Vishishta, Viśiṣṭa, Visishta: 20 definitions


Vishishta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Viśiṣṭa can be transliterated into English as Visista or Vishishta, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vishishta in Shaivism glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट) refers to “(having a) specific (place and time)”, according to the Utpaladeva’s Vivṛti on Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.8-9.—Accordingly, “[...] And this mere [realization that the object is something separated from the subject] is not enough to transform this object into something on which [human] activity may be exerted; therefore [this object] is [also] made manifest as having a specific place and time (viśiṣṭa-deśakāla), because only a particular having a specific place and time can be something on which [human] activity may be exerted, since [only such a particular] can be obtained and since [only such a particular] may have the efficacy that [we] expect [from it]. [...]”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट) refers to “not equally (real)” (as opposed to Aviśiṣṭa—‘equally real’), according to Tantrālokaviveka commentary on the Tantrāloka verses 4.230ab-232ab.—Accordingly, “[‘If you argue that this Śaiva rule is invalidated by the Vedic one (vaidikī), (we reply:) why shouldn’t it be the other way around?’].—[...] Considering that one may object by asking how it is that both [śāstras] are equally real (aviśiṣṭaaviśiṣṭaṃ sattvaṃ), given that in certain contexts the injunction(s) associated with purity and the like are invalidated, even though they apply universally, for all people, [Abhinavagupta] says: [‘If you think about it clearly, a rule that is an exception invalidates a rule generally applied, because it applies in a particular domain’]. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Vishishta in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट) refers to “important persons”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.47 (“The ceremonious entry of Śiva”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] The mountain, after offering Pādya and Arghya to them, took Śiva along with Viṣṇu and the important gods, within. In the quadrangle inside he made us, Viṣṇu, Śiva and other important persons (viśiṣṭa) sit on gem-set thrones. The Nīrājana rites was then performed by Mena, her maids and the brahmin women as well as other ladies of the city with joy. The necessary rites such as offering of Madhuparka etc. to Śiva, the supreme soul, were joyously performed by the priest who knew his duties. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vishishta in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट) refers to the “most eminent (siddhi)”, according to the Yuktabhavadeva: a seventeenth-century compendium on Yoga.—Accordingly, while discussing the Yogic problem of Siddhis: “Whenever, wherever and whatever Siddhi is desired, having then and there meditated on that [Siddhi] as the lord, who is the most eminent Siddhi [i.e., siddhi-viśiṣṭa], one should meditate on oneself as being just so”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Vishishta in Hinduism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Sanskrit noun (mfn.): distinguished, distinct, particular, peculiar.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Vishishta in Mahayana glossary
Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट) refers to the “superior” kind of discrimination, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then, the Lord went on to speak these verses: ‘(35) Giving a gift with the same thought (samacitta) and same mind (samamanas), they give without the three [kinds of discrimination of] superior, mediocre, and inferior (hīna-madhya-viśiṣṭa). Since their intentions (āśaya) are pure and undefiled, they do not expect any reward (vipāka). [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट) refers to the “best (among gods and men)”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Becoming a golden color, liberated from all disease, Best among gods and men (suramanuja-viśiṣṭa), a bright beautiful moon, Accomplishes the golden prize, born in a royal lineage, In the highest Buddha abode, the one who makes the Mandala”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Vishishta in Jainism glossary
Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट) refers to “preeminent (knowing)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Fools mourn for relations experiencing the results of their own actions [but] because of the confusion of [their] intelligence [com.viśiṣṭa-jñāna-nāśa—‘because of the destruction of preeminent knowing’] [they do] not [mourn for] themselves situated in Yama’s fangs. In this forest that is the cycle of rebirth dwelt in by Yama the serpent-king, the men of olden times, who were eternal previously, have come to an end”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vishishta in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट).—a S Endowed or invested with some distinguishing and particularizing property or adjunct; having as an attribute or accident and standing distinguished by it. 2 Possessed of or having generally; having as inherent, appertaining, appended, attached &c. Ex. ghaṭaviśiṣṭabhūtala, jalavi- śiṣṭapātra, antaḥkaraṇaviśiṣṭacaitanya, hastapādādyavayavavi- śiṣṭadēha, śikhāviśiṣṭahindū; avāntara padāñcē artha samajalē mhaṇajē viśiṣṭavākyācā artha dhyānānta yētō. 3 Particular, singular, extraordinary.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट).—a Having as an attribute. Poss- essed of; particular.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vishishta in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट).—p. p.

