Vishama, aka: Viṣama, Visama; 11 Definition(s)


Vishama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Viṣama can be transliterated into English as Visama or Vishama, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Viṣama (विषम) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “irregular”, reffering to a particular state. The term is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Viṣama (विषम, “uneven”) refers to a class syllabic metres (vṛtta), of which the different pādas (‘feet’) belong to different metrical patterns (vṛtta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15.

2) Viṣama (विषम, “metrical defect”) refers to one of the faults (doṣa) of a dramatic play (kāvya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17. ( Description): Lapse in the metrical structure is called “metrical defect” (viṣama, lit. “unevenness”).

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Viṣama (विषम, “incongruity”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—When the qualities or the actions of a cause and its effect are opposed to each other; when an effort fails and some evil result follows; or when there is an association (bringing together or connection) between two things that are incongruous, there is Viṣama.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Viṣama (विषम) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—Among the ancient Ālaṃkārikas, Rudraṭa is the first to deal with the figure of speech viṣama in his kāvyālaṃkāra (IX/45). It has also been admitted by Mammaṭa (X/194) Ruyyaka (A.S. P. 130), Viśvanātha (X/91), Jagannātha (V/96), and Jayadeva (V/80).

Cirañjīva has defined viṣama-alaṃkāra as follows—“viṣamaṃ yadyanaucityamanyonyānvayakalpane”.—“When impropriety or incongruiety is detected in the mutual relation of objects, it is the figure viṣama”. This definition has similarity with that of Candrāloka composed by Jayadeva. Jayadeva’s definition runs thus—“viṣamaṃ yadyanaucityādanekānvayakalpanam”.

Example of the viṣama-alaṃkāra:—

kvaitatte navatāruṇyaṃ kva kāntaviraho’pyayam |
saivā’ vivekitā dhāturiha heturahetukī ||

“Where is this your new youth and where is the separation from the beloved. It is surely the lack in conscience of the creator and here the reason is causelessness”.

Notes: Here the incumbent is full of new youth and at this stage he is separated from the beloved. This is surely not proper. They should have lived together. But the separation has fallen upon the person who has attained youth recently. This impropriety between the facts describe above has been expressed by the word kva. The use of the word kva twice, hints extreme impropriety—“dvau kvaśabdau mahadantaraṃ sūcayataḥ”. On account of the impropriety between the two facts this is an example of viṣama.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Viṣama (विषम).—A quadrilateral with unequal sides; a cyclic quadrilateral. Note: Viṣama is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Vishama in Pali glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

visama : (adj.) uneven; unequal; disharmonious.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Visama, (adj.) (vi+sama3) 1. uneven, unequal, disharmonious, contrary A. I, 74; PvA. 47 (vāta), 131 (a°=sama of the “middle” path).—2. (morally) discrepant, lawless, wrong A. III, 285; V, 329; Sn. 57 (cp. Nd2 599); Miln. 250 (°diṭṭhi).—3. odd, peculiar, petty, disagreeable A. II, 87; Miln. 112, 304, 357; J. I, 391 (nagaraka). ‹-› As nt. an uneven or dangerous or inaccessible place, rough road; (fig.) unevenness, badness, misconduct, disagreeableness A. I, 35 (pabbata°); S. IV, 117; Vbh. 368 (two sets of 3 visamāni: rāga, etc.); Miln. 136, 157, 277, 351; J. V, 70; VvA. 301.—visamena (Instr.) in a wrong way Pv IV. 14. (Page 639)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Vishama in Marathi glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

viṣama (विषम).—a (S) Odd, not even. 2 Unequal, uneven, irregular. 3 Unpropitious, adverse, hostile, contrary: also vile, difficult, disagreeable, or troublesome generally. 4 Unparalleled.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viṣama (विषम).—a Odd. Unequal. Hostile. Unparalleled.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viṣama (विषम).—a. [vigato viruddho vā samaḥ]

1) Uneven, rough, rugged; पथिषु विषमेष्वप्यचलता (pathiṣu viṣameṣvapyacalatā) Mu.3.3; व्यालाकीर्णाः सुविषमाः (vyālākīrṇāḥ suviṣamāḥ) Pt.1.64; Me.19.

