Pratyaksha, Pratyakṣa: 30 definitions
Pratyaksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Pratyakṣa can be transliterated into English as Pratyaksa or Pratyaksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Pratyaksh.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: WikiPedia: Nyāya
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्षाय, “perception”) occupies the foremost position in the Nyaya epistemology. Perception is defined by Akṣapāda Gautama in his Nyaya Sutra (I,i.4) as a “non-erroneous cognition which is produced by the intercourse of sense-organs with the objects, which is not associated with a name and well-defined”. Perception can be of two types, laukika (ordinary) and alaukika (extraordinary). External perception is described as that arising from the interaction of five senses and worldly objects, while internal perception is described by this school as that of inner sense, the mind.
The ancient and medieval Indian texts identify four requirements for correct perception:
- Indriyarthasannikarsa (direct experience by one’s sensory organ(s) with the object),
- Avyapadesya (non-verbal; correct perception is not through hearsay),
- Avyabhicara (does not wander; correct perception does not change)
- and Vyavasayatmaka (definite; correct perception excludes judgments of doubt).
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष, “perception”) refers to the first of the four “means of valid knowledge” (pramāṇa), which in turn is classified as the first of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”), according to Gautama’s 2nd-century Nyāyasūtra (verse 1.1.3). Perception (pratyakṣa) is the most primary and fundamental of all the pramāṇas. The Naiyāyikas, maintain that all other pramāṇas depend on perception. Perception is the final test of all knowledge. Inference, verbal testimony requires confirmation by perception, while perception does not require any such confirmation. The term pratyakṣa is a compound of two terms prati, meaning before and also, meaning sense-organ. This term is used for both perceptual knowledge (pratyakṣa jñāna) and the source of perception (pratyakṣa pramāṇa).
Gautama defines pratyakṣa as that knowledge which arises from the contact of the sense-organ with its object, which is unnamable, uncontradicted and determinate. These three conditions given by Gautama have been critically and elaborately discussed by the subsequent logicians. These three terms have also created a great deal of controversy among these logicians. According to Gautama, pratyakṣa is produced by the sense-object-contact. Though this sense-object-contact accepted by Gautama as the cause of perception has been admitted by Vātsyāyana also, he maintains that sense-object-contact is not the only cause of perception.
Perception is divided into two types:—
- laukika (ordinary),
- alaukika (extra-ordinary).
Ordinary perception is again divided into two types–savikalpaka (determinate) and nirvikalpaka (indeterminate). Annaṃbhaṭṭa and Keśava Miśra, however, divided pratyakṣa directly into two types–savikalpaka and nirvikalpaka.
Laukika and Alaukika pratyakṣas are based on the way in which the sense-organ come in contact with their object. It is called laukika-pratyakṣa in which there is direct contact of the sense-organ with objects. On the other hand alaukika-pratyakṣa is that in which sense-organ does not come in contact with the object directly, but through an unusual medium.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: PMC: The scientific basis of rasa (taste)
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष):—One of the four pramāṇas used in Ayurveda to test knowledge.—Pratyakṣa is the most important tool at the individual level in the absence of prior knowledge of the phenomenon. Pratyakṣa is the subjective knowledge perceived by the individual owing to an effective contact between ātma (the seat of knowledge), indriya (sensory organ), manas (mind) and artha (subject of the sensory organ) at the moment of this contact. Therefore, there can be five types of Pratyakṣa knowledge perceived through five sensory organs.Source: Ancient Science of Life: A review on Ᾱrogya Rakṣā Kalpadrumaḥ
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष) refers to “observational trials” which are used to look for evidence in Ayurvedic products.—[...] It is to be recognized that Ayurvedic ingredients and products are multi-component and known to work on multiple organs/targets in the body concurrently. Innovations in clinical research and clinical trials are required to test efficacy of Ayurvedic products. [...] An eminent medical pharmacologist who later researched into Ayurveda and its products, Dr. Ashok D B Vaidya, in a lecture, cites different modes of evidence namely [... viz., observational trials (pratyakṣa), ...].Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष):—[pratyakṣaṃ] The cognition arising at the instant of the conjugation of the soul, mind, senses, and object
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
1) Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष, “direct sense perception”).—The first of the five stages of Vedic knowledge, considered as a subordinate, not self-evident, proof of knowledge.
2) Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—The first of the three Vaiṣṇava pramāṇas.Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष) refers to:—Direct sense perception. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष, “visible”) refers to a statement within a sentence which treats an act as “visible”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Pratyakṣa is a classification of statements, defined according to vācika (verbal representation).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)Source: academia.edu: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (mimamsa)
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष) refers to “directly perceivable” (Vedic texts).—Kumārila argues in the Tantravārttika 1.3.11-12, that the Kalpasūtras have a higher status than smṛti texts: while the former expand upon rules of sacrificial procedures described in directly perceivable (pratyakṣa) Vedic texts, the latter are compilations based presumably upon lost Vedic texts whose existence can only be inferred (anumeya). However, Kumārila refuses to ascribe them full ‘vedicness’ because of their essentially ancillary status. Likewise, Śaivāgamas are not mere smṛti texts for Appaya, yet they are not on a par with the Veda; they only possess authority thanks to their dependence on the Veda.
Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष) refers to “that which is directly perceptible”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “Such is the Śāmbhava piercing, beyond thought, one should know it for oneself. It has been explained through the venerable Process of Absorption (alaṃgrāsa-krama). By recollecting the Buddhist and other Siddhas, the piercing (vedha) which is devoid of thought constructs and which is directly perceptible (pratyakṣa) arises in order (to realise) the reality beyond the senses”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष) refers to “public view”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.6.—Accordingly, as Menā eulogised Goddess Śivā:—“Great favour has been shown by you, O Goddess, O mother of the universe, inasmuch as you have manifested yourself in front of me brilliantly. You are the primordial one among all Energies. O Śivā, you are the mother of the three worlds. O Goddess you are the beloved of Śiva, you are great goddess eulogised by the gods. O great Goddess, be pleased. Remain in my meditation in this form, but have the form of my daughter in public view [i.e., pratyakṣa]”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Pratyakṣa: Sanskrit for 'direct perception'. A term used in Advaita Vedānta.Source: Vaniquotes: Hinduism
Pratyakṣa means direct perception. Direct perception, that is evidence. People with poor fund of knowledge, they want direct perception of everything.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष, “direct”) refers to a kind of Pramāṇa (“means of acquiring knowledge”), according to chapter 2.2 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—There are 2 kinds of pramāṇa in this sense: parokṣa, indirect, i.e., it depends on other things; and pratyakṣa, direct. This kind of pramāṇa consists of the 5 kinds of knowledge. [...] Avadhi, manaḥparyāya, and kevala are pratyakṣa.—(See Tattvārthādhigamasūtra 1.10ff).Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष, “immediate”) refers to one of the two types of approved knowledge (pramāṇa).—What is meant by direct or immediate approved knowledge (pratyakṣa)? Cognition by the soul of all objects directly without the assistance of any external media like sense organs is called direct valid knowledge.Source: JAINpedia: Jainism
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष) in Sanskrit (Paccakkha in Prakrit) refers to “direct knowledge”, as explained in the Nandīsūtra.—The heart of the Nandī-sūtra deals with the concept of cognition or knowledge in its various divisions and subdivisions. This is also an appropriate topic for a text that transcends all categories in the Śvetāmbara canon, for it can be regarded as a prerequisite to the scriptures. First comes the list of the five types of knowledge, known from other sources as well, such as the Tattvārtha-sūtra I. 9-33. [...] The last three kinds of knowledge [viz., avadhi-jñāna, manaḥparyāya-jñāna and kevala-jñāna] are defined and dealt with as achieved directly – Prakrit paccakkha, Sanskrit pratyakṣa. This means “without the aid of the sense-organs and the mind and on the basis of the capacity of a soul alone” (cf., Pandit Sukhlalji, Tattvārthasūtra 1974: 20).
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—a (S prati Before, akṣi Eye.) Perceptible, present, as cognizable by an organ of sense. Pr. pratyakṣāsa pramāṇa kaśāsa?
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pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—n (S) Perception or apprehension; cognizance of an object of sense. Ex. śabdāñcēṃ pra0 śrōtrēṃ- driyāvāñcūna hōta nāhīṃ. 2 as ad & prep In presence of; evidently to sense. 3 ad Freely. In very truth or deed; in indisputable reality; with irresistible evidence or manifestation. Ex. mī tikaḍē pra0 gēlōṃ I went there myself, I in propriâ personâ; hā mājhā pra0 bandhu āhē This is verily my brother, my own mother's son; hā brāhmaṇa pra0 sūrya āhē.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—a Perceptible, present. Ex. pratyakṣāsa pramāṇa kaśālā? n Perception or apprehension. ad & prep In presence of ad Freely. In very truth or deed; in indisputable reality.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—a. [akṣṇaḥprati]
1) Perceptible (to the eye), visible; प्रत्यक्षाभिः प्रपन्नस्तनुभिरवतु वस्ताभिरष्टाभिरीशः (pratyakṣābhiḥ prapannastanubhiravatu vastābhiraṣṭābhirīśaḥ) Ś1.1.
