Sumangala, aka: Sumaṅgala, Su-mangala, Sumaṅgalā; 7 Definition(s)

Introduction

Sumangala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana

Sumaṅgalā (सुमङ्गला).—A female attendant of Subrahmaṇya. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 12).

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

Sumaṅgala (सुमङ्गल).—A Janapada of the Bhadrā continent.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 43. 19.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Vastushastra (architecture)

1) Sumaṅgala (सुमङ्गल) refers to a variety of prāsāda (‘superstructure’, or, upper storey of any building), according to the Mayamata (5th-century guidebook on Dravidian architecture). It is part of the Dvitala (two-storey) group of prāsādas.

The Sumaṅgala variety has the following specifications and decorative motif components:

Number of talas (levels): 2;
Shape of grīva (neck) and śikhara (head): Rectangular (three stūpis)

2) Sumaṅgala (सुमङ्गल, “bringing good fortune”) refers to one of the twelve effects of āya (“profit”), according to the Mānasāra. Āya is the first of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular āya (eg., sumaṅgala) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). The twelve effects of āya may all be assumed as auspicious.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

Itihasa (narrative history)

Sumaṅgalā (सुमङ्गला) refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.45.12). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Sumaṅgalā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
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Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

1. Sumangala. Aggasavaka of Dipankara Buddha. J.i.29; Bu.ii.213.

2. Sumangala. One of the chief lay patrons of Kassapa Buddha (Bu.xxv.41; J.i.92).

He spread the ground with bricks of gold for a space of twenty usabhas and spent an equal sum on a monastery for the Buddha. . He saw a man sleeping, and thought to himself that the man must be a thief. The man conceived a grudge against Sumangala, and burned his fields seven times, cut the feet off the cattle in his pen seven times, and burned his house seven times. Then knowing that Sumangala loved the Buddhas Gandhakuti, he also set fire to that. It was burnt down by the time Sumangala could arrive there; seeing it, he clasped his hands, saying that now he could build another in its place. Then the thief went about with a knife concealed on him, waiting to kill Sumangala. One day Sumangala held a great almsgiving, at the conclusion of which he said: Sir, there is evidently an enemy of mine trying to do me harm. I have no anger against him, and will give over to him the fruits of this offering. The thief heard and was filled with remorse, and begged his forgiveness. The thief was later born as a peta on Gijjhakuta. DhA.iii.61f.

3. Sumangala. City of birth of Sujata Buddha (Bu.xiii.20; J.i.38). He preached his first sermon in the park in the city. BuA.168.

4. Sumangala. The city where Piyadassi Buddha preached to Palita and Sabbadassi, who later became his chief disciples. BuA.176.

5. Sumangala. A king of seven hundred kappas ago, a previous birth of Susarada (Phaladayaka) Thera. ThagA.i.167; Ap.i.161.

6. Sumangala. Nineteen kappas ago there were several kings of this name, previous births of Khitaka Thera. ThagA.i.209.

7. Sumangala Thera. He was born in a poor family in a hamlet near Savatthi. When he grew up, he earned his living in the fields. One day he saw Pasenadi hold a great almsgiving to the Order, and, seeing the food served to the monks, desired to enter the Order that he might lead a life of ease and luxury. A Thera to whom he confessed his desire ordained him, and sent him to the forest with an exercise for meditation. In solitude he pined and wavered, and finally returned to his village. As he went along he saw men working in the fields in the hot wind, with soiled garments, covered with dust. And thinking how miserable they were, he put forth fresh effort in his meditations, and, winning insight, attained arahantship.

In the past he saw Siddhattha Buddha (? Atthadassi Buddha) standing in one robe, after a bath. Pleased with this sight, he clapped his hands. One hundred and sixteen kappas ago he was twice king, under the name of Ekacintita. Thag.vs.43; ThagA.i.111f.; Ap.i.147f.

8. Sumangala Thera. An arahant. One hundred and eighteen kappas ago he was a brahmin. One day,

(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Sumaṅgala (सुमङ्गल) is the name of a village visited by Mahāvīra during his twelfth year of spiritual-exertion.—From Meḍhiyāgrāma he reached Kauśāmbī. After leaving Kauśāmbī, the Lord arrived at Campā city after passing through the villages Sumaṅgala, Suchettā, Pālaka etc. After four months fast, he completed the 12th cāturmāsa at the sacrificial hall of the Brahmin Svātidatta. Leaving that place the Lord arrived at Jambhiyagrāma.

(Source): HereNow4u: Lord Śrī Mahāvīra
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sumaṅgala (सुमङ्गल).—a.

1) very auspicious.

2) abounding in sacrifices.

Sumaṅgala is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and maṅgala (मङ्गल).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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