Dhanya, Dhanyā, Dhānya, Dhānyā, Dhaṇya: 20 definitions
Dhanya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Dhanyā (धन्या) is the name of a beautiful damsel (kanyā), with black curly hair and red lips, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 92. Dhanyā (and other innumerable ladies) arose out of the agitation of Vaiṣṇavī while she was doing penance at Viśālā. For these young women, Vaiṣṇavī created the city Devīpura, containing numerous mansions with golden balconies, crystal stairs and water fountains, with jewelled windows and gardens.
Vaiṣṇavī is the form of Trikalā having a red body representing the energy of Viṣṇu. Trikalā is the name of a Goddess born from the combined looks of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara (Śiva).
The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Dhānya (धान्य) refers to “rice”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Rice seems to have been the principal food of the Kaśmīrīs Its three varieties, namely, Śāli, Taṇḍula and Śyāmāka have been referred to (verses 135, 324,535, 732, 743, 781). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Dhānya (धान्य) refers to “grain”, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.15. Accordingly, “a charitable gift given to a needy person yields the utmost benefit. If it is given after entreaties it yields only half the benefit. [...] Gift of food-grains (dhānya and anna) is conducive to the increase of food production”.
2) Dhānya (धान्य) refers to “grains and pulses”, which are used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] now, O excellent one, listen to the quantity of and the benefit accruing from grains and pulses (dhānya) in their use for worship of Śiva. Heaping up rice grains (taṇḍula) by way of worship causes prosperity. Six and a half prastha, and two palas of rice grains constitute a hundred thousand in number of grains. These shall be used in their unsplit form for the worship of Śiva”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Dhanyā (धन्या).—The Vaiśya caste of Krauñcadvīpa.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 53.
1b) A daughter of Manas; wife of Dhruva; gave birth to a son Śiṣṭa.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 38.
2) Dhānya (धान्य).—18 kinds of corn mentioned for making gifts.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 276. 7; 277. 11.
1) Dhānya (धान्य) refers to one of the various kinds of articles used for donation, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the tenth chapter contains the praise and classification of donations. It narrates the characteristics of proper recipients and the results of giving different kinds of articles like Bhūmi, Vidyā, Anna, Jala, Tila, Vāsa, Dīpa, Yāna, Śayyā, Dhānya, Aśva, Śāka, Indhana, Chatra, Auṣadha, Go, etc.
2) Dhānya (धान्य) refers to one of the four sons of Dhruva: the son of Uttānapāda and grandson of Manu-svāyaṃbhuva and Śatarūpā, according to the Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the Saurapurāṇa.—Accordingly, [...] Uttānapāda’s son was Dhruva who achieved the highest place of worshipping Nārāyaṇa. Dhruva had four sons—Sṛṣṭi, Dhanya, Harya and Śaṃbhu; they all were Vaiṣṇavas.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)
Dhānya (धान्य) refers to “corn with the husk”.—The taṇḍulas are the unhusked grains, piṣṭa is the ground flour. In Sanskrit a distinction is made between śasya, the corn in the field, dhānya, corn with the husk, taṇḍula, grains without husks, anna, roasted grains.
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Dhānya (धान्य) refers to “grain” (or, “barley”), mentioned in verse 3.45 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] as the (humours and the gastric fire) irritate one another this way, one shall turn to all (substances) that (are) applicable to all humours and promotive of the (gastric) fire: a cathartic enema after one’s body has been purged (with a vomitive etc.), old grain [viz., jīrṇa-dhānya], prepared soups, game-meat, broths, old wine and ariṣṭa liqueur [...]”.
Note: jīrṇaṃ dhānyam (“old grain”) (that is, according to Indu’s comment on v. 20, five- or six-month-old grain) has been replaced by yaṅ-bag (“early-barley meal”) and treated as an adjunct of rasa (“soup”), with kṛta (“prepared”) having been omitted. It is not impossible that the translators had a jīrṇadhānyarasān before them.
The Tibetans distinguish barley [viz., yaṅ-bag or dhānya] into three varieties:
- early (mgyogs-nas) barley,
- late (ser-mo) barley;
- middling (che-nas) barley;
the former is called alternatively khra-ma, drug-cu-nas, or yaṅ-ma and grows ripe in about 60 days (cf. Jäschke, Dict. p. 304, s. v. nas).Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Dhānya (धान्य) refers to “food grains” according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The author explains the characteristics and the properties of various food grains (dhānyas).
