Kshara, Kṣāra: 20 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Kshara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kṣāra can be transliterated into English as Ksara or Kshara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Kṣāra (क्षार, “alkali”) refers to an alkaline substance. Alternatively, it can refer to any corrosive or acrid or saline substance.

Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Kshara means two things, viz, ashes and alkali. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)

Source: CCRAS: Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, Appendix I

Kṣāra is alkaline substance obtained from the ashes of different drugs. Cut the drug in to small pieces, dry and place in an earthen pot, burn to ashes. Al low the ash to cool down to room temperature and add 6 parts of water, mix well. Allow to settle down and decant the supernatant layers through a piece of clean cloth. Repeat the process of staining two or three times till a clear liquid is obtained. Heat the liquid over a moderate fire till the water evaporates completely, leaving a solid salty white substance at the bottom, which is known as Kṣāra .

Source: CBSE: Chemistry in India

Kṣāra (क्षार, “alkalis”).—Alkalis are described as mild, caustic or average and are prepared from specific plants: after the plants have been burnt together with some limestone, their ashes are then stirred in water, filtered, and the resulting so lution is concentrated by boiling, to which burnt limestone and conch shells are added. Such alkalis were used to treat surgical instruments as well as thin sheets of metals like iron, gold or silver intended for the preparation of drugs.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Kṣāra (क्षार) refers to an “alkaline substance” and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. An alkaline substance is a synonym for a soluble base.

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Kṣara (क्षर) refers to “alkali”, mentioned in verse 3.54-55 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] one shall stay at night on palace(-roof gardens that are) white with mortar and flooded by moonbeams. Dew, alkali [viz., kṣara], surfeit, curds, sesame-oil, lard, hot sun,—pungent liquor, sleep in the day-time, and easterly wind one shall eschew”.

Note: Kṣara (“alkali”) has been rendered by thal-sman, which literally signifies “ash-medicine”; cf. 1.38.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kṣāra (क्षार) refers to “acidic” (in taste) and represents a particular dietetic effect according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Accordingly, the dietetic effect vṛṣya is associated with the following conditions: Food utensils made of Hastikarṇīpatra (coral tree leaf).

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Kṣāra (क्षार) refers to “caustic alkali”, and is mentioned in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—The Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci is an example of this category. This book attracts reader by its very easy language and formulations which can be easily prepared and have small number of herbs (viz., Kṣāra). It describes only those formulations which are the most common and can be used in majority conditions of diseases.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Kṣara (क्षर) refers to “perishable”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Kṣāra (alkali) is a Sanskrit term used in Ayurveda.

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Kṣāra (क्षार, “salty”) or Kṣārasāgara refers to one of the “seven oceans” (sāgara) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 126). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., kṣāra). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kṣāra.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘five’. Note: kṣāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṣara (क्षर).—a S That drops, oozes, or wastes away.

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kṣāra (क्षार).—m (S) Salt in general; any of the natural or factitious salts. 2 Saltness. 3 Ashes. 4 Alkali, whether soda or potash. 5 Caustic alkali. 6 Used for pādēlōṇa or biḍalavaṇa q.v. Black salt.

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kṣāra (क्षार).—a (S) Saline, salt.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kṣara (क्षर).—a That drops, oozes, or wastes away.

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kṣāra (क्षार).—m Salt. Saltness. Ashes. Alkali. a Salt.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṣara (क्षर).—a. [kṣarati syandate muñcati vā, kṣar-ac]

1) Melting away.

2) Movable.

3) Perishable; क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽ क्षर उच्यते (kṣaraḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni kūṭastho' kṣara ucyate) Bg.15.16.

-raḥ A cloud.

-ram 1 Water.

2) The body; ततः सवेदनः सद्यो जीवः प्रच्यवते क्षरात् (tataḥ savedanaḥ sadyo jīvaḥ pracyavate kṣarāt) Mb.14.17.17.

3) Ignorance.

4) The Supreme Being.

5) Cause and effect.

6) The natural form (prakṛti); अक्षरक्षरयोरेव द्वयोः सम्बन्ध इष्यते (akṣarakṣarayoreva dvayoḥ sambandha iṣyate) Mb.12.35.1.

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Kṣāra (क्षार).—a. [kṣar-jvalā bā° ṇa]

1) Corrosive, caustic, acid, pungent, saline.

2) Flowing, oozing.

