Karsha, Karṣa, Kārṣa: 19 definitions

Introduction:

Karsha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Karṣa and Kārṣa can be transliterated into English as Karsa or Karsha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Karṣa (माष) is the Sanskrit name for a weight unit corresponding to ‘10 grams’ used in Ayurvedic literature, according to the Ṣoḍaśāṅgahṛdayam. A single Karṣa unit corresponds to 10 Māṣa units (a single Māṣa unit equals 1 gram). You need 2 Karṣa units to make a single Śukti unit (1 Śukti equals 20 grams).

Below follows a table of the different weight units in relation to one another and their corresponding values in brackets:

  • Guñjā (Raktikā) = 1 seed of Guñjā
  • 8 Raktikā = 1 Māṣa (1 gram)
  • 10 Māṣa = 1 Karṣa (10 grams)
  • 2 Karṣa = 1 Śukti (20 grams)
  • 2 Śukti = 1 Pala (40 grams)
  • 2 Pala = 1 Prasṛta (80 grams)
  • 2 Prasṛta = 1 Kuḍava (Añjali) (160 grams)
  • 2 Kuḍava = 1 Śarāva (320 grams)
  • 2 Śarāva = 1 Prastha (640 grams)
  • 4 Prastha = 1 Āḍhaka (Pātra) (2.56 kilograms)
  • 4 Āḍhaka = 1 Droṇa (10.24 kilograms)
  • 4 Droṇa = 1 Droṇī (40.96 kilograms)
  • 100 Pala = 1 Tulā (4 kilograms).

2) Karṣa (कर्ष) refers to a measure of weight, roughly corresponding to roughly 12 grams, or 0.42 ounces. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and Suśruta-saṃhitā.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Karṣa (कर्ष) (or Akṣa, Niṣka) refers to a unit of measurement of weight (1 karṣa equals 12mg; 2 karṣas = 1 śukti = 24g), as defined in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning karṣa] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

A relative overview of weight-units is found below, karṣa indicated in bold. In case of liquids, the metric equivalents would be the corresponding litre and milliliters.

1 Ratti or Guñjā = 125mg,
8 Rattis - 1 Māṣa = 1g,
4 Māṣa - 1 Kaḻañc = 4g,
12 Māṣas - 1 Karṣa = 12g,
1 Karṣa /Akṣa - 1 Niṣka = 12g,
2 Karṣas - 1 Śukti = 24g,
2 Śukti - 1 Pala = 48g,
2 Palas - 1 Prasṛti = 96g,
2 Prasṛtis - 1 Kuḍava = 192g,
2 Kuḍava - 1 Mānikā = 384g,
2 Mānikās - 1 Prastha (Seru) = 768g,
4 Prasthas - 1 Āḍhaka (Kaṃsa) = 3.072kg,
4 Āḍhakas or Kalaśas - 1 Droṇa = 12.288kg,
2 Droṇas - 1 Surpa = 24.576kg,
2 Surpas - 1 Droṇī (Vahi) = 49.152kg,
4 Droṇīs - 1 Khari = 196.608kg,
1 Pala = 48g,
100 Palas - 1 Tulā = 4.8kg,
20 Tulās - 1 Bhāra = 96kg.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Karṣa (कर्ष):—[karṣaḥ] A unit of Measurement; Two kolas will make one karsha = 12 g of metric units

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Karṣa (कर्ष) or Tola refers to unit of measurement. Karṣa is equal to 180 grains. (see the Rasajalanidhi by Bhudeb Mookerji volume 3)