Grains are divided into three:—
- śūkadhānya (awned grains),
- śimbīdhānya (grains with pods),
- tṛṇadhānya (grassy grains).
The section śūkadhānya includes the varieties and properties of rice (śāli), wheat (godhūma) and barley (yava). In śimbīdhānya-prakaraṇa the properties of grains with pods such as mudga (green gram), māṣa (black-gram), caṇaka (bengal gram), kalāya (field pea), tila (sesame), atasī (linseed), sarṣapa (mustard) and masūra (lentils) are explained. Tṛṇadhānya-prakaraṇa discusses the varieties and properties of grassy grains such as kaṅgu (foxtail millet), kadrava (kodo millet), śyāmāka, varaka and kurī (common millet).
Dhānya or “grains” is used to prepare oils (taila) from according to the same work.—Taila-prakaraṇa describes the properties of the oil prepared from [viz., dhānya (grains), etc.].Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā
Dhānya (धान्य) or Dhānyaka refers to the medicinal plant Coriandrum sativum L., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal. The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Dhānya] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
Dhānya (धान्य, “grain”) represents one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment). Dhānya is listed in Śvetāmbara sources such as Devagupta’s Nava-pada-prakaraṇa with Laghu-vṛtti (58), and in Digambara sources such Cāmuṇḍarāya’s Caritrasāra (p. 7).
There is no unanimity on the number of varieties of dhānya: the earlier Śvetāmbaras name seven or eight sorts, Hemacandra and Siddhasena Sūri fix the figure at seventeen, whilst Devendra (and with him later writers such as Ratnaśekhara and Yaśovijaya) prefers a list of twenty-four drawn from the Daśavaikālikaniryukti. Here is Hemacandra’s list:
- vrīhi (rice),
- yava (barley),
- masūra (lentils),
- godhūma (wheat),
- mudga (the pulse, Phaseolus mungo),
- māṣa (the pulse, Phaseolus radiatus),
- tila (sesamum),
- aṇava (the grain, Panicum miliaceum),
- caṇaka (chickpeas),
- priyaṅgu (Italian millet, Panicum italicum),
- kodrava (the grain, Paspalum scrabiculatum),
- sana (hemp),
- kalāya (a kind of pulse),
- kulattha (the pulse, Dolichos uniflorus),
- makuṣṭa (the pulse, Phaseolus aconitifolius),
- śāli (rice),
- āḍhaki (the pulse, Cajanus indicus),
Dhaṇya (धण्य) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Dhaṇya] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Dhānya.—cf. sa-hiraṇya-dhānya-praṇaya-pradeya (IE 8-5); pro- duce of the fields, a share of which was payable to the king or landlord; cf. dhāny-ādāya. Note: dhānya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
ḍhāṇyā (ढाण्या).—a (ḍhāṇa) Extremely sout--a fruit. 2 Spotted--a serpent, a leopard &c.
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dhanya (धन्य).—a (S) Blessed, happy, beatus; that has attained or accomplished the end of his existence or the object of his desires.
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dhanya (धन्य).—interj Bravo! noble! capital! well done! dhanya vāṭaṇēṃ in. con. To think highly of one's own self or doings.
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dhanya (धन्य).—f (S) Blessedness, beatification, consummated and crowned state.
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dhānya (धान्य).—n (S) pop. dhāna n Corn or grain gen. and, by preeminence, rice (rice in its husk). 2 In the navarātra some grains of rice or wheat are sow in an little earth which is put around dēvī, or in caitra around gaurī. These grains, when grown, are called dhāna. 3 Blades of corn stuck in the turban at the dasarā. dhānyapalālanyāya The law of the corn and its straw. Conquer the king and you conquer his subjects; accomplish or acquire a matter and you attain all it sustains or involves.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
ḍhāṇyā (ढाण्या).—a very sour. Spotted.
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dhanya (धन्य).—a Blessed, happy. interj Bravo! well done! dhanya vāṭaṇēṃ in. con. To think high- ly of one's own self or doings.
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dhānya (धान्य).—n dhāna n Corn or grain gen.; and (by pre-eminence,) rice.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Dhanya (धन्य).—a. [dhanaṃ labdhā-yat]
1) Bestowing or conferring wealth; धन्यं यशस्यं पुत्रीयमायुष्यं विजयावहम् (dhanyaṃ yaśasyaṃ putrīyamāyuṣyaṃ vijayāvaham) Mb.1.67. Ms.3.16; धन्यानि शास्त्राण्यवेक्षेत (dhanyāni śāstrāṇyavekṣeta) 4.19.
