The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD)

by Yashoda Devi | 1933 | 138,355 words

This book recounts the History of the Andhra Pradesh Country from 1000 to 1500 A.D. including many dynasties (for example. the Reddis of Korukonda and the Eruva Chola of Rajahmundry)....

Part 50 - A New Family of the Telugu Cholas (Nellore)

A telugu chola ruler of the Telugu country, hither to unknown claims to have ruled over the country between Nellore and Kalingaka. He is known from a c.p. grant of three plates, but incomplete. The donor, king Sambhu choda, son of Rama choda traces his descent from Brahma through his son Kasyapa, whose son was Visvavasu (i.e. sun). In solar race was born Kusa and in his lineage was born Sambhu choda. His queen Periyanachchi was the daughter of Chitsukha


Sambhuchoda’s capital was Nellorehapura i e. probably Nellore. He defeated his enemies in a battle at Pithapur. He pleased god Bhairava who pointed out to him a hidden treasure on tbe Kotyadri hill. He had two sons, Agastivara choda and Shanmukha choda, born after the performance of Putrarthuyagna in the presence of gods at Ranmeru chelrole.

Sambhuchoda ruled for fifty years, for in the 50th year of his reign, when the battle with the king of Kalinga took place, he installed his two sons as Yuvarajas. Possibly, the installation preceded his march to the battle. On that occasion, he assembled his chief Provincial officers (rashtrakuta pramajcha) among whom find mention Periya sambhuraja and Chiriya Sambhuraya and ordered the gift of kummaduru on the Tungabhadra to the deities of Mandara and chebrole.

Sambhu choda lived in the 12th century A.D. as the palaeography of the record shows. So he must have owed allegiance to the chola emperors and their representatives.—the Velanandu chodas. His victories at Pithapur and Kalinga were secured probably when he along with other rulers in Vengi accompanied the cholas in their northward campaigns into Kalinga. The battles at Pithapur and Kalinga are not identical. One may agree with the epigraphist when he says “the king sambhuchoda was a chola must have got into power in the telugu country as a result of the chola canquest of Kalinga in the time of Kulottunga I and Vikrama chola.” But he is wrong when he says “They might have belonged to the family to which Rajanarayana Sambuvaraya belonged. The Sambunarayas must have accompanied the chola kings to the North to help them in the conquest of the Telugu country and continued to rule there subsequently as local officers.For despite the close similarity in names the Telugu cholas are distinct from the Sambuvarayas: for the former claim solar descent whereas the latter were of Pallava lineage besides the fact that the Sambuvaryas never ruled in the Telugu country.

In the 13th century A.D. a family of the Telugu cholas were ruling locally about Atmakur in Nellore district. Mahamandalesvara Vijayaditya deva Maharaja was the earliest know member of the family. His son was mahamandalesvara Malideva M. In A.D. 1290 Bmnamanayakudu, son of Mand Sunkinayakuni Kesavanayaka and grandson of Badhya Madraraju made a grant of Bayindi padu at Atmakur Badys madraraja’s prasasti begins with svastianekagunamanikirana lamkrita etc and has the epithets—lord of Orayur, Gaudara ganda and Jagamachchuganda. Thus he was a great hero and a popular ruler. His son Kesava was a Bayya who (?) bon many titles. These cholas are not heard of from other recordsSingayadeva Gadideva—the bearer of charana saroruh prasasti is evidently a Telugu chola ruler and is distinct from Singaya of the chekranarayana line of the yadavas of Addanki with whom he had been often confused by previous writers. Singayadeva Gadideva claims to be of the race of Karkala. Of his two records is from Edururallapadu (Darsi taluq) registering a grant to the deity at Pratishtapura by Kamminayadu, the governor of Tadlur, for the merit of Singayadeva Gadideva, the ruler of Nellore and Rudradeva M, the ruler of Kondavidu, his parents and himself.

The records show that Singayadeva also known as Perumandideva C.M. was a warrior as his title Sahattumalla shows He may be placed in the first half of the 13th century A D., as his son lived during the middle of that century. These cholas holding local sway in a portion of the Nellore district owed allegiance to the Kakatiyas, Ganapati and Rudrama as the latter finds place in Gadideva’s record. Gadideva styled himself the lord of Nellore.

