Maharaudra, Mahāraudra, Mahāraudrā, Maha-raudra: 10 definitions


Maharaudra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Mahāraudra (महारौद्र) is a Sanskrit name referring to one of the eight manifestations of Bhīṣaṇa, who is a form of Bhairava. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. Each form (e.g., Bhīṣaṇa) has a further eight sub-manifestations (e.g., Mahāraudra), thus resulting in a total of 64 Bhairavas.

When depicting Mahāraudra according to traditional iconographic rules (śilpaśāstra), one should depcit him (and other forms of Bhīṣaṇa) having a yellow color and should carry in his hands the kuṇḍa, the kheṭaka, the parigha (a kind of club) and bhiṇḍipāla. The word Śilpaśāstra refers to an ancient Hindu science of arts and crafts, dealing with subjects such as painting, sculpture and iconography.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Maharaudra in Purana glossary
Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Mahāraudra (महारौद्र).—A Rākṣasa who was the friend of Ghaṭotkaca. He was killed by Duryodhana at the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 20).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mahāraudra (महारौद्र) refers to “terrific”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.37. Accordingly:—“[...] that glorious lord [i.e., Viṣṇu], with eyes red by anger, got up again. The best of beings lifted up his discus and stood ready to strike. Vīrabhadra of no weak soul, nay, identical with lord Śiva, held his terrific (mahāraudra) discus luminous like black sun suspended and motionless”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Maharaudra in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Mahāraudrā (महारौद्रा) refers to “she who is very fierce”, according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—Accordingly, “That, O goddess, is said to be the subtle (form), now listen to the gross one. [...] The great conch (she holds) makes her proud and the beauty of her crown enhances her beauty. (She is) adorned with a garland of severed heads that extends from the soles of the feet up to (her) neck. She drips with the blood that flows (from the heads) and is fatigued by the weight of her (dangling) rocking hair. Very fierce [i.e., mahāraudrā], she destroys (the universe) by licking (it up). She has big teeth and a thin stomach. She has long (dangling) breasts and a large chest. Her furious form is (lean) without flesh. She has six faces and twelve arms and her back is slightly bent”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Maharaudra in Mahayana glossary
Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Mahāraudra (महारौद्र) refers to “greatly fierce (words of mantras)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [as the Nāga-kings said to Bhagavān], “O Bhagavān, we are destroyed and burnt, our bodies are set on fire. The hairs of our bodies are bristling and standing erect. O Bhagavān, extremely dreadful mantrapadas have been uttered, greatly fierce (mahāraudra) and dangerous ones. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Mahāraudra (महारौद्र) refers to “one who is greatly awful”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “[...] [Standing on] Bhairava and Kālarātri on fire on the sun [disk] on the pericarp [of the lotus], [Heruka] is dancing. [He should visualize Heruka] [...] always having [his] mouth open [and showing] large fangs from the right and left [parts of the mouth]. [Three faces looking to the south, west, and north are colored] yellow, red, and in sequence (viz., green), [respectively,] and the other [fourteen] faces are colored like a black bee [He should meditate on Heruka, who] *is greatly awful (mahāraudra) and laughs loudly and* is grinning and terrifying. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Maharaudra in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mahāraudra (महारौद्र).—a. very dreadful.

-drī an epithet of Durgā.

Mahāraudra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms mahā and raudra (रौद्र).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mahāraudra (महारौद्र):—[=mahā-raudra] [from mahā > mah] mf(ā)n. very terrible, [Mahābhārata; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa] (ati-m)

[Sanskrit to German]

Maharaudra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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