2) Wealthy, rich opulent.
3) Blessed, fortunate, lucky, happy; धन्यं जीवनमस्य मार्गसरसः (dhanyaṃ jīvanamasya mārgasarasaḥ) Bv.1.16;4.37; धन्या केयं स्थिता ते शिरसि (dhanyā keyaṃ sthitā te śirasi) M.1.1.
4) Excellent, good, virtuous; धन्योऽसि कृतकृत्योऽसि पावितं ते कुलं त्वया । यदविद्याबन्धमुक्त्या ब्रह्मीभवितु- मिच्छसि (dhanyo'si kṛtakṛtyo'si pāvitaṃ te kulaṃ tvayā | yadavidyābandhamuktyā brahmībhavitu- micchasi) || Vivekachūdāmaṇi.
5) Wholesome, healthy; (idaṃ pāyasaṃ) प्रजाकरं गृहाण त्वं धन्यमारोग्यवर्धनम् (prajākaraṃ gṛhāṇa tvaṃ dhanyamārogyavardhanam) Rām.1.16.19.
-nyaḥ 1 A lucky or blessed man, a fortunate being; धन्यास्तदङ्गरजसा मलिनीभवन्ति (dhanyāstadaṅgarajasā malinībhavanti) Ś.7.17; Bh.1.41; धन्यः कोऽपि न विक्रियां कलयते प्राप्ते नवे यौवने (dhanyaḥ ko'pi na vikriyāṃ kalayate prāpte nave yauvane) 1.72.
2) An infidel, an atheist.
3) Name of a spell.
4) A source of wealth; धन्यानामुत्तमं दाक्ष्यं धनानामुत्तमं श्रुतम् (dhanyānāmuttamaṃ dākṣyaṃ dhanānāmuttamaṃ śrutam) Mb.3.313.74.
-nyā 1 A nurse.
3) Myrobalan; L. D. B.
-nyam 1 Wealth, treasure.
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Dhānya (धान्य).—[dhāne poṣaṇe sādhu yat]
1) Grain, corn, rice (for the distinction between sasya, dhānya, taṇḍula and anna see under taṇḍula). सस्यं क्षेत्रगतं प्रोक्तं सतुषं धान्यमुच्यते (sasyaṃ kṣetragataṃ proktaṃ satuṣaṃ dhānyamucyate).
3) A measure equal to four sesamum seeds.
Derivable forms: dhānyam (धान्यम्).
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See also (synonyms): dhānyāka.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-nya-nyā-nyaṃ) 1. Fortunate, well fated, lucky. 2. Good, virtuous. m.
(-nyaḥ) 1. An infidel, an atheist. 2. A virtuous or fortunate man. f.
(-nyā) 1. Emblic myrobalan. 2. A nurse. 3. Coriander. n.
(-nyaṃ) Wealth. E. dhana to produce, (grain, &c.) or dhana wealth, and yat affix of fitness.
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(-nyaṃ) 1. Corn in general, but especially rice, (Orizasativa.) 2. Coriander. 3. A measure equal to four Seasamum seeds. E. dhā to nourish (mankind), Unadi affix yat, and nuṭ augment. dhāne poṣaṇe sādhu yat .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Dhanya (धन्य).— i. e. dhana + ya, I. adj. 1. Bringing wealth, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 19. 2. Auspicious, Mahābhārata 8, 3606. 3. Fortunate, Mahābhārata 13, 937. Ii. m. A kind of pell, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 31, 8 Gorr.
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Dhānya (धान्य).—i. e. dhānā + ya, n. Corn, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 55.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Dhanya (धन्य).—[adjective] having or bringing wealth, wealthy, opulent; rich in, full of (—°); auspicious, fortunate.
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Dhānya (धान्य).—[adjective] consisting or made of grain or corn; [neuter] sgl. & [plural] corn i.[grammar], p. vant†.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Dhanya (धन्य) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—poet. Padyāvalī. See Vaidyadhanya.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Dhanya (धन्य):—[from dhan] a mfn. bringing or bestowing wealth, opulent, rich (ifc. full of), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
2) [v.s. ...] fortunate, happy, auspicious, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] good, virtuous, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. dhanika)
4) [v.s. ...] wholesome, healthy, [Caraka]
5) [v.s. ...] m. infidel, atheist, [Horace H. Wilson]
6) [v.s. ...] a spell for using or restraining magical weapons, [Rāmāyaṇa]
7) [v.s. ...] Vatica Robusta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] Name of a man, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] (cf. [Pāṇini 4-1, 110] [gana] aśvādi)
9) [v.s. ...] of the Vaiśyas in Krauñca-dvīpa, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
10) Dhanyā (धन्या):—[from dhanya > dhan] f. a nurse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) [v.s. ...] Emblic Myrobalan, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [v.s. ...] Name of Dhruva’s wife, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
13) [v.s. ...] (also n.) coriander, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) Dhanya (धन्य):—[from dhan] n. treasure, wealth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
15) b dhanyaka etc. See [column]1.
