Pratyaksha, aka: Pratyakṣa; 11 Definition(s)
Pratyaksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Pratyakṣa can be transliterated into English as Pratyaksa or Pratyaksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Ayurveda (science of life)
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष):—One of the four pramāṇas used in Ayurveda to test knowledge.—Pratyakṣa is the most important tool at the individual level in the absence of prior knowledge of the phenomenon. Pratyakṣa is the subjective knowledge perceived by the individual owing to an effective contact between ātma (the seat of knowledge), indriya (sensory organ), manas (mind) and artha (subject of the sensory organ) at the moment of this contact. Therefore, there can be five types of Pratyakṣa knowledge perceived through five sensory organs.Source: PMC: The scientific basis of rasa (taste)
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्षाय, “perception”) occupies the foremost position in the Nyaya epistemology. Perception is defined by Akṣapāda Gautama in his Nyaya Sutra (I,i.4) as a “non-erroneous cognition which is produced by the intercourse of sense-organs with the objects, which is not associated with a name and well-defined”. Perception can be of two types, laukika (ordinary) and alaukika (extraordinary). External perception is described as that arising from the interaction of five senses and worldly objects, while internal perception is described by this school as that of inner sense, the mind.
The ancient and medieval Indian texts identify four requirements for correct perception:
- Indriyarthasannikarsa (direct experience by one’s sensory organ(s) with the object),
- Avyapadesya (non-verbal; correct perception is not through hearsay),
- Avyabhicara (does not wander; correct perception does not change)
- and Vyavasayatmaka (definite; correct perception excludes judgments of doubt).
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष, “perception”) refers to the first of the four “means of valid knowledge” (pramāṇa), which in turn is classified as the first of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”), according to Gautama’s 2nd-century Nyāyasūtra (verse 1.1.3). Perception (pratyakṣa) is the most primary and fundamental of all the pramāṇas. The Naiyāyikas, maintain that all other pramāṇas depend on perception. Perception is the final test of all knowledge. Inference, verbal testimony requires confirmation by perception, while perception does not require any such confirmation. The term pratyakṣa is a compound of two terms prati, meaning before and also, meaning sense-organ. This term is used for both perceptual knowledge (pratyakṣa jñāna) and the source of perception (pratyakṣa pramāṇa).
Gautama defines pratyakṣa as that knowledge which arises from the contact of the sense-organ with its object, which is unnamable, uncontradicted and determinate. These three conditions given by Gautama have been critically and elaborately discussed by the subsequent logicians. These three terms have also created a great deal of controversy among these logicians. According to Gautama, pratyakṣa is produced by the sense-object-contact. Though this sense-object-contact accepted by Gautama as the cause of perception has been admitted by Vātsyāyana also, he maintains that sense-object-contact is not the only cause of perception.
Perception is divided into two types:—
- laukika (ordinary),
- alaukika (extra-ordinary).
Ordinary perception is again divided into two types–savikalpaka (determinate) and nirvikalpaka (indeterminate). Annaṃbhaṭṭa and Keśava Miśra, however, divided pratyakṣa directly into two types–savikalpaka and nirvikalpaka.
Laukika and Alaukika pratyakṣas are based on the way in which the sense-organ come in contact with their object. It is called laukika-pratyakṣa in which there is direct contact of the sense-organ with objects. On the other hand alaukika-pratyakṣa is that in which sense-organ does not come in contact with the object directly, but through an unusual medium.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष, “visible”) refers to a statement within a sentence which treats an act as “visible”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Pratyakṣa is a classification of statements, defined according to vācika (verbal representation).Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
General definition (in Hinduism)
Pratyakṣa: Sanskrit for 'direct perception'. A term used in Advaita Vedānta.Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Pratyakṣa means direct perception. Direct perception, that is evidence. People with poor fund of knowledge, they want direct perception of everything.Source: Vaniquotes: Hinduism
1) Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष, “direct sense perception”).—The first of the five stages of Vedic knowledge, considered as a subordinate, not self-evident, proof of knowledge.
2) Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—The first of the three Vaiṣṇava pramāṇas.Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
General definition (in Jainism)
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष, “immediate”) refers to one of the two types of approved knowledge (pramāṇa).—What is meant by direct or immediate approved knowledge (pratyakṣa)? Cognition by the soul of all objects directly without the assistance of any external media like sense organs is called direct valid knowledge.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—a (S prati Before, akṣi Eye.) Perceptible, present, as cognizable by an organ of sense. Pr. pratyakṣāsa pramāṇa kaśāsa?
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pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—n (S) Perception or apprehension; cognizance of an object of sense. Ex. śabdāñcēṃ pra0 śrōtrēṃ- driyāvāñcūna hōta nāhīṃ. 2 as ad & prep In presence of; evidently to sense. 3 ad Freely. In very truth or deed; in indisputable reality; with irresistible evidence or manifestation. Ex. mī tikaḍē pra0 gēlōṃ I went there myself, I in propriâ personâ; hā mājhā pra0 bandhu āhē This is verily my brother, my own mother's son; hā brāhmaṇa pra0 sūrya āhē.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—a Perceptible, present. Ex. pratyakṣāsa pramāṇa kaśālā? n Perception or apprehension. ad & prep In presence of ad Freely. In very truth or deed; in indisputable reality.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्ष).—a. [akṣṇaḥprati]
1) Perceptible (to the eye), visible; प्रत्यक्षाभिः प्रपन्नस्तनुभिरवतु वस्ताभिरष्टाभिरीशः (pratyakṣābhiḥ prapannastanubhiravatu vastābhiraṣṭābhirīśaḥ) Ś1.1.
