Vishama, Viṣama, Visama: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Vishama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Viṣama can be transliterated into English as Visama or Vishama, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Viṣama (विषम) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “irregular”, reffering to a particular state. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Viṣama (विषम, “uneven”) refers to a class syllabic metres (vṛtta), of which the different pādas (‘feet’) belong to different metrical patterns (vṛtta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15.

2) Viṣama (विषम, “metrical defect”) refers to one of the faults (doṣa) of a dramatic play (kāvya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17. ( Description): Lapse in the metrical structure is called “metrical defect” (viṣama, lit. “unevenness”).

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Viṣama (विषम, “incongruity”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—When the qualities or the actions of a cause and its effect are opposed to each other; when an effort fails and some evil result follows; or when there is an association (bringing together or connection) between two things that are incongruous, there is Viṣama.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Viṣama (विषम) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—Among the ancient Ālaṃkārikas, Rudraṭa is the first to deal with the figure of speech viṣama in his kāvyālaṃkāra (IX/45). It has also been admitted by Mammaṭa (X/194) Ruyyaka (A.S. P. 130), Viśvanātha (X/91), Jagannātha (V/96), and Jayadeva (V/80).

Cirañjīva has defined viṣama-alaṃkāra as follows—“viṣamaṃ yadyanaucityamanyonyānvayakalpane”.—“When impropriety or incongruiety is detected in the mutual relation of objects, it is the figure viṣama”. This definition has similarity with that of Candrāloka composed by Jayadeva. Jayadeva’s definition runs thus—“viṣamaṃ yadyanaucityādanekānvayakalpanam”.

Example of the viṣama-alaṃkāra:—

kvaitatte navatāruṇyaṃ kva kāntaviraho’pyayam |
saivā’ vivekitā dhāturiha heturahetukī ||

“Where is this your new youth and where is the separation from the beloved. It is surely the lack in conscience of the creator and here the reason is causelessness”.

Notes: Here the incumbent is full of new youth and at this stage he is separated from the beloved. This is surely not proper. They should have lived together. But the separation has fallen upon the person who has attained youth recently. This impropriety between the facts describe above has been expressed by the word kva. The use of the word kva twice, hints extreme impropriety—“dvau kvaśabdau mahadantaraṃ sūcayataḥ”. On account of the impropriety between the two facts this is an example of viṣama.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Viṣama (विषम).—A quadrilateral with unequal sides; a cyclic quadrilateral. Note: Viṣama is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (V) next»] — Vishama in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

visama : (adj.) uneven; unequal; disharmonious.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Visama, (adj.) (vi+sama3) 1. uneven, unequal, disharmonious, contrary A. I, 74; PvA. 47 (vāta), 131 (a°=sama of the “middle” path).—2. (morally) discrepant, lawless, wrong A. III, 285; V, 329; Sn. 57 (cp. Nd2 599); Miln. 250 (°diṭṭhi).—3. odd, peculiar, petty, disagreeable A. II, 87; Miln. 112, 304, 357; J. I, 391 (nagaraka). ‹-› As nt. an uneven or dangerous or inaccessible place, rough road; (fig.) unevenness, badness, misconduct, disagreeableness A. I, 35 (pabbata°); S. IV, 117; Vbh. 368 (two sets of 3 visamāni: rāga, etc.); Miln. 136, 157, 277, 351; J. V, 70; VvA. 301.—visamena (Instr.) in a wrong way Pv IV. 14. (Page 639)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viṣama (विषम).—a (S) Odd, not even. 2 Unequal, uneven, irregular. 3 Unpropitious, adverse, hostile, contrary: also vile, difficult, disagreeable, or troublesome generally. 4 Unparalleled.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

viṣama (विषम).—a Odd. Unequal. Hostile. Unparalleled.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viṣama (विषम).—a. [vigato viruddho vā samaḥ]

1) Uneven, rough, rugged; पथिषु विषमेष्वप्यचलता (pathiṣu viṣameṣvapyacalatā) Mu.3.3; व्यालाकीर्णाः सुविषमाः (vyālākīrṇāḥ suviṣamāḥ) Pt.1.64; Me.19.

2) Irregular, unequal; तोषं ततान विषमग्रथितोऽपि भागः (toṣaṃ tatāna viṣamagrathito'pi bhāgaḥ) Māl.9.44.

3) Odd, not even.

4) Difficult, hard to understand, mysterious; विषमोऽपि विगाह्यते नयः (viṣamo'pi vigāhyate nayaḥ) Ki.2.3; विषमाः कर्मगतयः (viṣamāḥ karmagatayaḥ) Pt.4.5.

5) Impassable, inaccessible; Ki.2.3; भ्रान्तं देशमनेकदुर्गविषमम् (bhrāntaṃ deśamanekadurgaviṣamam) Bh.3.5.

6) Coarse, rough.

7) Oblique; ईषत्तिर्यग्वलन- विषमम् (īṣattiryagvalana- viṣamam) Māl.4.2.

8) Painful, troublesome; कान्ताविश्लेषदुःख- व्यतिकरविषमे यौवने विप्रयोगः (kāntāviśleṣaduḥkha- vyatikaraviṣame yauvane viprayogaḥ) Bh.3.16; H.4.3.

9) Very strong, vehement; व्यनक्त्यन्तस्तापं तदयमतिधीरोऽपि विषमम् (vyanaktyantastāpaṃ tadayamatidhīro'pi viṣamam) Māl.3.9.

1) Dangerous, fearful; सर्वंकषः कषति हा विषमः कृतान्तः (sarvaṃkaṣaḥ kaṣati hā viṣamaḥ kṛtāntaḥ) Mv.5.56; Mk.8.1,27; Mu.1.18; 2.2.

