one, why[4] are you so dull-headed.[5]

Mālinī

5. [The metre with] the feet of six syllables of which the second one is light [and the rest heavy] is called Mālinī[6]. Example:

6. snāna-gandha-sragbhir vastra-bhūṣāyogaiḥ |
vyaktam evaiṣāṃ tvaṃ mālinī prakhyātā ||

Tr. By your perfumed bath, [wearing of] garlands, [good] dress and ornaments, you are recognised among these as the well-known wife of a garland-maker.

Mālatī

7. [The metre with] the feet of six syllables of which the second and the fifth are light and the rest heavy, is called Mālatī. Example:

8. śobhate baddhayā ṣaṭpadāviddhayā |
mālatī-mālayā māninī līlayā ||

Tr. The self-possessed woman wearing the Mālatī garland in which the bees are clinging, looks charming.

Uddhatā

9. [The metre with] the feet of seven syllables of which the second, the fourth and the fifth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Uddhatā. Example:

10. danta-kunta-kṛtāṅkaṃ vyākulālaka-śobham |
śaṃsatīva tavāsyaṃ nirdayaṃ rata-yuddham ||

Tr. Your face which bears the marks of spear-like teeth [of the beloved] and is strewn over with your dishevelled hair, indicates indeed an un-relenting fight of love.

Bhramara-mālikā

11. [The metre with] the feet of seven syllables of which the first two and the last two are heavy [and the rest light] is called Bhramara-mālikā. Example:

12. nānā-kusuma-citre prāpte surabhi-māse |
eṣā bhramati mattā kānte bhramara-mālā ||

Tr. O beloved one, this being the month of Caitra which is variegated with different flowers, cluster of bees are flying about intoxicated [with their smell].

Siṃha-līla

13. [The metre with] the feet of eight syllables of which the first, the third, the fifth, the seventh, the last and [the eigth] are heavy [and the rest light] is called Siṃha-līla.[7] Ex.

14. yat tvayā hy-aneka-bhāvaiś ceṣṭitaṃ rahaḥ sugātri |
tan-mano mama praviṣtaṃ vṛttam atra siṃha-līlam ||

Tr. That you have planned the love’s embrace in various ways, O fair one, has entered into my mind as a lion’s sport.[8]

Matta-ceṣṭita

13. [The metre with] the feet of eight syllables of which the second, the fourth, the sixth and the eighth are heavy [and the rest light] is called Matta-ceṣṭita.[9] Example:

16. sadā vighūrṇitekṣaṇaṃ vilambitākulālakam |
asaṃsthitaiḥ padaiḥ priyā karoti matta-ceṣṭiram ||

Tr. The beloved one with her eyes always rolling, hairs hanging down dishevelled, and footsteps unsteady, is behaving like a person who is intoxicated.

Vīdyul-lekhā

17. [The metre with] the feet of eight syllables of which all are heavy, is called Vidyul-lekhā.[10] Example:

sāmbho-bhārair ānardadbhiḥ śyāmāmbhodair vyāpte vyomnī |
ādityāṃśu-spardhiny-cṣā dikṣu bhrāntā vidyul-lekhā ||

Tr. The sky being overcast with dark clouds which are roaring and are laden with masses of water, a flash of lightning which rivals the sun-beam, is running [there] in all directions.

Citta-vilāsita

19. [The metre with] the feet of eight syllables of which the fifth, the seventh and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Citta-vilāsita.[11] Example:

20. smita-vaśa-viprakāśair daśana-padair amībhiḥ |
varatanu pūrṇa-candraṃ tava mukham āvṛṇoti ||

Tr. O fair lady (lit. fair-limbed one),[12] your face with the teeth revealed on account of the smile, outshines (lit. covers) the full moon.

Madhukarī

21. [The metre which has] the feet of nine syllables of which the last three are heavy [and the rest light] is called Madhukarī.[13] Example:

22. kusumitam abhipaśyantī vividha-tarugaṇaiś-channam |
vanam anila-gandhāḍhyaṃ bhramati madhukarī hṛṣṭā ||

Tr. Seeing the woodland covered with various trees full of flowers, and redolent with a fragrant breeze, the female bee is flying about in [sheer] delight.

Kuvalaya-mālā

23. [The metre which has] the feet of ten syllables of which the first and the last three are heavy [and the rest light] is called Kuvalaya-mālā.[14] Example:

24. asmiṃs te bhramara-nibhe kānte nānā-ratna-racita-bhūṣāḍhye |
śobham āvahati śubhā mūrdhni protphullā kuvalaya[15]-māleyam ||

Tr. O dear one, this shining garland of full-blown Kuvalaya flowers fastened on the lovely bee-like hairs of your head, richly decorated with various jewels, brings forth a special glamour.

Mayūra-sāriṇī

25. [The metre which has] the feet of ten syllables of which the second, the fourth, the sixth and the eighth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Mayūra-sāriṇī.[16] Example:

26. naiva te’sti saṃgamo mānuṣair nāsti kāmabhoga-cihṇam anyat |

garbhiṇīva dṛśyase hy-anārye kiṃ mayūra-sāriṇī tvam evam ||

Tr. O ignoble one, you have no union with men, neither have you any sign of love’s enjoyment. Still you look like one who is enceinte. You indeed behave like a pea-hen.[17]

Dodhaka

27. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the first, the fourth, the seventh the tenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Dodhaka. Example:

28. praskhalatāgrapada-pravicāraṃ matta-vighūrṇita-gātra-vilāsam |
paśya vilāsini kuñjaram etaṃ dodhaka-vṛttam ayaṃ prakaroti ||

Tr. O merry lady, look at this elephant which with its faltering steps of the front legs, and with the body playfully moved about [as if in] intoxication, is imitating the manner of a dodhaka.[18]

Moṭaka

29. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the first two, fifth, the eighth, and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Moṭaka[19]. Example:

30. eṣo’mbuda-nisvana-tulya-ravaḥ kṣībaḥ skhalamāna-vilamba-gatiḥ |
śrutvā ghana-garjitam adri-taṭe vṛkṣān prati moṭayati dviradaḥ ||

Tr. This elephant hearing the clouds roaring in the mountain valley, is trumpeting in excitement as loudly as the [rain]- clouds, and is rushing with faltering steps to the trees.

Indra-vajrā

31. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the third, the sixth, the seventh and the ninth are light, [and the rest heavy] is called Indra-vajrā. Example:

32. tvaṃ durṇirīkṣyā durita-svabhāvā duḥkhaika-sādhyā kaṭhinaika-bhāvā |
sarvāsv-avasthāsu ca kāma-tantre yogyāsi kiṃ vā bahunendravajrā ||

Tr. You are hard to be looked at, have a troublesome nature, are difficult to be won over, and you have an unmixed (lit, one) hard feeling, and in the practice of love, you are unfit (ayogyā) at every stage; and in short you are [like] the thunder-bolt of Indra.

Upendra-vajrā

33. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the first, the third, the sixth, the seventh, the ninth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Upendra-vajrā. Example:

34. priye śriyā varṇa-viśeṣaṇena smitena kāntyā sukumāra-bhāvāt |
amī guṇā rūpa-guṇānurūpā bhavanti te kiṃ tvam upendra-vajrā ||

Tr. O beloved one, due to your beauty, the special colours [of your dress], smile, grace and delicate bearing, these qualities of yours have matched the qualities of the [beautiful] form. Are you the thunder-bolt of Upendra (Viṣṇu)?[20]

Rathoddhatā

33. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the first, the third, the seventh, the ninth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Rathoddhatā. Example:

36. kiṃ tvayā subhaṭa [dhūrya] varjitaṃ nātmano na suhṛdāṃ priyaṃ kṛtam |
yat palāyana-parāyaṇasya te yāti dhūlir adhunā rathoddhatā ||

Tr. O good soldier, having left the van you have done neither any good to yourself nor to your friends, for while running away [from the battle field] the dust [on your road] rises now [as if] scattered by chariots.[21]

Svagata

37. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the first, the third, the seventh and the tenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Svāgatā. Example:

38. adya me saphalam āyata-netre jīvitam madana-saṃśraya-bhāvam |
āgatāsi bhavanaṃ mama yasmāt svāgataṃ tava varoru niṣīda ||

Tr. O the large-eyed one, today my life and love have attained their object; because you have come to my house. O fair lady, you are welcome, please be seated.

Śālinī

39. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which the sixth and ninth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Śālinī. Example:

40. śīlabhraṣṭe nirguṇe yā’prakopā loke dhairyād apriyaṃ na bravīṣi |
āryaṃ śīlaṃ sādhvaho te’nuvṛttaṃ mādhuryāḍhyā sarvadā śālinī tvam ||

Tr. You have no anger for one who lacks good conduct and is worthless, and on account of your patience with the people you do not utter harsh words to any one. O good lady, you have adopted a noble conduct; you are a housewife full of sweetness in every respect.

Toṭaka

41. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the third, the sixth, the ninth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Toṭaka. Example:

42. kim idaṃ kapaṭāśraya-durviṣahaṃ bahu-śāṭhyam atholbaṇa-rūkṣa-katham |
svajana-priya-sajjana-bheda-karaṃ nanu toṭaka-vṛttam idaṃ kuruṣe ||

Tr. Why is this crooked and Insufferable conduct full of villainy, and unambiguous (lit. direct) and harsh words hurting the relations, dear ones and [other] good people? You are indeed behaving like a hammer.

Kumuda-nibhā

43. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the first four, the eighth and the tenth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Kumuda-nibhā[22]. Example:

44. kumuda-nibhā tvaṃ kāma-bāṇa-viddhā kim asi natabhrūḥ śīta-vāta-dagdhā |
mṛdu-nalinīvāpāṇḍu-vaktra-śobhā katham api jātā agrataḥ sakhīnām ||

Tr, O fair-eyed damsel, being like a Kumuda flower, why have you been struck with cupid’s arrow and why do you appear before your friends with a pale face like a delicate Nalinī blasted by cold wind?

Candra-lekhā

45. [The metre which has] feet of twelve syllables of which the first five, the seventh and the tenth as are light [and the rest heavy], and the caesura falls after the first five syllables, is called Candra-lekhā. Example:

46. vaktraṃ saumyaṃ te padma-patrāyatākṣaṃ kāmasyāvāsaṃ subhruvoś cāvabhāsam |
kāmasyāpīdaṃ kāmam āhartu-kāmaṃ kāntyā tvaṃ kānte candra-lekheva bhāsi ||

Tr. O beloved one, your sweet face with eyes as large as lotus-petals and the splendour of your beautiful eyebrows, are the abode of love, and they are prone to bring love even to the god of love; you shine as it were like the moon.

Pramitākṣarā

47. [The metre with] feet of twelve syllables of which the third, the fifth, the ninth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Pramitākṣarā. Example:

48. smita-bhāṣīṇī hy-acapalāparuṣā nibhṛtāpavāda-vimukhī satatam |
yadi kasya cid yuvatir asti sukhā pramitākṣarā sa hi pumān jayati ||

Tr. If any one has a pleasing young wife with restrained speech, who is always smiling and averse to speaking ill of him [even] secretly, and is never fickle or harsh, that person verily thrives.

Vaṃśasthā

49. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the second, the fourth, the fifth, the eighth, the tenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light], is called Vaṃśasthā. Example:

50. na me priyā yad bahumāna-varjitā kṛtāpriyā [taiḥ] paruṣābhibhāṣaṇaih |
tathā ca paśyāmy-aham adya sā dhruvaṃ kṣaṇena vaṃśastha-gatiṃ kariṣyati ||

Tr. She is not dear to me, for she is wanting in esteem [for me] and her harsh words [also] have made her displeasing [to me]. So I see today that she will surely make at once the movement of a sabre.

Hariṇa-plutā

51. [The metre with] feet of twelve syllables of which the fourth, the seventh, the tenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Hariṇa-plutā[23]. Example:

52. paruṣa-vākya-kaśābhihatā tvayā bhaya-vilokana-pārśva-nirīkṣaṇā |
varatanuḥ pratata-pluta-sarpaṇair anukaroti gatair hariṇa-plutam ||

Tr. Smitten by the whip of your harsh words, the fair lady (lit. fair-limbed one)[24], looking with terrified eyes to her sides and running away continuously with quick steps, is imitating by her movements a deer’s gallop.

Kāmadattā

53. [A metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the seventh, the ninth, the eleventh and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Kāmadattā[25]. Example:

54. karaja-pada-vibhūṣita yathā tvaṃ sudati daśana-vikṣatādharā ca |
gatir api caraṇāvalagna-mandā tvam asi mṛga-samākṣi kāmadattā ||

Tr. O fair lady[26], you have been adorned with the marks of nails, your lips have been bitten by teeth, and your gait also is faltering and slow. It seems, O deer-eyed one, that you have given [yourself up] to [the enjoyment of] love.

Aprameyā

55. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the first, the fourth, the seventh and tenth are light [and the rest heavy], is called Aprameyā[27]. Example:

56. na te kā-cid anyā samā dṛśyate strī guṇair yā dvitīyā tṛtīyāpi cāsmin |
mameyaṃ matir sarvaṃ lokam ālokya jagaty-aprameyāsi sṛṣṭā vidhātrā ||

Tr. Nowhere to be seen another woman who is your equal, and there is in this [world] none who is [even] second or third to you in order of merit. The creator has made you matchless.

