Mashaka, Maśaka, Māsaka, Masaka, Māṣaka: 17 definitions



Mashaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Maśaka and Māṣaka can be transliterated into English as Masaka or Mashaka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Kavya (poetry)

[«previous (M) next»] — Mashaka in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Maśaka (मशक) refers to “flies and mosquitoes”, according to the seventeenth story of the Vetālapañcaviṃśati in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 91. Accordingly, as the Vetāla said to king Trivikramasena:—“... servants are bound to preserve their masters even by the sacrifice of their lives. But kings are inflated with arrogance, uncontrollable as elephants, and when bent on enjoyment they snap as under the chain of the moral law. [...] And the breeze of the waving chowries fans away the atoms of the sense of scripture taught them by old men, as it fans away flies and mosquitoes [viz., maśaka]. [...]”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning maśaka, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Māṣaka (माषक) refers to “black gram” which is used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.13:—“[...] then the Ācamana shall be offered and cloth dedicated. Gingelly seeds, barley grains, wheat, green gram or black gram (māṣaka) shall then be offered to Śiva with various mantras. Then flowers shall be offered to the five-faced noble soul. Lotuses, rose, Śaṅkha, and Kuśa flowers, Dhattūras, Mandāras grown in a wooden vessel, holy basil leaves or Bilva leaves shall be offered to each of the faces in accordance with the previous meditation or according to one’s wish. By all means Śiva favourably disposed to His devotees shall be worshipped with great devotion. If other flowers are not available, Bilva leaves shall be used exclusively in the worship of Śiva”.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Maśaka (मशक).—A place in the ancient island of Śāka. Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 11 says that in ancient times, Kings used to live there for the fulfilment of their desires.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Māṣaka (माषक).—Weight in gold; fine for failure to feed Brahmanas when there is occasion for it and for mentioning one man to a prostitute and taking her to another; in silver for causing injury to animals and insects and for other offences.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 227. 7, 89, 108, 146.
Source: Srimad Valmiki Ramayana

Maśaka (मशक) refers to “flies” (viz., in the forest), according to the Rāmāyaṇa chapter 2.28. Accordingly:—“[...] soothening with kind words to Sītā, when eyes were blemished with tears, the virtuous Rāma spoke again as follows, for the purpose of waking her turn back: ‘[...] Oh, frail princess! Flying insects, scorpions insects including mosquitoes and flies (maśaka) always annoy every one. Hence, forest is full of hardship’”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Maśaka (मशक) denotes a ‘biting fly’ or ‘mosquito’, being described in the Atharvaveda1 as ‘quickly (?) biting’ (tṛpra-daṃśin), and as having a poisonous sting. The elephant is mentioned as particularly subject to its stings. The insect is often referred to elsewhere. Cf. Daṃśa.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Māṣaka.—(IE 8-8), name of a coin; cf. māṣa and dināri- māṣaka; mentioned as a silver coin (K. V. Rangaswami Aiyangar, Kṛtyakalpataru, Vyavahāra-kāṇḍa, p. 125). Note: māṣaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Māṣaka.—same as māṣa; according to the Kṛtyakalpataru, a silver coin as opposed to the gold māṣa Note: māṣaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (M) next»] — Mashaka in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

māsaka : (m.) a small coin, (the value of which is about an anna).

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Māsaka, (fr. māsa2+ka=māsa3) lit. a small bean, used as a standard of weight & value; hence a small coin of very low value. Of copper, wood & lac (DhsA. 318; cp. KhA 37; jatu°, dāru°, loha°); the suvaṇṇa° (golden m.) at J. IV, 107 reminds of the “gold” in fairy tales. That its worth is next to nothing is seen from the descending progression of coins at DhA. III, 108=VvA. 77, which, beginning with kahāpaṇa, aḍḍha-pāda, places māsaka & kāhaṇikā next to mudhā “gratis. ” It only “counts” when it amounts to 5 māsakas.—Vin. III, 47, 67; IV, 226 (pañca°); J. I, 112 (aḍḍha-māsakaṃ na agghati is worth nothing); IV, 107; V, 135 (first a rain of flowers, then of māsakas, then kahāpaṇas); DhA. II, 29 (pañca-m. -mattaṃ a sum of 5 m.); PvA. 282 (m+aḍḍha° half-pennies & farthings, as children’s pocket-money). (Page 531)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

maśaka (मशक).—m S A gnat or mosquito. Ex. kiṃ rājahaṃsā- puḍhēṃ maśaka || kiṃ nāmā ||; also tyā maśakācā pāḍa kōṇa || kāya uśīra āṇāvayā ||.

