Kurmi, Kūrmī: 9 definitions

Introduction:

Kurmi means something in Buddhism, Pali, Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Kūrmī (कूर्मी) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Kūrma forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jalacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jalacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Kūrmī] and Vīras are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife..

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Kurmi (कुर्मि) refers to “insects”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “[...] Thrown on the fire (agni), the body becomes ash (bhasman); devoured by insects (kurmi) it becomes dung (purīṣa); placed in the earth, it decays, decomposes, and becomes earth; put into the water, it swells up and decays or it is eaten by water-insects. Of all corpses (kuṇapa), that of man is the most impure: his impurities (aśucidharma) will be explained at length in reference to the nine concepts (navasaṃjñā). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kūrmī (कूर्मी) is the wife of Brahmaruci, according , according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.2 [origin of the rākṣasavaṃśa and vānaravaṃśa] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as Rāvaṇa said to Marutta: “There was a Brāhman, Brahmaruci, who was an ascetic. His wife, Kūrmī, became pregnant. One day some monks came there and one of them said: ‘It was, indeed, well done, that living in a house was abandoned from fear of worldly existence. How, pray, does living in a forest differ from living in a house, if you have relations with your wife again, your mind injured by sense-objects?’ Hearing that, Brahmaruci accepted the teaching of the Jinas and became a mendicant at once and Kūrmī became a laywoman next. [...]’”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kūrmi (कूर्मि).—& kūrmin v. tuvikūrmi & tuvikūrmin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kūrmī (कूर्मी):—[from kūrma] f. a female tortoise

2) Kūrmi (कूर्मि):—and rmin See tuvi-k.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kūrmī (कूर्मी) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kummī.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kurmi in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kūrmi (ಕೂರ್ಮಿ):—[noun] a female tortoise of Testudines order.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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