1) Distinguished, distinct.

2) Particular, special, peculiar, distinctive.

3) Characterized by, endowed with, possessed of, having.

4) Superior, best (of all), eminent, excellent, choice; विविष्टानि स्वकर्मसु (viviṣṭāni svakarmasu) Manusmṛti 1.8; विशिष्टाया विशेषेण संगमो गुणवान् भवेत् (viśiṣṭāyā viśeṣeṇa saṃgamo guṇavān bhavet) Mb.

-ṣṭaḥ Name of Viṣṇu.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट).—(1) m. or nt., a high number: m. Mahāvyutpatti 7735; nt. Mahāvyutpatti 7863, cited from Gaṇḍavyūha 133.11; = Tibetan bstan (brtan) yas; in Gaṇḍavyūha 106.1 vimṛṣṭa (sya, gen.), by error (m for ś, graphic); (2) m., name of a Bodhisattva: Gaṇḍavyūha 442.18.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट).—mfn.

(-ṣṭaḥ-ṣṭā-ṣṭaṃ) 1. Endowed with, possessed of, having inherent or attached to. 2. Excellent, superior, distinguished. 3. Especial, peculiar. 4. Having distinctive and exclusive properties. E. vi before śiṣ to tell qualities, aff. kta .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट).—[adjective] separate, distinct, marked by ([instrumental] or —°); peculiar, special; distinguished, eminent, excellent at ([instrumental] or —°), best of ([genetive]); different from i.e. better or worse than ([ablative] or —°). Abstr. [feminine], tva [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट):—[=vi-śiṣṭa] [from vi-śiṣ] mfn. distinguished, distinct, particular, peculiar, [Mahābhārata; Rājataraṅgiṇī; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

2) [v.s. ...] characterized by ([instrumental case] or [compound]), [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa; Vedāntasāra]

3) [v.s. ...] pre-eminent, excellent, excelling in or distinguished by ([locative case], [instrumental case] [adverb] in tas, or [compound]), chief or best among ([genitive case]), better or worse than ([ablative] or [compound]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] m. Name of Viṣṇu, [Mahābhārata]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट):—[vi-śiṣṭa] (ṣṭaḥ-ṣṭā-ṣṭaṃ) a. Endowed with, possessed of; characteristic, distinguished.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Visiṭṭha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vishishta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vishishta in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Viśiṣṭa (विशिष्ट) [Also spelled vishisht]:—(a) special, specialized, specific; particular; prominent; characteristic. typical; ~[ṣṭatā] speciality, specificity; singularity; characteristic; ~[ṣṭi] specification; ~[ṣṭīkaraṇa] specialization; ~[ṣṭīkṛta] specialized.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vishishta in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Viśiṣṭa (ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟ):—

1) [adjective] distinguished; distinct.

2) [adjective] special; extraordinary.

3) [adjective] excellent; superior.

4) [adjective] entire; complete; whole.

5) [adjective] particular, with reference to a universal proposition of which it is a part.

--- OR ---

Viśiṣṭa (ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟ):—[noun] an important man; a man of consequence.

--- OR ---

Visiṣṭa (ವಿಸಿಷ್ಟ):—[adjective] '(correctly, ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟ [vishishta]) distinguished or different from what is ordinary or usual: distinctive, peculiar; special.'

--- OR ---

Visiṣṭa (ವಿಸಿಷ್ಟ):—[noun] '(correctly, ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟ [vishishta]) the quality of being distinguished or different from what is ordinary or usual: speciality.'

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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