Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

[This verse illustrates meanings implied from these padāṃśas, respectively: vibhakti-viśeṣa (the special sense of a case ending), viśeṣaṇa (adjective), sarvanāma (pronoun), and nipāta (particle):]

आहारे विरतिः समस्त-विषय-ग्रामे निवृत्तिः परा नासाग्रे नयनं तद् एतद् अपरं यच् चैक-तानं मनः |
मौनं चेदम् इदं च शून्यम् अखिलं यद् विश्वम् आभाति ते तद् ब्रूयाः सखि योगिनी किम् असि भोः किं वा वियोगिन्य् असि ||[1]

āhāre viratiḥ samasta-viṣaya-grāme nivṛttiḥ parā nāsāgre nayanaṃ tad etad aparaṃ yac caika-tānaṃ manaḥ |
maunaṃ cedam idaṃ ca śūnyam akhilaṃ yad viśvam ābhāti te tad brūyāḥ sakhi yoginī kim asi bhoḥ kiṃ vā viyoginy asi ||[2]

āhāre—in regard to food; viratiḥ—cessation; samasta—all; viṣaya—of sensory objects; grāme—as regards a multitude; nivṛttiḥ—cessation; parā—topmost; nāsa-agre—at the tip of the nose (yogīs fix their thoughts on the cartilage between the nostrils, and eventually on the point between the eyebrows); nayanam—eyes; yat—which [eyes]; etat—this; aparam—in an unparalled way; yat—which; ca—and; eka-tānam—is fixed on one thought; manaḥ—the mind; maunam—silence; ca—and; idam—this; idam ca—and this; sunyamvoid; akhilam—all; yat—which; visvam—the universe; ābhāti—appears; te—of Yours; tat—about that; brūyāḥ—you may talk; sakhi—O friend; yoginī—a female meditator; kim—whether; asi—[you] are; bhoḥ—(a particle expressive of a vocative); kim—whether; —or else; viyoginī—a woman who is experiencing separation from her lover; asi—[you] are.

You are dispassionate toward food, you are completely indifferent to all sensory objects, your eyes are gazing at the tip of your nose, your mind is fixed on one thought in such a way that there is nothing else, you are silent, and to you this whole universe seems a void. Tell me, sakhī, are you a yoginī or a viyoginī ? (Sāhitya-darpaṇa 4.11) (Padyāvalī 239) (Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi 13.75)

atra tavāhāra-viṣayaka-rāgābhāva eva na tu yoginī-vad aniṣṭa-sādhanatā-jñānād yoga-pratikūlāhārān nivṛttir iti tasyāḥ prāṇa-dhāraṇārtham āhāro’sty eva tava tu so’pi neti ca viṣaya-saptamyāḥ, yoga-sādhane yadṛcchopāgate ca viṣaye tasyāḥ pravṛttis tava sarvathaiva viṣayān nivṛttir iti samasteti viśeṣaṇasya, dhyāna-samaya eva tasyā nāsāgra-netratvaṃ cittaikāgryaṃ ca, tava tu sarvadaiva tad ubhayaṃ tatheṅgitādināpy artha-bodha-rahitaṃ maunaṃ ceti, tad etad yad idam iti kramāt sarvanāmnaḥ, tvaṃ viyoginy eva na tu yoginīty uttara-pakṣa-dārḍhya-sūcakasya veti nipātasya ca.

Here, the following is implied from the viṣaya-saptamī (the sense of  “toward”) in āhāre (toward food): “You are dispassionate toward food, yet unlike a yoginī you do not abstain from adverse kinds of food owing to the knowledge of what is undesirable for sādhana. A yoginī takes food to maintain her life, but you do not even do that.”[3]

The adjective samasta (all) (in “You are completely indifferent to all sensory objects”) suggests this: “A yoginī is inclined to take notice of a sensory object that comes her way by fate, in the course of the practice of yoga, whereas you completely refrain from noticing any sensory object.”[4]

The pronouns tad etat (“this very”, in reference to nayanam, pair of eyes), yat (“which”, in reference to manaḥ, mind), and idam (“this”, in reference to maunam, silence) are suggestive of the following: “Only during a meditation, a yoginī fixes her eyes on the tip of the nose and focuses on one thought, but you do both at all times, and in addition your silence does not reveal a purpose, even with a gesture and the like.”

