Vyakarana, aka: Vyākaraṇa; 13 Definition(s)

Introduction

Vyakarana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Vyākaraṇa (व्याकरण).—Grammar the development of the meaning of the term can be seen by the senses given below in a serial order and the examples after those senses; (a) analysis or explanation by analysis; (b) rules of explanation; (c) specific rules explaining the formation of words; d) explanation of the formation of rules; (e) a treatise in which such an explanation is given; (f) a collection of such treatises and (g) a systematic explanation of the formation of words in a language (व्याकरणशास्त्र (vyākaraṇaśāstra) or शब्दानुशासन (śabdānuśāsana)); cf.(a) व्यक्रियते अनेन इति व्याकरणम् (vyakriyate anena iti vyākaraṇam) ; M.Bh.on Ahnika 1, Vart. 12: cf. (b) लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम् (lakṣyalakṣaṇe vyākaraṇam); M. Bh. Ahnika 1, Vart. 14; cf. (c) न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे (na yathā loke tathā vyākaraṇe) M. Bh. on P. I. 1.1. Vart. 7; (d) सर्वत्रैव हि व्याकरणे पूर्वोच्चारितः संज्ञी परोच्चारिता संज्ञा (sarvatraiva hi vyākaraṇe pūrvoccāritaḥ saṃjñī paroccāritā saṃjñā) M. Bh.on P. I. 1.1. Vart 7; (e) न तथा लोके यथा व्याकरणे (na tathā loke yathā vyākaraṇe) M.Bh. on P, I. 1.23 Vart. 4; cf.(f)इह च व्याकरणे शब्दे कार्यस्य संभवः, अर्थं असंभवः । (iha ca vyākaraṇe śabde kāryasya saṃbhavaḥ, arthaṃ asaṃbhavaḥ |) M. Bh. on P. I. 1.68. cf. (g) व्याकरणं नाम इयमुत्तरा विद्या । (vyākaraṇaṃ nāma iyamuttarā vidyā |) M. Bh. on P. I. 2.32. The word व्याक-रण (vyāka-raṇa) is mostly used in the sense of ’the Science of Grammar' in the Mahabhasya. It is explained by modern scholars as 'the law of the corrections of speech and etymological science' and described both as a science and an art.

(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Vyākaraṇa (व्याकरण, “grammar”) refers to the “an instrument of division or analysis” and represents one of the six vedāṅgas: disciplines developed in order to articulate and interpret sacred texts (such as the Ṛgveda).—The breaking-down of a continuous text into its parts such as sentences and words is not possible without some knowledge of vyākaraṇa, literally “an instrument of division or analysis”. The scholars who prepared these lists of nouns or verbs were the first grammarians. In Sanskrit, several such lists have been made for both compositional / written (vaidikī) and spoken language (laukikī).

The tradition holds that there was a long tradition of grammatical thinking before Pāṇini. Pāṇini (7th century BCE) in the Aṣṭādhyāyī refers to the works of ten grammarians such as Āpiśali, Kāśyapa, Gārgya and others. Eighty-five grammarians before Pāṇini are known to us by name.

(Source): Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Language and Grammar (vyakarana)
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Purana

Vyākaraṇa (व्याकरण).—Pāṇini's grammar.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 19. 22; Vāyu-purāṇa 83. 52; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 38.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Vyākaraṇa (व्याकरण, “grammar”) refers to one of the six divisions of the Vedāṅga texts, a type of Śāstra categorised as Apaurūṣeya; all part of the ancient Indian education system, which aimed at both the inner and the outer dimension of a person.

(Source): Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Education: Systems & Practices
Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Vyākaraṇa (व्याकरण) is the study of grammar and linguistic analysis in Sanskrit language. Vyākaraṇa literally means “explanation, analysis”, and also refers to one of the six ancient Vedāṅgas, or ‘ancillary science’, connected with the Vedas (the scriptures of Hinduism).

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Vyākaraṇa (व्याकरण) refers to the four ways of “answering” according Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter IV). There are four ways of answering (vyākaraṇa):

  1. answering in a categorical way (ekāṃśena-vyākaraṇa);
  2. answering by distinguishing (vibhajya-vyākaraṇa);
  3. answering by asking a question (paripṛcchā-vyākaraṇa);
  4. answering by not replying (sthāpanīya-vyākaraṇa).
(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

General definition (in Buddhism)

Vyākaraṇa (व्याकरण, “explanation”) refers to one of the “nine (types of) teachings” (sūtra) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 62). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., vyākaraṇa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Vyākaraṇa (व्याकरण) is also found in Mahāyāna-sūtras but with a different meaning. Vyākaraṇa , in these Buddhist texts, means a prediction or prophecy by a Buddha to a Bodhisattva who has just embarked on the path, that he will achieve enlightenment and be a Buddha.

(Source): WikiPedia: Buddhism

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

vyākaraṇa : (nt.) grammar; explanation; answer; declaration.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Vyākaraṇa, (nt.) (fr. vyākaroti; see also veyyākaraṇa) 1. answer (pañha°), explanation, exposition A. I, 197; II, 46; III, 119; SnA 63, 99; KhA 75, 76.—2. grammar (as one of the 6 aṅgas) SnA 447; PvA. 97.—3. prediction J. I, 34, 44; DhA. IV, 120. (Page 653)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Marathi-English dictionary

vyākaraṇa (व्याकरण).—n (S) Grammar.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vyākaraṇa (व्याकरण).—n Grammar.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Relevant definitions

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