Padminī

57. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the second, the fifth, the eighth and the eleventh are light [and the rest heavy], is called Padminī[28]. Example:

58. deha-toyāśayā vaktra-padmojjvalā netra-bhṛṅgākulā danta-haṃsaiḥ smitā |
keśa-patrac-chadā cakravāka-stanī padminīva priye bhāsī me sarvadā ||

Tr. O dear lady, you always appear to me like a lotus-lake, for your body is a pool of water which shines by the lotus-face, and your eyes are the restless bees [there], and you smile with the swan-like teeth, and your hairs are [the lotus] leaves, and the breasts are like the Cakravākas [swimming there].[29]

Paṭuvṛtta

59. [The metre with] the feet twelve syllables of which the first six and the tenth are light [and the rest heavy], is called Paṭuvṛtta.[30] Example:

60. upavaṇa-salilānāṃ bāla-padmair bhramara-parabhṛtānām kaṇṭha-nādaih |
samada-gati-vilāsaiḥ kāminīnāṃ kathayati paṭu-vṛttaṃ madhu-māsaḥ ||

Tr. The month of Caitra (lit. honey-month) with lotus-buds in the garden-lakes, songs of bees and cuckoos and the playful movements of intoxicated women, is announcing its smart manners.[31]

Prabhāvatī

61. [The metre with] feet of twelve syllables of which the second, the fourth and the ninth the eleventh and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is Prabhāvatī. Example:

62. kathaṃ nv-idaṃ kamala-viśāla-locane gṛhaṃ ghanaiḥ pihita-kare niśākare |
acintayanty-abhinava-varṣa-vidyutas tvam āgatā sutanu yathā prabhāvatī ||

Tr. O fair one, with eyes as large as a lotus, how have you come like a goddess (lit. radiant being) to this house [of mine] when rays of the moon have been covered by clouds, and you have not cared for the impending (lit. new) rains and the lightning?

Praharṣaṇī

63. [The metre with the] feet of thirteen syllables of which the first three, the eighth, the tenth and the twelfth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Praharṣaṇī. Example:

64. bhāvasthair madhura-kathaiḥ subhāṣitais tvaṃ sāṭopa-skhalita-vilambita-gataiś-ca |
nānāṅgair harasi manāṃsi kāmukānāṃ suvyaktam hy-atijagatī praharṣaṇī ca ||

Tr. [O fair one], by your loving and sweet words, witty sayings, majestic, faltering and slow steps, and by the various graceful movements of other limbs you captivate the mind of lovers. It is very clear that you are enrapturing beyond [anything else in] this world.

Matta-mayūra

65. [The metre with] the feet of thirteen syllables of which the sixth, the seventh, the tenth and the eleventh are light [and the rest heavy], is called Matta-mayūra. Example:

66. vidyun-naddhāḥ sendra-dhanur-dyotita-dehā vātoddhūtāḥ śveta-balākā-kṛta-śobhāḥ |
ete meghā garjita-nādojjvala-cihnāḥ prāvṛt-kālaṃ matta-mayūraṃ kathayanti ||

Tr. These clouds [characterised] by a thundering noise and brilliant signs containing lightning and rainbow, moved about by the wind, and adorned with white cranes speak of the [arrival of the] rainy season which maddens peacocks.

Vasanta-tilakā

67. [ The metre with] the feet of fourteen syllables of which the first two, the fourth, the eighth and the eleventh and the thirteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Vasanta-tilakā. Example:

68. citrair vasanta-kusumaiḥ kṛta-keśa-hastā srag-dāma-mālya-racanā-suvibhūṣitāṅgī |
nāgāvataṃsaka-vibhūṣita-karṇa-pāśā sāksād vasanta-tilakeva vibhāti nārī ||

Tr. This well-dressed woman who has adorned her braid of hairs with many-coloured vernal flowers, and the rest of her body with various types of flower garlands[32] and lobes of her ears with snake-like ear-ornaments, looks indeed like the decoration (tilaka) on the forehead [of the goddess] of spring.

Asambādhā

69. [The metre with the] feet of fourteen syllables, of which first five and the last three are heavy, [and the rest light] is called Asaṃbādhā. Example:

70. mānī lokajñaḥ sruta-bala-kula-śīlāḍhyo yasmin sammānam na sadṛśam anupaśyed-dhi |
gachet-taṃ tyaktvā druta-gatir-aparaṃ deśaṃ kīrna-nānārthaīr avanir-iyam asaṃbādhā ||

Tr. A proud person who knows the world and is learned, strong, of high birth and character, must leave [a country] in which he does not receive adequate honour, and should quickly go to a different land; for this world is scattered over with wealth of many kinds and offers no obstruction [to such a person].

Śarabhā

71. [The metre with the] feet of fourteen syllables of which the first four the tenth, the eleventh, the thirteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Śarabhā. Example:

72. eṣā kāntā vrajati lalitaṃ vepamānā gulmacchannaṃ vanam-uru-nagaiḥ sampraviddham |
hā hā kaṣṭaṃ kim idam-iti no vedmi mūḍho vyaktaṃ krodhāc-charabha-lalitaṃ kartu-kāmā ||

Tr. This beloved lady goes trembling in a graceful manner to the forest covered with shrubs and interspersed with high hillocks. Ah, what a pity, the fool that I am, I could not understand that due to anger she is openly playing the graceful role of a young elephant.

Nāndīmukhī

73. [The metre with] the feet of fifteen syllables of which the first six, the tenth, and the thirteenth are light [and the rest heavy], is called Nāndīmukhī.[33] Example:

74. na khalu tava kadā-cit krodha-tāmrāyatākṣaṃ bhrukuṭi-valita-bhaṅgaṃ dṛṣta-pūrvaṃ mayāsyaṃ |
kim-iha bahubhir-uktair yā mamaiṣā hṛdisthā tvam-asi madhura-vākyā devi nāndīmukhīva ||

Tr. Never before have I seen your face with eyes red in anger and with eyebrows curved by a frown; O lady, what more shall I say? Are you the [same] sweet-tongued one who resides in my heart and has a jolly face?

Gaja-vilasita

75. [The metre with] the feet of sixteen syllables of which the first, the fourth, the sixth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Gaja-vilasita.[34] Example:

76. toyadharaḥ sudhīra-ghana-paṭu-paṭaha-ravaḥ sarja-kadamba-nīpa-kuṭaja-kusuma-sutabhim |
kandala-sendragopaka-racitam avanitalaṃ vīkṣya karoty-asau vṛṣabha-gaja-vilasitakam ||

Tr. On seeing the surface of the earth adorned with the Kandala and the Indragopa, and perfumed with the flowers of Sal, Kadamba[35], Nipa,[36] and Kuṭaja, this cloud with its loud and clear drum-like peals of thunder (lit. sounds of the clouds) imitates the sportful movement of a bull and an elephant.