2) Present, in sight, before the eye.
3) Cognizable by any organ of sense.
4) Distinct, evident, clear.
5) Direct, immediate.
6) Explicit, express.
-kṣam 1 Perception, ocular evidence, apprehension by the senses, considered as a प्रमाण (pramāṇa) or mode of proof; इन्द्रियार्थसंनिकर्षजन्यं ज्ञानं प्रत्यक्षम् (indriyārthasaṃnikarṣajanyaṃ jñānaṃ pratyakṣam) T. S.
2) Explicitness, distinctness.
3) Superintendence, care for; प्रत्यहं लोकयात्रायाः प्रत्यक्षं स्त्रीनिबन्धनम् (pratyahaṃ lokayātrāyāḥ pratyakṣaṃ strīnibandhanam) Ms.9.27.
4) (In Rhet.) A kind of style descriptive of impressions derived from the senses. (The forms pratyakṣam, pratyakṣeṇa, pratyakṣataḥ, pratyakṣāt are used adverbially in the sense of
1) Before, in the presence of, in the sight of.
2) Openly, publicly.
3) Directly, immediately. Hence; pratyakṣatodṛṣṭasambandham is a variety of anumāna where the connection between the liṅga and the liṅgin or sādhya is directly perceived; pratyakṣato dṛṣṭasambandhaṃ yathā dhūmākṛtidarśanādagnyākṛtivijñānam ŚB. on MS.1. 1.5.
5) At sight.
7) Distinctly, clearly.
8) Literally. So pratyakṣe in the sight of, before the eyes of.)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—adj. (compare °kṣin; once in nearly the same meaning in Sanskrit, with gen., °kṣāḥ sarvadharmāṇāṃ Mahābhārata Cr. ed. 3.181.15), seeing before the eyes, witness to, with loc.: Lalitavistara 146.2 (°kṣo bodhisattvasya lipijñāne), 7 (verse; atra °kṣu); 257.14 (Bodhisattvasya guṇeṣu °kṣās); Avadāna-śataka ii.139.8 (guṇeṣu); Divyāvadāna 71.8 f.
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Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष) or Pratyakṣin.—: in composition, tat-pratyakṣiṇ-āṃ Jm 128.8.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣaṃ) 1. Perceptible, perceivable, present, cognizable by any of the organs of sense. 2. Distinct, clear, evident. 3. Direct, immediate. 4. Corporeal. n.
(-kṣaṃ) Ocular evidence, apprehension by the senses, perception, (considered as a mode of proof. In Phil.) E. akṣa an organ of sense with prati indicative prefix.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—i. e. prati-akṣa, I. adj., f. kṣā. 1. Being before one’s eyes, visible, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 43, 9; [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 24. 2. Present. 3. Perceptible, evident, [Hitopadeśa] 85, 21 (ºkṣī-kṛta, made evident). Ii. kṣam, adv. In the presence, [Pañcatantra] 216, 3; publicly, iii. [distich] 93. Iii. instr. kṣeṇa, At sight, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 98, M.M.; evidently, [Hitopadeśa] 106, 12. Iv. n. 1. Perception, Bhāṣāp. 51. 2. Superintendence, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 27.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—[adjective] before the eyes, plainly visible, clear, distinct, actual, immediate.
— [neuter] superintendence, care of ([genetive]); ocular evidence, immediate apprehension or intelligence; as [adverb] before one’s face, publicly, distinctly, immediately, personally (also [ablative], [instrumental], & °—).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष):—[=praty-akṣa] [from praty > prati] a See sub voce
2) [=praty-akṣa] b mf(ā)n. present before the eyes, visible, perceptible (opp. to parokṣa q.v.), [Upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] clear, distinct, manifest, direct, immediate, actual, real, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.