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Karṣa (कर्ष) refers to a unit of measurement equaling eighty guñjas, according to Kāśīnātha Upādhye’s Dharmasindhu, a commentary on the Rāma Daivajña’s Muhūrtacintāmaṇi (an astrological work).—Accordingly, “[...] Thus it has has been said in the third Skandha of the sacred Bhāgavata. Its meaning is [as follows]. Eighty guñjas make one karṣa. The same has the designation of suvarṇa. Four karṣas are one pala. Thus, a vessel should be made of six palas of copper; it should be pierced at the base by means of a needle made of twenty guñjas’ weight of gold and four aṅgulas in length. Through this perforation, by the time a prastha measure of water enters, that bowl sinks in the water, because of the prastha measure of water that filled it. Then that vessel becomes the standard measure for the period of one ghaṭī. There the unit of one prastha contains sixteen palas. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Karṣa (कर्ष) refers to a name-ending for place-names according to Pāṇini VI.2.129. Pāṇini also cautions his readers that the etymological meaning of place-names should not be held authoritative since the name should vanish when the people leave the place who gave their name to it.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Karṣa.—(IE 8-8; CII 4), name of a weight equal to 80 ratis; same as tolā; sometimes regarded as 100 or 120 ratis in weight (JNSI, Vol. II, p. 3). (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 309), a measure of capacity for liquids. (CII 4), name of a coin; cf. kārṣāpaṇa. Note: karṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Karṣa.—name of a weight equal to 80 ratis or about 146 grains; sometimes regarded 100 ratis or about 183 grains; sometimes also regarded as 120 ratis in weight; a coin (cf. kārṣāpaṇa). Note: karṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karṣa (कर्ष).—m S A weight of gold or silver equal to sixteen māṣa or eighty guñja, about two hundred and eighty grains troy.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karṣa (कर्ष).—[kṛṣ-ac ghañ vā]

1) Drawing, dragging, pulling; Y.2.217.

2) Attracting.

3) Ploughing

4) A furrow, a trench.

5) A scratch.

6) Terminalia Bellerica (Mar. bibbā, behaḍā).

-rṣaḥ, -rṣam A weight of gold or silver equal to 16 Māṣas.

Derivable forms: karṣaḥ (कर्षः).

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Kārṣa (कार्ष).—A husbandman, cultivator.

Derivable forms: kārṣaḥ (कार्षः).

See also (synonyms): kārṣaka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kārṣa (कार्ष).—m. (Sanskrit Gr.), plowman: Divyāvadāna 463.8 (prose) (pañca) kārṣa-śatāny, probably error; in the sequel, 463.11 ff., repeatedly replaced by kārṣaka (Sanskrit); same passage Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.71.3 ff. kārṣika (Sanskrit, KSS.) thruout.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karṣa (कर्ष).—mn.

(-rṣaḥ-rṣaṃ) A weight of gold or silver, a Karsha equal to sixteen Mashas; this, according to the ancient division of five Rettis to the Masha, would make the Karsha equal to about 176 grains troy; in common use, eight Rettis are given to the Masha and the Karsha is therefore about 280 grains troy: see māsa and raktika. m.

(-ṣaḥ) 1. Drawing, dragging, pulling. 2. Ploughing. 3. Attracting. 4. Beleric myrobalan: see vibhītaka. E. kṛṣ to plough, ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karṣa (कर्ष).—i. e. kṛṣ + a, I. m. Dragging, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 217. Ii. m. and n. A certain weight, equal to 16 māṣas, about 280 troy grains, [Suśruta] 2, 175, 15.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karṣa (कर्ष).—[masculine] drawing, ploughing, agriculture; a cert. weight.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karṣa (कर्ष):—m. (√kṛṣ), the act of drawing, dragging, [Pāṇini]

2) (with and without halasya) ploughing, agriculture, [Āpastamba-dharma-sūtra; Yājñavalkya ii, 217]

3) ‘anything scratched off’ See kṣāma-karṣa-miśra

4) mn. a weight of gold or silver (= 16 Māṣas = 80 Rettis = 1/4 Pala = 1/400 of a Tulā = about 176 grains troy; in common use 8 Rettis are given to the Māṣa, and the Karṣa is then about 280 grains troy), [Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.

5) Terminalia Bellerica (also called akṣa q.v.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) a boat, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Kārśa (कार्श):—m. Curcuma Zedoaria, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) Kārṣa (कार्ष):—m. (√kṛṣ; [gana] chattrādi), ‘one who ploughs’, a peasant, husbandman, [Divyāvadāna]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karṣa (कर्ष):—[(rṣaḥ-rṣaṃ)] 1. m. n. A weight of gold or silver, 280 grains.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Karṣa (कर्ष) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kaḍḍha, Karisa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Karsha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Karṣa (ಕರ್ಷ):—

1) [noun] the act of attracting, pulling, drawing.

2) [noun] the act of ploughing.

3) [noun] an old unit of weight of gold or silver.

4) [noun] the rubbing of gold on the touchstone for testing.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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