Pravara-lalita

77. [The metre with the] feet of sixteen syllables of which of the second, third, the fourth, the fifth, the sixth, the twelfth the thirteenth, the fifteeth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Pravara-lalita. Example:

78. nakhāliḍhaṃ gātraṃ daśana-khacitaṃ coṣṭha-gaṇḍaṃ
śiraḥ puṣpon-miśraṃ pravilulita-keśālakāntam |
gatiḥ khinnā ceyaṃ vadanam api sambhrānta-netram
aho ślāghyaṃ vṛttaṃ pravara-lalitaṃ kāma ceṣṭam ||

Tr. Her body has been scratched by nails, and lips and cheeks are bitten by teeth, the head is set with flowers, hairs have their ends scattered, and her gait is languid, and the eyes are restless. Ah, a very graceful exploit of love, has taken place in a praisworthy manner.

Śikhariṇī

79. [The metre with] the feet of seventeen syllables of which the second, the third, the fourth, the fifth, and sixth, the twelfth, the thirteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light], is called Śikhariṇī. Example:

80. mahānadyābhoge pulinam iva te bhāti jaghanaṃ
tathāsyaṃ netrābhyāṃ bhramara-sahitaṃ paṇkajam-iva |
tanu-sparśaś-cāyam sutanu sukumāro na paruṣaḥ
stanābhyāṃ tuṅgābhyāṃ śikhariṇi-nibhā bhāsidayite ||

Tr. Your hip is like the sand-bank on the margin of a river, your face together with the eyes, is like a lotus with the bees, the touch of your body O fair one, is soft and not rough; with your two elevated breasts you look like a lake between two hills, O dear one.

Vṛṣabha-ceṣṭita

81. [The metre with the] feet of seventeen syllables of which the first five, the eleventh, the thirteenth, the fourteenth, and the sixteenth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Vṛṣabha-ceṣṭita[37]. Example:

82. jalada-ninadaṃ śrutvā garjan madoccaya-darpitaḥ
vilikhati mahīṃ śṛṅgākṣepair mṛgaḥ pratinardya ca |
sva-yuvati-vṛto goṣṭhād goṣṭhaṃ prayāti ca nirbhayo
vrṣabha-lalitaṃ citraṃ vṛttaṃ karoti ca śāḍvale ||

Tr. On hearing the thundering noise of the clouds the beast maddened with an excess of rut, is striking the earth with its horns and is bellowing in reply. And then, surrounded by young females of its class goes fearlessly from one cow-pen to another and has the ox’s sportive exploits of many kinds on the green [pasture].

Śrīdharā

83. [The metre with] the feet of seventeen syllables of which the first four, the tenth, the eleventh, the thirteenth, the fourteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light], is called Śrīdharā[38]. Example,:

84. snānaiś cūrṇaiḥ sukha-surabhibhir gaṇḍa-lepaiś ca dhūpaiḥ
puṣpaiś cānyaiḥ śirasi-racitair vastra-yogaiś-ca tais-taiḥ |
nānā-ratnaiḥ kanaka-racitair aṅga-sambhoga-saṃsthair
vyaktaṃ kānte kamala-nilayā śrīdharevāti bhāsi ||

Tr. O beloved one, by your bathing, powders, pleasently fragrant paste smeared on your cheek, the [hair-perfuming] incense, flowers set on the hair (lit. head), various clothes and many jewels combined with gold worn on the limbs, you shine indeed very much like the lotus-dwelling [one] who is the goddess of beauty.

Vaṃśa-patra-patita

85. [The metre with] the feet of seventeen syllables of which the first, the fourth, the tenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light], is called the Vaṃśa-patra-patita.

Example:

86. eṣa gajo’dri-mastaka-taṭe kalabha-parivṛtaḥ
krīḍati vṛkṣa-gulma-gahane-kusuma-bhara-nate |
megha-ravaṃ niśamya muditaḥ pavana-java-samaḥ
sundari vaṃśa-patra-patitaṃ punar-api kurute ||

Tr. O fair lady, this elephant which surrounded by young ones is playing near the peak of the hill in the thick forest of trees and shrubs laden with flowers, is delighted to hear the roaring of clouds, and is moreover causing, like the wind, the bamboo leaves to fall [on the ground],

Vilambita-gati

87. [The metre with the] feet of seventeen syllables of which the second, the sixth, the eighth, the twelfth, the fourteenth, the fifteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light], is called Vilambitagati[39]. Example:

88. vighūrṇita-vilocanā pṛthu-vikīrṇa-hārā punaḥ
pralamba-raśanā calat-skhalita-pada-manda-kramā |
na me priyam idaṃ janasya bahumāna-rāgeṇa yan
madena vivaśā vilambita-gatiḥ kṛtā tvaṃ priye ||

Tr. O belove one, your eyes are rolling, the large necklace is displaced, the girdle is hanging loose, and your slow steps are faltering; I indeed like[40] this your slow gait that you assume out of overwhelming pride due to this man’s love and respect [for you].

Citra-lekhā

89. [The metre with the] feet of eighteen syllables of which the first five, the eleventh, the twelfth, the fourteenth, the fifteenth, the seventeenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Citra-lekhā[41]. Example:

90. nānā-ratnāḍhyair-bahubhir-adhikaṃ bhūṣaṇair-aṅga-saṃsthaiḥ
nānā-gandhāḍhyair madana-jananair aṅga-rāgaiś-ca hṛdyaiḥ |
keśaiḥ snānārdraiḥ kusuma-racitair vastra-rāgair vicitraiḥ
kānte saṃkṣepāt kim iha bahunā citra-lekheva bhāsi ||

Tr. O beloved one, you shine very much with the many bejewelled ornaments worn on your limbs, various pleasant cosmetics rich in passion-inspiring scents, hairs wet after bath and decorated with flowers, and varied colours of your clothes. What shall I say more? To be brief, you appear like Citralekhā, (the heavenly nymph).

