Mathara, Māṭhara, Māthara, Maṭhara: 14 definitions


Mathara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Māṭhara (माठर) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Māṭhara) various roles suitable to them.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Māṭhara (माठर).—A demigod deputed by Indra to serve Sūrya (Sun). This demigod always sits on the right side of Sūrya, (Brahma Parva, Bhaviṣya Purāṇa).

2) Māṭhara (माठर).—One of the Aṣṭādaśavināyakas (Eighteen Vināyakas). (Sāmba, 16).

3) Māṭhara (माठर).—An ācārya (teacher). He is believed to be the author of the book Sāṅkhyakārikāvṛtti. (Kauṣītakī Brāhmaṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Māṭhara (माठर).—A Śrutaṛṣi.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 33. 3.

1b) The sacred forest in the Vindhyas fit for śrāddha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 13. 33; Vāyu-purāṇa 77. 33.

1c) Kaśyapa gotrakāras.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 199. 2.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

(v.l. Matthara).

A parrot belonging to Mahosadha. When Mahosadha wished to find out the plans of Culani Brahmadatta, he sent Mathara to the mynah that lived in Culanis bedchamber. Mathara made love to her, pretending that he had come from Aritthapura to ask her to marry him, because his first wife (also a mynah) had been killed by a hawk. He related the stories of Vasudeva and Jambavati and of Vaccha and Rattavati, to prove that husband and wife need not be equal in birth. Having won her heart and discovered Culanis secrets, Mathara flew back to Mahosadha ( He is identified with Ananda.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Māṭhara (माठर) is the name of a Brāhmin and master of teaching (upadeśa) from Rājagṛha according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XVI). Accordingly, “Because this man [Māṭhara] was very skillful in debate, the king had given him as a privilege a large village situated not far from the capital. This Māṭhara married and his wife bore a daughter; because the eyes of this young girl resembled those of the Chö li (śāri, the heron) bird, she was called Śāri; later the mother bore a son whose knee-bones were very big, and for that reason he was called Kiu hi lo (Kauṣṭhila). After this Brāhmin married, he was busy raising his son and daughter; he forgot all the holy books he had studied and he did not put his mind to acquiring new knowledge”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: The Chronological History of Buddhism

During the reign of Bimbisara, a Mathara Brahmana of Nalada village (Nalanda) visited his court. This Brahmana was the author of Matharashastra. Undoubtedly, Matharashastra is the famous “Matharavritti”, a commentary on Sankhya Karikas of Ishvarakrishna. Therefore, Sankhya philosopher Ishvarakrishna must be dated before 2000 BC.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Epigraphia Indica Vol. 1 (1892)

Māṭhara (माठर) is the name of a Brāhman mentioned in the Pallava grant of king Śivaskandavarman. He is als known as Māḍhara. The Prākrit Pallava king Śivaskandavarman of Kāñcī, who was affiliated to the Brahmanical gotra of the Bhāradvājas, confirmed and enlarged, in the eighth year of his reign, a donation, made formerly by the great king, the lord Bappa (i.e., probably his father), to certain Brahmans (eg., Māṭhara), who resided at Āpiṭṭi or Āpiṭṭī, and were bhojakas, i.e., probably freeholders of the vilalge Chillarekakoḍuṃka or Chillerekakoḍuṃka.

According to the 4th-century Pallava grant, “... and we grant here an immunity (viz.) the garden in Chillarekakoḍuṃka, which was formerly given by the great king, the lord Bappa, a giver of many krors of gold and of one hundred thousand ox-ploughs,—while he made (the gift) a means of the increase of the merit, longevity, power and fame of (his) own family and race —to the Brāhmans, freeholders of Chillarekakoḍuṃka (and) inhabitants of Āpiṭṭi, (viz.) ... to Māḍhara (Māṭhara) two shares of the produce ...”

Source: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)

Māṭhara is the name of an ancient dynasty, as mentioned in the “Pedda-Dugam plates of Śatrudamana” (5th century A. D.). The Māṭharas, who originally ruled from Piṣṭapura, appear to have ousted the Pitṛbhaktas from Central Kaliṅga. The Ragolu plates, issued by the Māṭhara king Śaktivarman from Piṣṭapura, record a grant of land in the neighbourhood of Siṃhapura.

These plates (mentioning Māṭhara) were discovered in the course of digging the earth for the foundation of a house at the village of Pedda-Dugam in the Narasannapet Taluk of the Srikakulam District, Andhra State. It was issued to the villagers headed by Brāhmaṇas and others, residing at the three localities called Duhāgrāma, Vasuvāṭaka and Govāṭaka.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Maṭhara (मठर).—a.

1) Intoxicated, drunk.

2) Hard, harsh (sound).

--- OR ---

Māṭhara (माठर).—

1) Name of Vyāsa.

2) A Brāhmaṇa.

3) A distiller (śauṇḍika Sk.)

4) One of the attendants on the sun (pāripārśvika); तैरेव फलपत्रैश्च स माठरमतोषयत् (taireva phalapatraiśca sa māṭharamatoṣayat) Mb.12. 292.8.

5) Name of a Gotra; माठरोऽस्मि गोत्रेण (māṭharo'smi gotreṇa).

Derivable forms: māṭharaḥ (माठरः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Māṭhara (माठर).—name of a brahman, father of Śārī: Avadāna-śataka ii.186.7.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maṭhara (मठर).—m.

(-raḥ) The name of a Muni or saint. f.

(-rā) Intoxicated. E. mat to respect, Unadi aff. arac, and ṭha substituted for the radical final.

--- OR ---

Māṭhara (माठर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. One of the sun’s attendants. 2. The poet Vyasa. 3. Name of a Muni. 4. A distiller. E. man to reverence, aran Unadi aff., ṭhac substituted for the radical final, and the vowel optionally long; also māṭharya .

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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