2) Present, in sight, before the eye.
3) Cognizable by any organ of sense.
4) Distinct, evident, clear.
5) Direct, immediate.
6) Explicit, express.
-kṣam 1 Perception, ocular evidence, apprehension by the senses, considered as a प्रमाण (pramāṇa) or mode of proof; इन्द्रियार्थसंनिकर्षजन्यं ज्ञानं प्रत्यक्षम् (indriyārthasaṃnikarṣajanyaṃ jñānaṃ pratyakṣam) T. S.
2) Explicitness, distinctness.
3) Superintendence, care for; प्रत्यहं लोकयात्रायाः प्रत्यक्षं स्त्रीनिबन्धनम् (pratyahaṃ lokayātrāyāḥ pratyakṣaṃ strīnibandhanam) Ms.9.27.
4) (In Rhet.) A kind of style descriptive of impressions derived from the senses. (The forms pratyakṣam, pratyakṣeṇa, pratyakṣataḥ, pratyakṣāt are used adverbially in the sense of
1) Before, in the presence of, in the sight of.
2) Openly, publicly.
3) Directly, immediately. Hence; pratyakṣatodṛṣṭasambandham is a variety of anumāna where the connection between the liṅga and the liṅgin or sādhya is directly perceived; pratyakṣato dṛṣṭasambandhaṃ yathā dhūmākṛtidarśanādagnyākṛtivijñānam ŚB. on MS.1. 1.5.
5) At sight.
7) Distinctly, clearly.
8) Literally. So pratyakṣe in the sight of, before the eyes of.)Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 54 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Pratyakṣapramāṇa (प्रत्यक्षप्रमाण).—1) ocular proof, evidence of the senses. 2) an organ of per...
Pratyakṣadarśana (प्रत्यक्षदर्शन).—ocular evidence, direct proof. Derivable forms: pratyakṣadar...
Pratyakṣasiddha (प्रत्यक्षसिद्ध).—a. determined by ocular proof.Pratyakṣasiddha is a Sanskrit c...
Pratyakṣavṛtti (प्रत्यक्षवृत्ति).—composed clearly or intelligibly (as a word). Derivable forms...
Pratyakṣakṛtā (प्रत्यक्षकृता).—(i. e. ṛk) a hymn in which s deity is directly addressed. Pratya...
Pratyakṣaphala (प्रत्यक्षफल).—a. having evident or visible consequences. Pratyakṣaphala is a Sa...
Pratyakṣavihita (प्रत्यक्षविहित).—a. directly or explicitly enjoined. Pratyakṣavihita is a Sans...
Pratyakṣajñān (प्रत्यक्षज्ञान्).—ocular evidence, knowledge obtained by direct perception. Deri...
Pratyakṣapramā (प्रत्यक्षप्रमा).—correct or certain knowledge, such as is obtained by direct pe...
Pratyakṣaparīkṣaṇa (प्रत्यक्षपरीक्षण).—personal examination, real observation. Derivable forms:...
Pratyakṣapara (प्रत्यक्षपर).—a. setting the highest value on the visible. Pratyakṣapara is a Sa...
Pratyakṣabhūta (प्रत्यक्षभूत).—a. manifested, appeared personally. Pratyakṣabhūta is a Sanskrit...
Pratyakṣavādin (प्रत्यक्षवादिन्).—m. a Buddhist who admits no other evidence than ocular proof ...
Pratyakṣavidhāna (प्रत्यक्षविधान).—an express injunction. Derivable forms: pratyakṣavidhānam (प...
Pratyakṣaviṣayībhū (प्रत्यक्षविषयीभू).—to move only within the range of sight. Pratyakṣaviṣayīb...
Search found 27 books and stories containing Pratyaksha or Pratyakṣa. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 2 - The philosophical situation (a review) < [Chapter X - The Śaṅkara School Of Vedānta]
Part 15 - The four Pramāṇas of Nyāya < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]
Part 7 - The nature of knowledge < [Chapter IX - Mīmāṃsā Philosophy]
A study of the philosophy of Jainism (by Deepa Baruah)
Chapter II.c - Classification of Pramāṇa < [Chapter II - Jaina theory of Knowledge]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 3 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 10 - Perception in the light of elucidation by the later members of the Rāmānuja School < [Chapter XX - Philosophy of the Rāmānuja School of Thought]
Part 4 - The Pramāṇas according to Mādhava Mukunda < [Chapter XXI - The Nimbārka School of Philosophy]
Part 1 - Śaṅkara and Rāmānuja on the nature of Reality as qualified or unqualified < [Chapter XX - Philosophy of the Rāmānuja School of Thought]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 15: Sermon on dharmadhyāna < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Part 13: Sermon on the four gatis: humans < [Chapter IV - Padmaprabhacaritra]
Part 4: Conversion of the Gautamas and other Brāhmans < [Chapter V - Mahāvīra’s omniscience and the originating of the fourfold congregation]
Bodhisattvacharyavatara (by Andreas Kretschmar)