Śārdūla-vikrīḍita

91-92. [The metre with] the feet of nineteen syllables of which the first three, the sixth, the eighth, the twelfth, the thirteenth, the fourteenth, the sixteenth, the seventeenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light], is called Śārdūla-vikrīḍita. Example:

93. nānā-śastra-śataghni-tomara-hatāḥ prabhtaṣṭa-sarvāyudhāḥ
nirbhinnodara-bāhu-vaktra-nayanā nirbhartsitāḥ śatravaḥ |
dhairyotsāha-parākrama-prabhṛtibhis-tais-tair-vicitrair-guṇaiḥ
vṛttaṃ te ripu-ghāti bhāti samare śārdūla-vikrīḍitam ||

Tr. The enemies have been repelled [after some of them have been] killed with various weapons, Śataghni and Tomara, and [some have] their bellies, arms, face and eyes pierced and [some have] lost all their weapons. Your enemy-killing exploits in the battle, comparable to the tiger’s sports and characterised by virtues such as, patience, energy and valour, are splendid.[42]

Suvadanā

94-95. [The metre with the] feet of twenty syllables of which the first four, the sixth, the seventh, the fourteenth, the fifteenth, the sixteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light], is called Suvadanā. Example:

96. netre līlālasānte kamala-dala-nibhe bhrū-cāpa-rucire
gaṇḍoṣṭhaṃ pīna-madhyṃ sama-sahita-ghanaḥ snigdhāś ca daśanāḥ |
karṇāv-aṃsa-pralambau[43] cibukam api nataṃ ghoṇā surucirā
sarvasmin martya-loke varatanu vihitāsyekā suvadanā ||

Tr. Your eyes are like lotus-petals, beautiful with the bow-like eyebrows and their ends are playfully lazy; the cheeks and lips are plump in their middle, the teeth are all equal, in a line, thickly set and shining, the ears are hanging down as far as the shoulders, the chin is bent and the nose is beautiful. O fair lady, in this mortal world you are indeed the only fair-faced woman whose face has been [carefully] fashioned.

Sragdharā

97-98. [The metre with] the feet of twenty-one syllables of which the first four, the sixth, the seventh, the fourteenth, the fifteenth, the seventeenth, the eighteenth, the twentieth and the last are heavy [and the rest light], is called Sragdharā. Example:

99. cūtāśokāravindaiḥ kuruvaka-tilakaiḥ karṇikāraiḥ śirīṣaiḥ
punnāgaiḥ pārijātair-vakula-kuvalayaiḥ kiṃśukaiḥ sātimuktaiḥ |
etair nānā-prakāraiḥ kusuma-surabhibhir viprakīrṇaīś-ca tais-tair
vāsantaiḥ puṣpa-vṛndair naravara vasudhā sragdarevādya bhāti ||

Tr. O king (lit. best among men), due to the many and various sweet smelling vernal flowers such as, Cūta. Aśoka, Aravinda. Kuravaka, Tilaka, Karnikāra, Śirīṣa, Punnāga, Pārijāta, Vakula, Kuvalaya, Kiṃśuka and Atimukta, this earth looks today like a woman wearing [many] garlands of flowers.

Madraka

100-101. [The metre with] the feet of twenty-two syllables of which the first, the fourth, the sixth, the tenth, the twelfth, the sixteenth, the eighteenth, and the last are heavy [and the rest light], is called Madraka. Example:

102. udyatam eka-hasta-caraṇaṃ dvitīya-kara-recitaṃ suvinataṃ
vaṃśa-mṛdaṅga-vādya-madhuraṃ vicitra-karaṇānvitaṃ bahu-vidham |
madrakam etad adya subhagair vidagdha-gati-ceṣṭitaiḥ su-lalitair
nṛtyasi vibhramākula-padaṃ varoru lalita-kriyaṃ sama-rasaṃ ||

Tr. O fair lady, with one of your hands raised up and another bent, you are dancing today in accompaniment of sweet sounds of flutes and drums the Madraka dance in which your feet being restless in a hurry, you are making happy, clever and graceful foot-movements in pursuance of many and various Karanas, and this dance giving rise to delicate acts, is imbued uniformly with a Sentiment (rasa).

Aśvalalita

103-104. [The metre with] the feet of twenty-three syllables of which the fifth, the seventh, the eleventh, the thirteenth, the seventeenth, the nineteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light], is called Aśvalalita. Example:

105, ratha-haya-nāga-yaudha-puruṣaiḥ saṃkulam alaṃ balaṃ samuditaṃ
śara-śata-śakti-kunta-parighāsi-yaṣṭi-vitatam bahu-praharaṇam |
ripu-śata-mukta-śastra-ravabhīta-śaṃkita-bhaṭaṃ bhayākulam idaṃ
kṛtam abhivīkṣya saṃyuga-mukhe samīpsita-guṇam tvayāśvalalitam ||

Tr. [Even after] seeing this completely assembled army consisting of chariots, horses, elephants, and fighters, the manifold assaults spread by hundreds of arrows, darts, javelins, clubs and swords, and the foot-soldiers terrified and afraid on account of the noise of released missiles, and the terror-stricken directions, you have practised in the van of the battle the sportful movements of a horse, the merit of which is very much emulated [by people].

Megha-mālā

106-107. [The metre with] the feet of twenty-four syllables of which the first six, the eighth, the eleventh, the fourteenth the seventeenth, the twentieth and the twenty-third are light [and the rest heavy], is called Megha-mālā. Example:

108. pavana-vala-samāhṛtā tīvra-gambhīra-nādā balākāvalī-mekhalā
kṣitidhara-sadṛśocca-rūpā mahānīla-dhumāyamānāmbu-garbhodvabā |
sura-pati-dhanur-ujjvala-badha-kakṣyā taḍid-dyota-sannāha-paṭṭojjvalā-
gagana-tala-visāṛiṇi prāvṛṣeṇyon-natā megha-mālā’dhikaṃ śobhate ||

Tr. The expanse of high-soaring clouds of the rainy season, massed together by a strong wind and moving in the sky, having deep and piercing sounds, wearing a flight of cranes as their girdle, carrying in the womb watery vapour, looking like smoke of deep blue colour, girding the waist with the rainbow as the belt, having the armour-plates illumined by the flash of lightning, looks indeed very magnificent.