4) [v.s. ...] keeping in view, discerning (with [genitive case]), [Mahābhārata]
5) [v.s. ...] n. ocular evidence, direct perception, apprehension by the senses (in Nyāya one of the 4 Pramāṇas or modes of proof. cf. pramāṇa)
6) [v.s. ...] superintendence of, care for ([genitive case]), [Manu-smṛti ix, 27]
7) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) a kind of style descriptive of impressions derived from the senses, [Kuvalayānanda]
8) Prātyakṣa (प्रात्यक्ष):—[=prāty-akṣa] [from prāty > prāti] ([gana] prajñādi) mf(ī)n. perceptible to the eyes, capable of direct perception.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष):—[pratya+kṣa] (kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣaṃ) a. Perceptible, present, before the eyes.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Paccakkha.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष) [Also spelled pratyaksh]:—(a) visible, tangible, evident; apparent, obvious; direct; —[jñāna] direct comprehension; sensual perception; hence ~[tā] (nf); —[darśana] witnessing directly (with one’s own eyes); firsthand view; ~[darśī] an eye-witness; —[dṛśya] tangible, directly perceivable; —[pramāṇa] direct evidence; eye-witness evidence; ~[vāda] direct view; ~[vāditā] positivism; ~[vādī] a positivist; positivistic; —[vihita] explicitly prescribed; —[sākṣī] an eye-witness; bearing direct testimony; —[sākṣya] direct testimony; eye-witness evidence; ~[siddha] proved by direct evidence.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [adjective] being seen; appearing.
2) [adjective] got through the sense organs (said of knowledge).
3) [adjective] easy to see, perceive; obvious; plain; evident.
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1) [noun] the fact or an instance of appearing, being seen; appearance.
2) [noun] something selected to show the nature or character of another; an example; an illustration.
3) [noun] a remarkable event or thing; marvel; miracle.
4) [noun] the fact or an instance of getting knowledge through the five principal sense organs.
5) [noun] that which can easily be understood, seen or realised.
6) [noun] (phil.) the knowledge received through the sense organs; mediate knowledge.
7) [noun] ಪ್ರತ್ಯಕ್ಷವಾಗು [pratyakshavagu] pratyakṣavāgu to come seen; to appear; to manifest oneself physically.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+62): Pratyakshabandhu, Pratyakshabhaksha, Pratyakshabhoga, Pratyakshabhuta, Pratyakshabrihati, Pratyakshacarin, Pratyakshadarshana, Pratyakshadarshi, Pratyakshadarshin, Pratyakshadarshivams, Pratyakshadarshivas, Pratyakshadeva, Pratyakshadevayathacarya, Pratyakshadharman, Pratyakshadipika, Pratyakshadrish, Pratyakshadrishta, Pratyakshadrishya, Pratyakshadvish, Pratyakshagamana.
Ends with: Apratyaksha, Cakshushapratyaksha, Jihvapratyaksha, Laukikapratyaksha, Manasapratyaksha, Manipratyaksha, Sarvapratyaksha, Sparshanapratyaksha, Tvacapratyaksha, Tvachapratyaksha, Tvakapratyaksha.
Full-text (+134): Pramana, Pratyakshadarshana, Pratyakshatas, Paccakkha, Pratyakshabhoga, Pratyakshapramana, Pratyakshin, Pratyakshakrita, Pratyakshavadin, Pratyakshajnana, Pratyakshaphalatva, Pratyakshabhuta, Pratyakshaparicchedamanjusha, Pratyakshabandhu, Pratyakshaparicchedarahasya, Pratyakshaparikshana, Pratyakshadrishta, Pratyakshapramanyalokatippani, Pratyakshakhandavyakhya, Pratyakshakhandacintamani.
Search found 45 books and stories containing Pratyaksha, Praty-akṣa, Praty-aksa, Prāty-akṣa, Praty-aksha, Pratyakṣa, Pratyaksa, Prātyakṣa; (plurals include: Pratyakshas, akṣas, aksas, akshas, Pratyakṣas, Pratyaksas, Prātyakṣas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Verse 1.12 - Pratyakṣa (direct knowledge) < [Chapter 1 - Right Faith and Knowledge]
Verse 1.11 - Parokṣa (indirect knowledge ) < [Chapter 1 - Right Faith and Knowledge]
Siddhanta Sangraha of Sri Sailacharya (by E. Sowmya Narayanan)
Charaka Samhita (English translation) (by Shree Gulabkunverba Ayurvedic Society)
Chapter 4 - The Three methods of investigation (trividha-vimana) < [Vimanasthana (Vimana Sthana) — Section on Measure]
Chapter 8 - The Treatment of Disease (roga-bhishaj-jiti-vimana) < [Vimanasthana (Vimana Sthana) — Section on Measure]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 2 - The philosophical situation (a review) < [Chapter X - The Śaṅkara School Of Vedānta]
Part 15 - The four Pramāṇas of Nyāya < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]
Part 7 - The nature of knowledge < [Chapter IX - Mīmāṃsā Philosophy]
Chandogya Upanishad (Madhva commentary) (by Srisa Chandra Vasu)
The validity of Anumana (inference) in Nyaya system (by Babu C. D)