In the 15th century A.D. a family of the Telugu cholas in the Guntur district was subordinate to the kings ofVijayanagar. From two records in Ongole dated A.D. 1426-27, a Vennusambeta Alamandala Nakayadeva Choda Tribhuvana is heard of. His son was Vira Anbaladeva C.M. who made two grants for the merit of his over lord Virabukka of Vijayanagar. These Telugu cholas were of solar lineage and had nothing in common with their namesakes in the Naga family.

Anbala’s record from Kanuparti dated A.D. 1426 records the grant of the village for the merit of Vijayabukkaraya Maharaya. son of Rajaparamesvara Viradevaraya Maharaya II and Demamba (i.e. Hemamba). The king is mentioned as Viraanbaladeva C.M. son of Alamandala Nakayadeva C.M. His other record with the same date and place records a gift of land to Brahmins. The record from Nagulappalapadu, dated A.D. 1428 relates to the above cholas reveals three generations. Tirumalaraja by Peddamadevulamma had a son—mahamandalesvara. Tribhuvana Venna Sambeta Alamandala Anavdhayadeva C.M. who by chennamadevalamma had a son Gangayadeva C.M. the donor. The exact relationship of Gangaya to Anbala is not known.

There were chief claiming chola descent even during the later Vijayanagar period Ramaya C.M. of solar race and Kasyapa gotra is known from a record at Jambai dated A.D~ 1507 of the reign of Viramarasingaraya, son of Saluva Narasingaraya of Vijayanagar. Tippaiyadeva M and his son Bogaiyadeva C M. entitled—Mahamandalesvara chola Kalatilaka and Urayyur puravaradadhis was a feudatory of Achyutaraya of Vijayanagar. Kanchiraju Rangayadeva M figuring in a record at Gopavaram (Cuddapah district) was a subordinate of Achyutaraya.

Mahamandalesvara Tribhuvana birudula Vennu Sanabeta Alamandala Kokolani deva C.M. is heard of from four records dated s 4564—a mistake for Koli 4590 at Ellore. The epithets borne by Deva C.M. are same as those of Alamandala Anbala and gangaya. So obviously Deva C.M. is another member that family of the Telugu cholas.

Apart the Telugu cholas in the Vijayanagar period, Professor Sastri says “In A.D. 1481 and 1530 we find inscriptions in the island of Srirangam recording gifts by Valaka Kamaya and Chennaya Balaya, both bearing the characteristic choda title Uraiyur puravaresvara” Some cholas are mentioned in the Kolinjavadi plates of Achyutaraya of Vijayanagar. Among the latest references to chieftains of chola extraction must be counted an interesting record from Kambhakonam of the grant of two villages for worship and offerings to Adikumbasvara by mahamandalesvara Gururaja Rudradeva Solu maharaja in s 1476 (A.D 1554).

Mahamandalesvara Brahmideva C.M. grandson of a certain Brahmideva and Bhogaladevi is heard of from a record at Moparru (Pulivendla taluq) dated A.D. 1309-10 Virabijjadeva, bearing many titles similar to those of Nellore cholas, is heard of from an inscription at Tuduru (Siddhavatam taluq). One of his titles is Rajagandagopala.

King Baddena occupies an important place in Telugu literature. He w'as of solar race and some of his titles are—lord of the country to the south of the Krishna, Vagichalukyamalasthambha, ripudalika kumbha, Nannagandhavarama, dasadisabharananka, ravikulasekhara and narendrachaturanana.

His records are few and his date cannot be determined with accuracy and neither the country of his rule. One author makes him a feudatory of Bhavanaikamalla i.e. Somesvara III of the chalukyas of Kalyani. On the basis of his titles Nannichodanarendra, bhupadilipa and Nannagandharavarana, his identity with Nannichoda, the author of Kumarasambhava and with Nannayagandhavarana, the minister of Siddhaya and grand father of Siddhanamantri, to whom Vikramarka charitra is dedicated has been suggested. But all these datas are baseless and wrong. The date of Nanichoda himself is far from certain and Gandhavarana lived about A.D. 1440 to 1450.