Karuñcā-pādī

109-110. [The metre with] the feet of twenty-five syllables of which the first, the fourth, the fifth, the sixth, the ninth, the tenth, and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Karuñca-pādī. Example:

111. yaḥ kila dākṣaṃ vidruta-somaṃ kratuvaram a-camasam apagata-kalaśaṃ
pātita-yūpaṃ kṣipta-caṣālaṃ vicayanam a-samidham a-paśukam acarukam |
kārmuka-muktenāśu cakāra vyapagata-suragaṇa-pitṛ-gaṇam iṣuṇā
nityam asau te daitya-gaṇāriḥ pradahatu makham iva ripu-gaṇam akhilam ||

Tr. Let Siva (lit. the foe of the demons) who by arrows discharged from his bow quickly spilled the Soma-juice, threw away the Camasa, broke the Kalaśa, felled the Yūpa, dislodged the Caṣāla, put out the fire, destroyed the fuel, scared away the [sacrificial] animals, spilled the Caru and put the gods and the Pitṛs to flight in Dakṣa’s great sacrifice, always destroy all your enemies like the same (sacrifice).[44]

Bhujaṅga-vijṛmbhita

112-113. [The metre with] the feet of twenty-six syllables of which the first eight, the nineteenth, twenty-first, twenty-fourth and the last are heavy [and the rest light], is called Bhujaṅga-vijṛmbhita. Examples:

114. rūpopetām devaiḥ sṛṣṭāṃ samada-gaja-vilasita-gatiṃ nirīkṣya tilottamāṃ
prādakṣiṇyāt prāptāṃ draṣṭum bahu-vadanam acala-nayanaṃ śiraḥ kṛta-vān haraḥ |
dīrghaṃ niḥśvasyāntar-gūḍhaṃ stana-vadana-jaghana-rucirāṃ nirīkṣyā tathā punaḥ
pṛṣṭhe nyastaṃ devendreṇa pravaramaṇi-gaṇaka-valayaṃ bhujaṅga-vijṛmbhitam ||

Tr. Seeing the beautiful Tilottamā created by gods with the graceful gait of an elephant in rut, śiva to observe her while she came to circumambulate him multiplied his faces and made the eyes motionless. Then the lord of gods (Śiva) on seeing her who was charming for her breasts, face and the hip, sighed silently and put away on his back the coils of yawning snakes with the best of jewels [on their head].

The uneven and the semi-even metres

115. These are, O the best of Brahmins, the even metres I mentioned [before]. Now listen about the uneven and the semi-even metres.

116. The metres of which the feet belong to different, metrical types and are dissimilar, are called uneven (viṣama).

117-118. The metres in which the two [alternate] feet are similar while the two [contiguous] feet are not similar, are called semi-even (ardha-sama). And the metre in which all the feet are dissimilar is called uneven. The semieven metre is to have its even and odd feet dissimilar and the first of such groups of feet may be shorter or longer than the rest, or one of them may be longer and the other shorter than the rest.

Even metres

119. An even metre is defined by defining one of its feet while uneven metre requires the definition of all its feet. And from a definition of the two feet, the semi-even metre is known. This is the division of feet [in different semi-even metres].

120. I have described the even metres with reference to their division of feet. Now I shall describe the characteristics of the uneven metres in terms of triads, (i.e. gaṇas).

Pathyā

121. If [in an Anuṣṭup] the first foot contains sa, sa, ga, ga, and the second sa, ra, la, ga, and such will be the remaining even and odd feet, it is called Pathyā. Example:

122. priya-daivata-mitrāsi priya-sambandi-bāndhavā |
priya-dāna-ratā pathyā dayite tvaṃ priyāsi me ||

Tr. You respect the gods and the friends, you love the matrimonial relations and the kinsmen, you are disposed to make affectionate gifts and you are agreeable, O beloved one, you are dear to me.

Uneven Pathyā

123. [The Anuṣṭup metre of which] the first foot contains ma, ra, ga, ga the second ya, sa, la, ga, the third ra, bha, la, ga and the fourth ja, sa, la, ga [is called an all-uneven (sarva-viṣamā)] Pathyā. Example:

124. naivācāro, na te mitraṃ na sambandhi-guṇa-kriyā |
sarvathā sarva-viṣamā pathyā na bhavasi priye ||

Tr. O dear one, you have no [good] conduct, no friend and you have no good action towards the relatives and are in every way very rough; so you are not agreeable.

Inverted Pathyā

125. These are the characteristics of the fire and the third feet[45]. They being inverted i.e. the second and the fourth being of this description, the metre will be called the inverted Pathyā. Examples

126. kṛte[ca] ramaṇasya kiṃ sakhi roṣena te’ pyartham |
tvaṃ jaḍe kena mohītā vipatītā na pathyāsi ||

Tr. O friend, what is the use of this anger shown to your beloved one? You will not be agreeable, if you are hostile. O foolish woman, you have been deluded by some-body.

Capalā

127. [The metre with the feet of eight syllables of which] the fourth, the fifth and the sixth [in the hemistictis] are short, is called Anuṣṭup Capalā. Example:

128. na khalv-asyāḥ priyatamaḥ śrotavyaṃ vyāhṛtaṃ sakhyā |
nāradasya pratikṛtiḥ kathyate vipulā hīyaṃ ||

Tr. [He] is not this girl’s dearest one, This [information] to be heard (privately] was proclaimed loudly by the female friend. This bulky woman is indeed [to be] called an image of Nārada (the god of quarrel).

Vipulā

129. [If a metre with the feet of eight syllables has] the seventh syllable short in its second and the fourth feet, it is also called [Anuṣṭup] Vipulā. According to some[46] the seventh syllable in all the feet will be short in [such] Vipulā. Example:

130. saṃkṣiptā vajra-madhye he hema-kumbha-nibha-stanī |
vipulāsi priye śroṇyāṃ pūrṇa-chandra-nibhānaṇe ||

Tr. O dear one, you are thin [in body], your waist is slender in the middle like a Vajra. your breasts are like golden pitchers, your hips are large and your face is like the full moon.

131. gaṅgeva meghopagame āplāvita-vasundharā |
kula-vṛkṣān ārujantī sravantī vipulācalāt ||

You are like the Ganges at the advent of the rains, flooding the earth, destroying the trees on the bank and flowing down from a high mountain.

132. The feet of Pathyā are thus of various types; in the remaining [types of Anuṣṭup] even and odd feet may be made up with other triads (trika).

133. In this metre a triad ending in a heavy syllable (i.e ma, ra, ya, sa) or consisting of light syllables (i.e. na) is never to occur (lit. desired) after the first syllable, while after the fourth syllable a short syllable must occur (lit. is prescribed).

134. If in the feet of a Pathyā there are three heavy syllable at the end it is called [Anuṣṭup] Vaktra. Example:

133. danta-kṣatādharaṃ subhru jāgara-glāna-netrāntam |
prātaḥ sambhoga-khinnaṃ te darśanīya-tamaṃ vaktram ||

Tr. O fair lady, the lips being bitten by teeth, eyes being languid due to keeping awake, your face has become most charming, in the morning after the exhaustion in love’s enjoyment [at night].

136. These are all-uneven metres of the Anuṣṭup class. The authorities differ from one another as regards [the arrangement of] the triads and syllables.