16) Dhānya (धान्य):—[from dhā] 1. dhānya mfn. consisting or made of grain, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]
17) [v.s. ...] n. corn, grain, [ib.] etc. etc. (according to, [Suśruta] only śālayaḥ, ṣaṣṭikāḥ & vīhayaḥ, the other grains being ku-dhānya q.v.)
18) [v.s. ...] a measure = 4 sesamum seeds, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) [v.s. ...] n. coriander (also f(ā). ), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
20) [v.s. ...] n. Cyperus Rotundus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
21) [v.s. ...] a kind of house, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]
22) 2. dhānya n. ([from] dhana) the being rich, richness, [Dhātupāṭha xx, 3.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+87): Dhanya Vagha, Dhanya-hirany-adeya, Dhanya-hiranya, Dhanya-masha, Dhanya-varga, Dhanyabhanu, Dhanyabhiksha, Dhanyabhra, Dhanyabhraka, Dhanyabija, Dhanyacala, Dhanyacaladidanatattva, Dhanyacamasa, Dhanyacarin, Dhanyacaura, Dhanyachala, Dhanyachamasa, Dhanyachaura, Dhanyada, Dhanyadana.
Ends with (+55): Adhanya, Agradhanya, Agrimadhanya, Apradhanya, Aranyadhanya, Ashtadashadhanya, Bahudhanya, Bhrishtadhanya, Bijadhanya, Chattradhanya, Devadhanya, Dhanadhanya, Ekadhanya, Graishmikadhanya, Gramadhanya, Gramyadhanya, Grishmadhanya, Haritadhanya, Haumyadhanya, Homadhanya.
Full-text (+311): Dhanyata, Dhanyaka, Dhanyatva, Dhanyammanya, Dhanyavada, Taranidhanya, Dhanya-masha, Dhanyakrit, Trinadhanya, Shukadhanya, Dhanyamaya, Dhanyacala, Aranyadhanya, Dhanyasthi, Haumyadhanya, Dhanyavardhana, Dhanyottama, Mishradhanya, Dhanya Vagha, Dhanyastotra.
Search found 41 books and stories containing Dhanya, Dhanyā, Dhānya, Ḍhāṇyā, Dhānyā, Dhaṇya; (plurals include: Dhanyas, Dhanyās, Dhānyas, Ḍhāṇyās, Dhānyās, Dhaṇyas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 3: Dhanya < [Chapter X - Stories of Daśārnabhadra, Śālibhadra and Dhanyaka]
Seventeen kinds of grain < [Notes]
Part 7: Birth as Dhūsarī, wife of Dhanya < [Chapter III - Vasudeva’s Marriage with Kanakavatī and her Former Incarnations]
Śrī Hari-bhakti-kalpa-latikā (by Sarasvati Thkura)
Bhajana-Rahasya (by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura Mahasaya)
Text 19 < [Chapter 7 - Saptama-yāma-sādhana (Pradoṣa-kālīya-bhajana–vipralambha-prema)]
Text 1 < [Chapter 4 - Caturtha-yāma-sādhana (Madhyāhna-kālīya-bhajana–ruci-bhajana)]
Text 15 < [Chapter 5 - Pañcama-yāma-sādhana (Aparāhna-kālīya-bhajana–kṛṣṇa-āsakti)]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 1.2.209 < [Part 2 - Devotional Service in Practice (sādhana-bhakti)]
Verse 2.4.44 < [Part 4 - Transient Ecstatic Disturbances (vyābhicāri-bhāva)]
Verse 2.1.384 < [Part 1 - Ecstatic Excitants (vibhāva)]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 2: Minerals (uparasa) (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 3 - Purification of Mica < [Chapter I - Uparasa (1): Abhra or Abhraka (mica)]
Part 4 - Process for creation of Dhanya-abhra (paddy mica) < [Chapter I - Uparasa (1): Abhra or Abhraka (mica)]
Part 9 - Liquefaction of mica < [Chapter I - Uparasa (1): Abhra or Abhraka (mica)]