2) Irregular, unequal; तोषं ततान विषमग्रथितोऽपि भागः (toṣaṃ tatāna viṣamagrathito'pi bhāgaḥ) Māl.9.44.

3) Odd, not even.

4) Difficult, hard to understand, mysterious; विषमोऽपि विगाह्यते नयः (viṣamo'pi vigāhyate nayaḥ) Ki.2.3; विषमाः कर्मगतयः (viṣamāḥ karmagatayaḥ) Pt.4.5.

5) Impassable, inaccessible; Ki.2.3; भ्रान्तं देशमनेकदुर्गविषमम् (bhrāntaṃ deśamanekadurgaviṣamam) Bh.3.5.

6) Coarse, rough.

7) Oblique; ईषत्तिर्यग्वलन- विषमम् (īṣattiryagvalana- viṣamam) Māl.4.2.

8) Painful, troublesome; कान्ताविश्लेषदुःख- व्यतिकरविषमे यौवने विप्रयोगः (kāntāviśleṣaduḥkha- vyatikaraviṣame yauvane viprayogaḥ) Bh.3.16; H.4.3.

9) Very strong, vehement; व्यनक्त्यन्तस्तापं तदयमतिधीरोऽपि विषमम् (vyanaktyantastāpaṃ tadayamatidhīro'pi viṣamam) Māl.3.9.

1) Dangerous, fearful; सर्वंकषः कषति हा विषमः कृतान्तः (sarvaṃkaṣaḥ kaṣati hā viṣamaḥ kṛtāntaḥ) Mv.5.56; Mk.8.1,27; Mu.1.18; 2.2.

11) Bad, adverse, unfavourable; येन च हसितं दशासु विषमासु (yena ca hasitaṃ daśāsu viṣamāsu) Pt.4.16.

12) Odd, unusual, unparalleled.

13) Dishonest, artful.

14) Intermittent (as fever).

15) Wicked.

16) Different.

17) That which cannot be equally divided; अजाविकं सैकशफं न जातु विषमं भजेत् (ajāvikaṃ saikaśaphaṃ na jātu viṣamaṃ bhajet) Ms.9.119.

18) Unsuitable, wrong; Suśr.

-maḥ 1 Name of Viṣṇu.

2) (In music) A kind of measure.

-mam 1 Unevenness.

2) Oddness.

3) An inaccessible place, precipice, pit &c.

4) A difficult or dangerous position, difficulty, misfortune; सुप्तं प्रमत्तं विषमस्थितं वा रक्षन्ति पुण्यानि पुरा कृतानि (suptaṃ pramattaṃ viṣamasthitaṃ vā rakṣanti puṇyāni purā kṛtāni) Bh.2.97; कुतस्त्वा कश्मलमिदं विषमे समुपस्थितम् (kutastvā kaśmalamidaṃ viṣame samupasthitam) Bg.2.2.

5) Rough or uneven ground.

6) Name of a figure of speech in which some unusual or incompatible relation between cause and effect is described; (said to be of four kinds; see K. P. Kārikās 126 and 127).

7) A kind of stanza or verse; भिन्नचिह्नचतुष्पादं विषमं परिकीर्तितम् (bhinnacihnacatuṣpādaṃ viṣamaṃ parikīrtitam).

-mam ind. Unequally, unevenly, unfairly, dangerously &c.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viṣama (विषम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Difficult, (of access,) rough, uneven. 2. Difficult, &c., (of comprehending,) as a book. 3. Painful, difficult, troublesome. (in general.) 4. Odd, (in numbers.) 5. Unparalleled, unequalled. 6. Wicked, dishonest. 7. Fearful, frightful, awful. 8. Irregular, unequal. 9. Adverse, unpropitious. n.

(-maṃ) 1. Difficulty, pain. 2. Unevenness, inequality. 3. Oddness, (in numeration.) 4. An inaccessible place, a thicket, a precipice. 5. (In rhetoric.) Description of unusual or incompatible cause and effect. E. vi privative or contra-indicative, before sama even, smooth, equal, &c. and sa after the i of the prefix, changed to ṣa .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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