Ketumatī

137. The metre of which the first and the third feet consist of sa, ja, sa, ga, and the second and the fourth bha, ra, na, ga, ga is called Ketumatī. Example:

138. sphuritādharaṃ calita-netraṃ rakta-kapolam ambuja-dalākṣam |
kim idaṃ ruṣāpahṛta-śobhaṃ ketumatī-samaṃ vada mukhaṃ te ||

Tr. Your lips are throbbing, the eyes which are like lotus-petals, are trembling and the cheeks are red. Tell me why has your face robbed of its beauty by anger, become like Ketumatī (flame)?

Udgatā

139. In Udgatā metre the first foot consists of sa, ja, sa, la, the second of na, sa, ja, ga, the third of bha, na, ja, la, ga and the fourth of sa, ja, sa, ja, ga. Example:

140. tava roma-rājir atibhāti sutanu madanasya mañjarīm |
nābhi-kamala-vivarotpatita-bhramarāvalīva kusumāt samudgatā ||

Tr. O fair one, the hairs which rise from the hollow of your lotus-like navel, are comparable with a swarm of bees coming out of flowers, and they exceed in beauty Cupid’s [shaft of] blossoms.

Lalitā

141. The metre Lalitā has its first foot consisting of sa, ja, sa, la, the second foot of na, sa, ja, ga, the third foot of na, na, sa, sa, and the fourth foot of sa, ja, sa, ja, ga[47].

142. lalitākula-bhramita-cāru-vasana-kara-pallavā hi me |
pravikaśita-kamala-kānti-mukhī pravibhāsi devi surata-śramāturā ||

Tr. O lady, hurriedly but gracefully moving the beautiful clothes and the delicate hands and having the beauty of a blooming lotus in the face you look charming to me after the fatigue of love’s sports.

Aparavaktra

143. In the metre called Aparavaktra the first and the third feet consist of na, na, ra, la, ga and the second and the fourth of na, ja, ja, ra. Example:

144. sutanu jala-parīta-locanaṃ jalada-niruddham ivendu-maṇḍalam |
kim idam apaṃ-vaktram eva te mamatu tathāpi manoharaṃ-mukham ||

Tr. O fair lady, why does your face with tearful eyes looking like the orb of the moon obscured by the clouds, appear like seme one else’s? Still they enrapture my heart all the same.

Puṣpitāgrā

145. In the Puṣpitāgrā metre the first and the third feet consist of na, na, ra, ya, and the second and the fourth of na, ja, ja, ra, ga. Example:

146. pavana-raya-vidhūta-cāru-śākhaṃ pramudita-kokila-kaṇṭha-nāda-ramyam |
madhukara-parigīyamāna-vṛkṣaṃ varatanu paśya vanaṃ supuṣpitāgram ||

Tr. O fair lady, look at the top of the blossoming forest in which the wind is shaking the beautiful branches of trees, the gladdened cuckoos are singing with a sweet voice, and the bees are humming the praise of trees.

Vānavāsikā

147. The metre which has its feet consisting of sixteen Mātrās as parts of a Gāthā to be divided into four sections in terms of triads and the part of triad, is called Vānavāsikā.[48] Example:

148. asaṃsthita-padā suvihvalāṅgī mada-skhalita-ceṣṭita-manojñā |
kva yāsyasi varoru surata-kāle viṣamā kiṃ vānavāsikā tvam ||

Tr. O fair lady, your gait is unsteady, limbs are agitated, and your faltering movements due to ardent passion are charming. Where are you going at the time of love’s enjoyment? Are you a perverse woman of Vanavāsī?

149. These are the syllablic metres of the even and uneven types, to be used in dramas and poems.

150. There are besides many other syllablic metres which have been mentioned here collectively. They are not to be used because they do not embellish [a composition].

151 The syllabic metres forbidden hereafter may be used in songs. I shall describe their varieties while treating the Dhruvās.

Āryā metres

152. This is the definition of various syllabic metres briefly treated by me. Next I shall give the definition of Āryās.

153. Āryās are of five types, viz. Pathyā, Vipulā Capalā, Mukha-capalā, and Jaghana-capalā.

154. I shall speak about their caesura and division of Mātrās and their varieties depending on Gaṇas which have been prescribed as their characteristics.

155. In these metres the caesura marks the division [of feet]; the Gaṇa consists of four Mātrās; the second and the fourth (lit. the last) feet are the even ones, and the first and the third (lit. the rest) odd ones.

156. [In an Āryā] the odd Gaṇas consisting of four Mātrās should have no ja, and the even Gaṇas may be of any type according to the choice [of the poet].

156a. The eighth Gaṇa in every Āryā is to be known as half a Gaṇa (i.e. two Mātrās).

157. The sixth Gaṇa may be of two alternative types and the eighth will consist of one [syllable]. The sixth Gaṇa in the second hemistich will consist of one Mātrā only.

158. In one alternative the sixth Gaṇa will be ja, (⏑⎼⏑) and in the other it will consist of four short syllables, (⏑⏑⏑⏑) and these relate to the caesura (yati).

159. The caesura may occur when the second la after the fifth Gaṇa has been completed, or it may occur from the first syllable [of the sixth Gaṇa], or after the fifth Gaṇa [has been completed].

Pathyā-Āryā and Vipulā-Āryā

160. The Āryā metre of which the caesura occurs after the three Gaṇas (lit. feet are made up of three Gaṇas) is called Pathyā. The Vipulā Āryā is different from this, only because it observes no caesura (yati) of any kind [within its hemis-tichs]. Examples:

Pathyā Āryā

161. rakta-mṛdu-padma-netrāsita-dīrgha-bahula-mṛdu-[kuñcita]-keśī |
kasya tu pṛthu-mṛdu-jaghanā tanu-bāhvaṃsodarā’ pathyā ||

Tr. To whom is disagreeable a woman with lovely and lotus-like soft eyes, copious long, black and [curled] hairs, large and soft hip, slim arms and abdomen?

162. The Āryā which has twelve Mātrās in its first and the third feet, is called Pathyā, and other (Āryās) which have been defined before are Vipulā.

Vipulā Āryā

163. vipula-jaghana-vadana-stana-nayanais cāmrādharoṣṭha-kara-caraṇaiḥ |
āyata-nāsā-gaṇḍair lalāṭa-karṇaiḥ śubhā kanyā ||

Tr. A maiden is auspicious when her hip, face, breasts and eyes are large, lips, palm and feet are red and nose, cheeks, forehead and ears are prominent.

164. The Āryā which has its odd Gaṇas made up of long syllables, and even Gaṇas with a long syllable in the middle, is called Capalā.

Capalā Āryā

165. In the Capalā (Āryā) the second and the fourth Gaṇas in each hemistich are to consist of a ja (lit. Gaṇa with a heavy syllable in the middle).