11) Bad, adverse, unfavourable; येन च हसितं दशासु विषमासु (yena ca hasitaṃ daśāsu viṣamāsu) Pt.4.16.

12) Odd, unusual, unparalleled.

13) Dishonest, artful.

14) Intermittent (as fever).

15) Wicked.

16) Different.

17) That which cannot be equally divided; अजाविकं सैकशफं न जातु विषमं भजेत् (ajāvikaṃ saikaśaphaṃ na jātu viṣamaṃ bhajet) Ms.9.119.

18) Unsuitable, wrong; Suśr.

-maḥ 1 Name of Viṣṇu.

2) (In music) A kind of measure.

-mam 1 Unevenness.

2) Oddness.

3) An inaccessible place, precipice, pit &c.

4) A difficult or dangerous position, difficulty, misfortune; सुप्तं प्रमत्तं विषमस्थितं वा रक्षन्ति पुण्यानि पुरा कृतानि (suptaṃ pramattaṃ viṣamasthitaṃ vā rakṣanti puṇyāni purā kṛtāni) Bh.2.97; कुतस्त्वा कश्मलमिदं विषमे समुपस्थितम् (kutastvā kaśmalamidaṃ viṣame samupasthitam) Bg.2.2.

5) Rough or uneven ground.

6) Name of a figure of speech in which some unusual or incompatible relation between cause and effect is described; (said to be of four kinds; see K. P. Kārikās 126 and 127).

7) A kind of stanza or verse; भिन्नचिह्नचतुष्पादं विषमं परिकीर्तितम् (bhinnacihnacatuṣpādaṃ viṣamaṃ parikīrtitam).

-mam ind. Unequally, unevenly, unfairly, dangerously &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viṣama (विषम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Difficult, (of access,) rough, uneven. 2. Difficult, &c., (of comprehending,) as a book. 3. Painful, difficult, troublesome. (in general.) 4. Odd, (in numbers.) 5. Unparalleled, unequalled. 6. Wicked, dishonest. 7. Fearful, frightful, awful. 8. Irregular, unequal. 9. Adverse, unpropitious. n.

(-maṃ) 1. Difficulty, pain. 2. Unevenness, inequality. 3. Oddness, (in numeration.) 4. An inaccessible place, a thicket, a precipice. 5. (In rhetoric.) Description of unusual or incompatible cause and effect. E. vi privative or contra-indicative, before sama even, smooth, equal, &c. and sa after the i of the prefix, changed to ṣa .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viṣama (विषम).—i. e. vi-sama, I. adj., f. . 1. Unequal, different, [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 40. 2. Inconstant, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 104. 3. Odd (in numbers), figurat., [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 126. 4. Unhappy, [Hitopadeśa] iv. [distich] 3. 5. Unparalleled, unequalled, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 199, 1. 6. Uneven, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 188; sloping, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 10, 9. 7. Rough, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 49; [Pañcatantra] 188, 9. 8. Difficult, painful, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 54; disagreeable, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 12. 9. Frightful, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 133. 10. Dishonest, wicked, [Hiḍimbavadha] 1, 39; [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 111. 11. Partial, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 27. Ii. n. 1. Inequality. 2. Oddness. 3. Unevenness, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 24 (uneven valleys, Jones). 4. An inaccessible place, a precipice, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 51, 40; [Pañcatantra] 142, 6; a thicket, a pit, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 232. 5. Difficulty, pain, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 65; misfortune, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 95.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viṣama (विषम).—[adjective] uneven, unequal, odd (number); different, changing; difficult, hard, adverse, cross, inimical; bad, mean, dishonest, false, wrong. [neuter] unevenness, bad road, pit, precipice; difficulty, pain, distress, adversity; unequality, incongruency, incompatibility.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Viṣama (विषम):—[=vi-ṣama] [from vi] a See sub voce

2) [=vi-ṣama] b mf(ā)n. ([from] vi + sama) uneven, rugged, rough, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] unequal, irregular, dissimilar, different, inconstant, [Brāhmaṇa; Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Manu-smṛti] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] odd, not even (in numbers etc.), [Varāha-mihira; Kāvyādarśa]

5) [v.s. ...] that which cannot be equally divided (as a living sheep among three or four persons), [Manu-smṛti ix, 119]

6) [v.s. ...] hard to traverse, difficult, inconvenient, painful, dangerous, adverse, vexatious, disagreeable, terrible, bad, wicked ([in the beginning of a compound] ‘terribly’ [Śiśupāla-vadha]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] hard to be understood, [Golādhyāya; Kāvya literature]

8) [v.s. ...] unsuitable, wrong, [Suśruta; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

9) [v.s. ...] unfair, dishonest, partial, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata]

10) [v.s. ...] rough, coarse, rude, cross, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

11) [v.s. ...] odd, unusual, unequalled, [Horace H. Wilson]

12) [v.s. ...] m. a kind of measure, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

13) [v.s. ...] Name of Viṣṇu, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

14) [=vi-ṣama] n. unevenness, uneven or rough ground or place (sama-viṣameṣu, ‘on even and uneven ground’ [Śiśupāla-vadha]), bad road, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.

15) [v.s. ...] oddness (of numbers), [Horace H. Wilson]

16) [v.s. ...] a pit, precipice, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

17) [v.s. ...] difficulty, distress, misfortune, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

18) [v.s. ...] n. unevenness, inequality (meṇa ind. ‘unequally’), [Kāśikā-vṛtti]

19) [v.s. ...] n. (in [rhetoric]) incongruity, incompatibility, [Kāvyādarśa; Pratāparudrīya; Kuvalayānanda]

20) [v.s. ...] [plural] (with bharad-vājasya), Name of Sāmans, [Sāma-veda; Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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