Tradition has it that Gorytla bavi, mentioned in Beddana’s work is at a distance of four miles from Baddevole. So he must have ruled in its neighbourhood. But it seems more probable that he ruled in Shatsahasra—in the 2nd part of the 13th century A.D. after the Velanandu kingdom ceased to exist. His only record is dated A.D. 1261. And he must have inherited the titles indicating the lordship over Shatsahasra and chief pillar of Vengi chalukyas from the Velanandu ohodas in whose prasasti they are found. Baddena was also known as Bhadrabhupala and perhaps Nannichoda. He was a warrior as indicated by his titles—dilipa among kings, and breaker of heads of enemies.

Mahamandalesvara Karikaladeva C M. and the Mottavadi district find mention in a Tripurantakam epigraph of A.D. 1168 and the 37th year of Kulottunga II. Mahamandalesvara Vijayadeva C.M. son of Karikala C.M. is heard of from a record at Kandra Multa dated A.D. 11 (65). Obviously ICarikalas of the two records are identical and Vijayadeva’s titles are identical with those of Tribhuvanamalla C.M. Another Karikala was during about A.D. 1350. For in A.D. 1353, a nayaka made some grants for the merit of Ramanayaka. His titles show that he was the lord of Alakuntala and capturer of the forts—belonging to Karikala chola and the beheader of Manmamallideva.

In a record at Tripurantakam dated A.D. 1343, some Telugu chola chiefs are mentioned. A chola feudatory bearing the usual chola birudas is heard of from an inscription at Sangamesvaram. Bhimarasa of the Telugucholas is known, from a record at Siddharamapuram. Mahamandalesvara Harideva C.M. a feudatory ot Ganapathi of the Kakatiyas is heard of from the records at Gangavaram (Darsi taluq). Pantadeva C.M. is heard of from a record at Kochcherla Kota dated A.D. 1177. Nilkantha C.M. made grants at Ramakuru either in A.D. 1277 or 1337, as the saka year in the inscription is indefinite. Sankara choda M, his queen Padmaladevi and daughter Mallakanidevi figure in a record at Gangavaram (Mahboobnagar taluq) of the reign of Trailokyamalla. Biddana C.M. and Nirugani C.M. are heard of from records.

Jata choda of the Telugu cholas figures in a record at Conjeevaram dated A.D. 1000, He bore many titles and was captured by Rajaraja I of the cholas. Choda maharaja alias Permandideva of Manduru and his wife Rekamahdevi figure in a record at Komuvuru dated A.D. 1129.

Mahamandalesvara choda maharaja Narapatiraju and his son Narapatraju are heard of from a record at Ellore, dated A.D. 1228. Tinmadeva maharaja and his sons one of whom is mahamandalesvara Dasavarmadeva M are mentioned in a record dated A.D. 1322 at Chinnakraka. A choda is mentioned in a record at Nandigama, dated A.D. 1328. Vandadeva Gandarnganda Manyabhumi nayaningaru probably a Telugu chola is mentioned in a record at Yepuru. Madayya Narasimha of the race of Karikala is heard of from a record at Vulichi (Oagole taluq). A record dated A.D. 1447 in the reign of Mallikarjuna of Vijayanagar, at Annakkavur (North Arcot) mentions manamandalesvara Gurunathadeva C.M. Tondayyaraju of the solar race. Kasyapa gotra and Karikala lineage is in ntioned in a record at Kalujuvvalapadu. Apratimalla Immadi Rajayya, his son Ramarajayya and grand son mahamandalesvara Murtirajayadeva C.M. of Bharadvaja gotra made a grant of land at Vengipuram. A Telugu chola chief, lord of Kodurupura, of solar race and Kasyapa gotra made grants at Konakanchi. A record at Manikesvaram is dated in the 6th year of Mahamandalesvara Chodamadeva M. Jagatapi. Errayadeva C.M. and his agent Timmaraja figure in an inscription at Marudadu (North Arcot district). Mahamandalesvara Manmaramachandra was evidently a Telugu chola as a title of his is lord of Orayur. A Telugu chola chief bearing a prasasti—some of the titles being Lord of Orayur, a great warrior, destroyer of enemies and worshipper of Tripurantaka is heard of from a Draksharama epigraphMahamandalesvara Tribhuvana chakravarti Kulottunga Chodadeva, probably a Telugu Chola of the Nellore branch is heard of from a record undated at Candavaram. For, the epithet Tribhuvana chakravarti was borne by the Nellore cholas from the time of Tikka onwards.

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