-raḥ 1 Juice, essence.

2) Treacle, molasses.

3) Any corrosive or acid substances; क्षते क्षारमिवासह्यं जातं तस्यैव दर्शनम् (kṣate kṣāramivāsahyaṃ jātaṃ tasyaiva darśanam) U.4.7; क्षारं क्षते प्रक्षिपन् (kṣāraṃ kṣate prakṣipan) Mk.5.18; (kṣāraṃ kṣate kṣip &c. has become proverbial, and means 'to aggravate the pain which is already unbearable', 'to make bad, worse', 'to add insult to injury').

4) Glass.

5) Salt; caustic alkali; Y.3.36.

6) Ashes.

7) A rogue, cheat.

-ram 1 Black salt.

2) Water.

3) See क्षारः (kṣāraḥ) (3); आः क्षते क्षारमेतन्मे क्षिप्तं केनेत्यभाषत (āḥ kṣate kṣārametanme kṣiptaṃ kenetyabhāṣata) Ks.93.14.

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Kṣāra (क्षार).—&c. See under क्षर् (kṣar).

Derivable forms: kṣāraḥ (क्षारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kṣara (क्षर).—(m.? = Pali khara, said by Jātaka (Pali) commentary to mean a saw, twice in Jātaka (Pali) verses.; used for cutting ivory or an elephant's tusk), a sharp cutting tool, perhaps a saw: Divyāvadāna 417.10 (verse) kṣareṇa jihvām atha kartayāmi (compare, in prec. line, chinnāmi(!) nāsām krakacena vāsyāḥ; [Page199-b+ 71] krakaca, saw, in its Pali form kakaca, is the Jātaka (Pali) commentary's definition of khara).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣara (क्षर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A cloud. 2. Trickling oozing. n.

(-raṃ) Water. E. kṣar to drop, and ac aff.

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Kṣāra (क्षार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Glass. 2. Juice, essence. 3. Molasses, treacle. 4. Salt. 5. Ashes. 5. A rogue, a cheat. 7. Borax, borate of soda. 8. Alkali, either soda or potash. 9. Caustic Alkali, one species of cautery. n.

(-raḥ) A factitious or medicinal salt, commonly black salt: see kṛṣṇalavaṇa. E. kṣar to prop, or distil, affix aṇ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣara (क्षर).—[kṣar + a], adj., f. , Perishable, Mahābhārata 2, 433; see akṣara.

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Kṣāra (क्षार).—i. e. kṣar + a, I. adj., f. , Salty, [Pañcatantra] 61, 11. Ii. m. 1. A burning corrosive substance, either soda or potash, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 73, 3. 2. Treacle, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 7, 4, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣara (क्षर).—[adjective] melting away, perishable; [neuter] the body.

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Kṣāra (क्षार).—[adjective] pungent, saline, sharp; [masculine] ([neuter]) any pungent or saline substance, as caustic alcali, saltpetre, natron, etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṣara (क्षर):—[from kṣar] mf(ā)n. ([gana] jvalādi) melting away, perishable, [Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata; Bhagavad-gītā]

2) [v.s. ...] m. a cloud, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] n. water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] the body, [Mahābhārata xiv, 470.]

5) Kṣāra (क्षार):—[from kṣar] a mf(ā)n. ([gana] jvalādi) caustic, biting, corrosive, acrid, pungent, saline, converted to alkali or ashes by distillation ([from] √kṣai?), [Rāmāyaṇa; Pañcatantra; Bhāgavata-purāṇa] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] sharp, keen (as the wind), [Kāvyādarśa ii, 104]

7) [v.s. ...] flowing water, flow, [Mānava-gṛhya-sūtra]

8) [v.s. ...] m. any corrosive or acrid or saline substance ([especially] an alkali such as soda or potash), caustic alkali (one species of cautery), [Kātyāyana; Yājñavalkya iii, 36; Mahābhārata] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] juice, essence, [Horace H. Wilson]

10) [v.s. ...] treacle, molasses, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] glass, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] n. any corrosive or acrid substance, [Kathāsaritsāgara xciii, 14]

13) [v.s. ...] a factitious or medicinal salt (commonly black salt, viḍ-lavaṇa and kṛṣṇa-l), [Horace H. Wilson]

14) [v.s. ...] water, [Horace H. Wilson]

15) b raka, raṇa, etc. See √kṣar.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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