Mukha-capalā and Jaghana-capalā Āryā

166. When the definition of a Capalā applies to the first hemistich [only] of an Āryā it is called the Mukha-capalā. And when the same applies to the second hemistich [only] it is called Jaghana-caparā. And if [in an Āryā] the marks of both these are seen then it is called an all-round Capalā.

Mukha-capalā Āryā

Examples:

167. āryā mukhe tu capalā tathāpi nāryā na me yataḥ sā tu |
dakṣā gṛha-kṛtyeṣu tathā duḥkhe bhavati [ca] duḥkhitā ||

Tr. My lady is talkative, but still her conduct [in general] is not bad, íor she is an expert in the household work, and in my misery she feels miserable.

Jaghana-capalā Āryā

168. vara-mṛga-nayane capalāsi varoru śaśāṅka darpaṇa-nibhāsye |
kāmasya-sārabḥūtenāpūrva-mada-cäru-jaghanena ||

Tr. O fair lady, with the eyes of the best deer, and a face like the moon or the mirror, by your hips which constitute the best prize of love and which are charming on account of your unique passion, you are restless.

Sarvataś-Capalā

Example:

169.[49] udbha [rtṛ] -gāminī paruṣa-bhāṣinī kāma-cihna-kṛta-veśā |
yā nāti-māṃsa-yuktā surā-priyā sarvataś-capalā ||

Tr. The woman who goes defying her husband, speaks harshly, has erotic signs in her dress, is not very fleshy and is fond of wine is inconstant in every respect.

170. The first and the third feet should be made up of twelve Mātrās and the second and the fourth, of eighteen and fifteen respectively.

171. This metre is known to have thirty Mātrās in its first hemistich and twenty-seven in the second.[50] This is the total number of mātrās in the two halves of an Ātyā.

172. Following these rules (lit. thus) one should compose plays (lit, poetical composition) utilising (lit. having) therein different metrical patterns belonging to (lit. arising from) different Rhythm-types, and such plays are to have the thirty six characteristic marks (lakṣaṇa).

Here ends Chapter XVI. of Bharata’s Nāṭyaśāstra which treats of the Metrical Patterns.

Footnotes and references:

1.

The definition of this metre is also its example, though an independent example also follows. Such is the case with many other metres defined in the NŚ.

2.

Kiṃ tvaṃ—why (are) you...? Cp. Kiṃ akāraṇam eva darśanaṃ rataye na dīyate, Kumār. IV. 7.

3.

This is called Śaśivadanā by Pr. P., Vr. R. and Śṛ. B.

4.

See above 1 note 1.

5.

Makarakaśīrṣā—having a head (i.e. brain) like that of a makara. The allusion is perhaps to the foolish makara in the Vānara-makara-kathā in the Pāñcatantra, IV., which really believed that the monkey had left its heart behind in the tree on the river-bank. Hence I translate the word as “dullheaded one.”

6.

This is quite different from the metre Mālinī defined by Piṅgala and his followers. The NS. calls this second Mālinī (with 15 syllables in each pāda) Nāndīmukhī. See below 73-74.

7.

C. gives the name as Siṃhalekha.

8.

The translation follows Ag.

9.

This metre is named as Pramāṇikā in Pr. P.

10.

B. gives the name as Vidyun-mālā. This is the name in Piṅgala and Śr. B.

11.

C. omits this metre.

12.

This mode of addressing a beloved woman is at least as old as the time of Patañjali who quotes the fragment of a poem as follows: varatanu saṃpravadanti kukkuṭāḥ (Ref. Apte’s Guide to Skt. § 319).

13.

This metre is called Bhujagaśiśubhṛtā (°yutā, °vṛtā) by; Piṅgala and his followers.

14.

This is called Paṇava by Piṅgala and his followers.

15.

Kuvalaya is a blue aquatic flower of the lotus class.

16.

Piṅgala gives the name as Mayūrasā° and so does Vr. R.

17.

This relates the belief that the pea-fowls’ sexual union takes place in complete seclusion.

18.

We are not sure of the meaning of the word dodhaka. Ag. writes dodhakena gīyamānaṃ vṛttam dodhaka-vṛttam.

19.

This is named as Moṭanaka by Gaṅgādāsa in Ch. M.

20.

Cf. Upendra-vajraṃ ta indra-dhanuṣā apamitam etc. (Ag.).

21.

B. gives an additional example of this metre (B. XV. 48).

22.

B. gives another metre of this name with a different scheme and an example of this (B.XV. 56-58).

23.

This is called Druta-vilambita by Piṅgala and his followers.

24.

See above 20 note 1.

25.

C. calls this Kāma-mattā,

26.

Sudati—O fair-toothed one.

27.

This is called Bhujaṅga-prayāta by Piṅgala and his followers.

28.

This is called Sragviṇī by Piṅgala and his followers.

29.

B. gives a second example (B.XV. 77) which seems to be a variant of this.

30.

This is called Puṭa by Piṅgala and his followers.

31.

I am not certain about the exact meaning of the term puṭavṛtta. One ms. gives it as paṭuvṛtta (see B.) which I adopt.

32.

Srak and mālya are used here probably to indicate two different kinds of garlands.

33.

This is called Mālīni by Piṅgala and his followers.

34.

This is called Ṛṣabha-gaja-vilasita by Piṅgala and his followers.

35.

Kadamba and nīpa are usually considered synonymous. It is just possible that these are two different trees with these two names, and later writers have ignored the difference which may be very slight. It may be noted here that the Concise Oxford Dictionary defines nipa as a ‘kind of E. Indian palm.’

36.

See note I above.

37.

This is called Hariṇī by Piṅgala and his followers.

38.

This is called Mandākrāntā by Piṅgala and his followers.

39.

This is called Pṛthvī by Piṅgala and his followers.

40.

lit. Is it not dear to me?

41.

This is called Kusumita-latā-vellitā by Piṅgala and his followers.

42.

B. gives an additional example of this (B.XV. 123).

43.

For long ear-lobes as signs of beauty see Buddha-images.

44.

gives one additional example (B.XV. 148) which occurs in Halāyudha’s commentary on Piṅgala.

45.

A passage before this seems to be lost.

46.

Saitava—mentioned in Piṅgala and Agni P. See CSS. p. 38.

47.

Piṅgala’s Lalitā has the fourth foot similar to that of Udgatā,

48.

Piṅgala calls this Mātrāsamaka. His Vānavāsikā is simply a variety of this. Sec CSS. p. 21.

49.

B. reads jānāti, for yā nāti. Prof. S. P. Bhattacharya suggested this emendation.

50.

The couplets after this (B.XV. 222-226) are corrupt and appear te be spurious.