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masaka (मसक).—f (maśaka S through P) A leathern water-bag carried under the arm.

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masakā (मसका).—m ( H Butter.) An amalgam in general.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

maśaka (मशक).—m A gnat or mosquito.

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masaka (मसक).—f A leathern water-bag carried under the arm.

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masakā (मसका).—m An amalgam in general.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Maśaka (मशक).—[maś-vun]

1) A mosquito, gnat; सर्वं खलस्य चरितं मशकः करोति (sarvaṃ khalasya caritaṃ maśakaḥ karoti) H.1.78; Ms.1.45.

2) A particular disease of the skin.

3) A leather water-bag.

4) Name of a district in Śākadvīpa inhabited by Kṣatriyas.

5) Gadfly, any fly that stings (daṃśamaśaka); Mb.3.141.27.

-kī A female mosquito; मद्गेहे मशकीव मूषकवधूः (madgehe maśakīva mūṣakavadhūḥ) ...... Sūkti.5.19.

Derivable forms: maśakaḥ (मशकः).

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Māṣaka (माषक).—

1) A bean.

2) A kind of weight of gold; द्वे कृष्णले समधृते विज्ञेयो रौप्यमाषकः (dve kṛṣṇale samadhṛte vijñeyo raupyamāṣakaḥ) Ms.8.135.

Derivable forms: māṣakaḥ (माषकः).

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Māsaka (मासक).—A month.

Derivable forms: māsakaḥ (मासकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maśaka (मशक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A gnat, a musquito. 2. A kind of cutaneous eruption the formation of small pustules or warts. 3. A leather water-bag. E. maś to be angry and vun aff.

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Masaka (मसक).—m.

(-kaḥ) A gnat. E. maṣ to hurt, vun aff.

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Māṣaka (माषक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A weight of silver of two Rattis or about 4(1/2) grains. 2. The same in gold. 3. A Masha: see the last. E. kan added to the preceding.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maśaka (मशक).— (akin to makṣikā, q. cf.), m. 1. A gnat, a musquito, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 80, M. M.; [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 98. 2. A kind of cutaneous eruption. 3. A leather water-bag.

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Māṣaka (माषक).—[māṣa + ka], m. A weight of gold and of silver, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 135.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maśaka (मशक).—[masculine] biting insect, gnat, fly.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Maśaka (मशक) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Kalpasūtra or Ārṣeyakalpa Sv. W. p. 71. L. 113. 654. Oudh. Iii, 4. Burnell. 22^b. Sb. 30.
—[commentary] by Varadarāja. Io. 698. Oxf. 386^b. L. 664. Khn. 10. Ben. 17. Oudh. Iii, 6. Burnell. 22^b. Oppert. Ii, 7910.

2) Maśaka (मशक):—Kalpasūtra. Cs. 202. 203. Stein 18
—[commentary] by Varadarāja. Cs. 204. 205.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Maśaka (मशक):—[from maś] m. a mosquito, gnat, any fly that bites or stings, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a [particular] skin disease (causing dark bean-like pustules or eruptions), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] a leather water-bag, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a preceptor with the [patronymic] Gārgya (the composer of a Kalpa-sūtra), [Lāṭyāyana] ([Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 176])

5) [v.s. ...] Name of the district in Śāka-dvīpa inhabited by Kṣatriyas, [Mahābhārata]

6) Maśāka (मशाक):—[from maś] m. a bird, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Masaka (मसक):—incorrectly for maśaka.

8) Māṣaka (माषक):—[from māṣa] m. a bean, [Suśruta]

9) [v.s. ...] mn. a [particular] weight of gold etc. (= 7 or 8 Guñjās [accusative] to some about 4 1/2 grains), [Manu-smṛti; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Suśruta] (cf. pañca-m).

10) Māsaka (मासक):—[from mās] m. a month, [Sūryasiddhānta; Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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