The particle (or) (in “are you a yoginī or a viyoginī?”), which implies a strengthening of the second option (a viyoginī), suggests this: “You are only a viyoginī (a woman feeling the pang of separation). You are not a yoginī (a female meditator).”

Commentary:

Rūpa Gosvāmī only shows the verse to illustrate the vyabhicāribhāva called cintā (pondering) (Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi 13.75). However, commenting on Sāhitya-darpaṇa, Maheśvara Bhaṭṭa says the padāṃśas as a whole eminently suggest vipralambha.[5]

The verse features an additional implied sense: “Are you a viyoginī or a yoginī (a woman who has just made love)?” The implied sense of the vocative sakhi (O friend) is that the speaker knows that her friend is not a yoginī in the usual sense of the term.

Further, the only reason the viṣaya-saptamī (the locative case used to denote the object of a thought) in āhāre (toward food) is suggestive is that the expected grammatical form is āhārād viratiḥ (abstention from food). The ablative case is ordained by the rule: virāme tyājyaḥ, “When there is abstention, that which is given up takes a fifth case ending” (Hari-nāmāmṛta-vyākaraṇa 657) (jugupsā-virāmapramādārthānām upasaṃkhyānam, Vārttika 1.4.24). In his elaboration on the verse, Viśvanātha Kavirāja says that the viṣaya-saptamī in āhāre is suggestive, yet he does not expound.[6] Śeṣarāja Śarmā says the locative case in āhāre only implies that she abstains from food in a general way, unlike a yoginī, who abstains from foods detrimental to sādhana.[7] The suggestion is simply the possibility that she is not a yoginī. All the other clauses are suggestive of being a yoginī, therefore this clause validates the question at the end. Kavikarṇapūra does not acknowledge this category of padāṃśa (vibhakti-viśeṣa).

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

In Subhāṣita-ratna-kośa (703), the verse is attributed to Rājaśekhara.

[2]:

In Subhāṣita-ratna-kośa (703), the verse is attributed to Rājaśekhara.

[3]:

This interpretation is far-fetched. See the Commentary.

[4]:

The adjective samasta (all) is taken as a padāṃśa, in the category of viśeṣaṇa (adjective),because only it is suggestive in the compound samasta-viṣaya-grāme (to all sensory objects) and because it is an adjective of the other word (viṣaya-grāma) in the compound. The whole compound is the pada (declined word), thus alternatively the dhvani is an implied sense arisen from the whole compound (pada-gata).

[5]:

atra nāyikāyā vipralambhātiśayaḥ samasta-pada-vyaṅgyaḥ (Vijña-priyā-ṭīkā 4.11).

[6]:

atra tu “āhāre” iti viṣaya-saptamyāḥ, “samasta” iti “parā” iti ca viśeṣaṇa-dvayasya, “maunaṃ cedam” iti ca pratyakṣa-parāmarśinaḥ sarva-nāmnaḥ, “ābhāti” ity upasargasya, “sakhi” iti praṇayasmāraṇasya, “asi bhoḥ” iti sotprāsasya, “kiṃ vā” iti uttara-dārḍhya-sūcakasya vā-śabdasya, “asiiti vartamānopadeśasya ca tat-tad-viṣaya-vyañjakatvaṃ sahṛdaya-saṃvedyam (Sāhitya-darpaṇa 4.11).

[7]:

āhāra” iti viṣaya-saptamyā āhāra-mātre na tu yoginyā iva kaṭv-amlādy-āhāra-viśeṣa eveti bhāvaḥ. vyañjakatvam iti śeṣaḥ. evaṃ sarvatra (Candrakalā-ṭīkā 4.11).

Let's grow together!

I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased sources, definitions and images. Your donation direclty influences the quality and quantity of knowledge, wisdom and spiritual insight the world is exposed to.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: