Kshara, Kṣāra: 31 definitions


Kshara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kṣāra can be transliterated into English as Ksara or Kshara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Kṣara (क्षर) refers to “perishable”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Kṣāra (क्षार, “alkali”) refers to an alkaline substance. Alternatively, it can refer to any corrosive or acrid or saline substance.

Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Kshara means two things, viz, ashes and alkali. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)

Source: CCRAS: Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, Appendix I

Kṣāra is alkaline substance obtained from the ashes of different drugs. Cut the drug in to small pieces, dry and place in an earthen pot, burn to ashes. Al low the ash to cool down to room temperature and add 6 parts of water, mix well. Allow to settle down and decant the supernatant layers through a piece of clean cloth. Repeat the process of staining two or three times till a clear liquid is obtained. Heat the liquid over a moderate fire till the water evaporates completely, leaving a solid salty white substance at the bottom, which is known as Kṣāra .

Source: CBSE: Chemistry in India

Kṣāra (क्षार, “alkalis”).—Alkalis are described as mild, caustic or average and are prepared from specific plants: after the plants have been burnt together with some limestone, their ashes are then stirred in water, filtered, and the resulting so lution is concentrated by boiling, to which burnt limestone and conch shells are added. Such alkalis were used to treat surgical instruments as well as thin sheets of metals like iron, gold or silver intended for the preparation of drugs.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kṣāra (क्षार) refers to “acidic” (in taste) and represents a particular dietetic effect according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Accordingly, the dietetic effect vṛṣya is associated with the following conditions: Food utensils made of Hastikarṇīpatra (coral tree leaf).

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Kṣāra (क्षार) refers to “caustic alkali”, and is mentioned in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—The Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci is an example of this category. This book attracts reader by its very easy language and formulations which can be easily prepared and have small number of herbs (viz., Kṣāra). It describes only those formulations which are the most common and can be used in majority conditions of diseases.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Kṣāra (क्षार) is the name of an ingredient used in the treatment (cikitsā) of poison due to insects (Krimi or Kīṭa), according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—In the 12h adhyāya, Kāśyapasaṃhita adds external and internal antidotes for poisons of various animals and insects (kṛmi/krimi and kīṭa). [...] Accordingly, “Kṣāra or milky exudations of certain trees, Trikaṭu, Vacā, asafoetida, Vilaṅga, salt, Ambaṣṭhā, Ativiṣa and Kuṣṭḥa remove the poisons of all insects. Drink composed of Śatamūla, Trivṛt and ghee, also decimate poisons of all insects. Milk with Trikaṭu, Vyāghrapadī and ghee act as effective antivirus drugs”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Kṣāra (क्षार) refers to an “alkaline substance” and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. An alkaline substance is a synonym for a soluble base.

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Kṣara (क्षर) refers to “alkali”, mentioned in verse 3.54-55 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] one shall stay at night on palace(-roof gardens that are) white with mortar and flooded by moonbeams. Dew, alkali [viz., kṣara], surfeit, curds, sesame-oil, lard, hot sun,—pungent liquor, sleep in the day-time, and easterly wind one shall eschew”.

Note: Kṣara (“alkali”) has been rendered by thal-sman, which literally signifies “ash-medicine”; cf. 1.38.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Kṣāra (क्षार):—The dried materials are burnt in open air and the white ash is dissolved in prescribed quantity of water decanted & crystallised - Used as a medium for purification etc processes of the material and also in manufacturing of Ksharsutra including therapeutics.

2) Alkaline substances obtained from plants through a specific procedure.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Kṣara (क्षर) refers to “destruction”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] Within the Sky-farer is the Mistress of the Sky-farer (Khageśvarī). She is the sky-faring of the Sky-farers. (She is) Kaulinī who, beyond the Void, is established in the Void. (The goddess continued):  I (the goddess) am the (energy of Unstruck Sound called) the Female Gander of the Void (khahaṃsā), present in the Gander (of Unstruck Sound) and residing in the Void: I am the supreme energy in the world of transmigration. I am the Void and I have six parts. Completely full I am the Full Moon. In the middle of the lunar orb, beyond destruction (kṣarakṣarātītā), (I am) Kaulinī (the New Moon). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Kṣāra (क्षार) refers to a “salty taste”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] [Now], I shall define the nature of that highest, mind-free absorption which arises for those devoted to constant practice. [...] Just as the salty taste (kṣāra) intrinsically inherent [in salt,] is effortlessly obtained from a salty substance, so gnosis of Brahma [in the form of] cessation [which is intrinsically inherent in the mind] is effortlessly [obtained] from the mind. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Kṣāra (alkali) is a Sanskrit term used in Ayurveda.

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Kṣāra (क्षार, “salty”) or Kṣārasāgara refers to one of the “seven oceans” (sāgara) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 126). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., kṣāra). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Kṣāra (क्षार) refers to “corrosive liquid”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Here in the cycle of rebirth consisting of endless misfortune, sentient beings roam about repeatedly, struck down by spear, axe, vice, fire, corrosive liquid (kṣāra) or razor in hell, consumed by the multitude of flames from the fire of violent actions in the plant and animal world , and subject to unequalled trouble in the human condition [or] full of desire among the gods. [Thus ends the reflection on] the cycle of rebirth.”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kṣāra.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘five’. Note: kṣāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṣara (क्षर).—a S That drops, oozes, or wastes away.

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kṣāra (क्षार).—m (S) Salt in general; any of the natural or factitious salts. 2 Saltness. 3 Ashes. 4 Alkali, whether soda or potash. 5 Caustic alkali. 6 Used for pādēlōṇa or biḍalavaṇa q.v. Black salt.

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kṣāra (क्षार).—a (S) Saline, salt.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kṣara (क्षर).—a That drops, oozes, or wastes away.

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kṣāra (क्षार).—m Salt. Saltness. Ashes. Alkali. a Salt.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṣara (क्षर).—a. [kṣarati syandate muñcati vā, kṣar-ac]

1) Melting away.

2) Movable.

3) Perishable; क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽ क्षर उच्यते (kṣaraḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni kūṭastho' kṣara ucyate) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 15.16.

-raḥ A cloud.

-ram 1 Water.

2) The body; ततः सवेदनः सद्यो जीवः प्रच्यवते क्षरात् (tataḥ savedanaḥ sadyo jīvaḥ pracyavate kṣarāt) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 14.17.17.

3) Ignorance.

4) The Supreme Being.

5) Cause and effect.

6) The natural form (prakṛti); अक्षरक्षरयोरेव द्वयोः सम्बन्ध इष्यते (akṣarakṣarayoreva dvayoḥ sambandha iṣyate) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.35.1.

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Kṣāra (क्षार).—a. [kṣar-jvalā bā° ṇa]

1) Corrosive, caustic, acid, pungent, saline.

2) Flowing, oozing.

-raḥ 1 Juice, essence.

2) Treacle, molasses.

3) Any corrosive or acid substances; क्षते क्षारमिवासह्यं जातं तस्यैव दर्शनम् (kṣate kṣāramivāsahyaṃ jātaṃ tasyaiva darśanam) Uttararāmacarita 4.7; क्षारं क्षते प्रक्षिपन् (kṣāraṃ kṣate prakṣipan) Mṛcchakaṭika 5.18; (kṣāraṃ kṣate kṣip &c. has become proverbial, and means 'to aggravate the pain which is already unbearable', 'to make bad, worse', 'to add insult to injury').

4) Glass.

5) Salt; caustic alkali; Y.3.36.

6) Ashes.

7) A rogue, cheat.

-ram 1 Black salt.

2) Water.

3) See क्षारः (kṣāraḥ) (3); आः क्षते क्षारमेतन्मे क्षिप्तं केनेत्यभाषत (āḥ kṣate kṣārametanme kṣiptaṃ kenetyabhāṣata) Kathāsaritsāgara 93.14.

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Kṣāra (क्षार).—&c. See under क्षर् (kṣar).

Derivable forms: kṣāraḥ (क्षारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kṣara (क्षर).—(m.? = Pali khara, said by Jātaka (Pali) commentary to mean a saw, twice in Jātaka (Pali) verses.; used for cutting ivory or an elephant's tusk), a sharp cutting tool, perhaps a saw: Divyāvadāna 417.10 (verse) kṣareṇa jihvām atha kartayāmi (compare, in prec. line, chinnāmi(!) nāsām krakacena vāsyāḥ; [Page199-b+ 71] krakaca, saw, in its Pali form kakaca, is the Jātaka (Pali) commentary's definition of khara).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣara (क्षर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A cloud. 2. Trickling oozing. n.

(-raṃ) Water. E. kṣar to drop, and ac aff.

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Kṣāra (क्षार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Glass. 2. Juice, essence. 3. Molasses, treacle. 4. Salt. 5. Ashes. 5. A rogue, a cheat. 7. Borax, borate of soda. 8. Alkali, either soda or potash. 9. Caustic Alkali, one species of cautery. n.

(-raḥ) A factitious or medicinal salt, commonly black salt: see kṛṣṇalavaṇa. E. kṣar to prop, or distil, affix aṇ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣara (क्षर).—[kṣar + a], adj., f. , Perishable, Mahābhārata 2, 433; see akṣara.

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Kṣāra (क्षार).—i. e. kṣar + a, I. adj., f. , Salty, [Pañcatantra] 61, 11. Ii. m. 1. A burning corrosive substance, either soda or potash, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 73, 3. 2. Treacle, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 7, 4, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣara (क्षर).—[adjective] melting away, perishable; [neuter] the body.

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Kṣāra (क्षार).—[adjective] pungent, saline, sharp; [masculine] ([neuter]) any pungent or saline substance, as caustic alcali, saltpetre, natron, etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṣara (क्षर):—[from kṣar] mf(ā)n. ([gana] jvalādi) melting away, perishable, [Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata; Bhagavad-gītā]

2) [v.s. ...] m. a cloud, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] n. water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] the body, [Mahābhārata xiv, 470.]

5) Kṣāra (क्षार):—[from kṣar] a mf(ā)n. ([gana] jvalādi) caustic, biting, corrosive, acrid, pungent, saline, converted to alkali or ashes by distillation ([from] √kṣai?), [Rāmāyaṇa; Pañcatantra; Bhāgavata-purāṇa] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] sharp, keen (as the wind), [Kāvyādarśa ii, 104]

7) [v.s. ...] flowing water, flow, [Mānava-gṛhya-sūtra]

8) [v.s. ...] m. any corrosive or acrid or saline substance ([especially] an alkali such as soda or potash), caustic alkali (one species of cautery), [Kātyāyana; Yājñavalkya iii, 36; Mahābhārata] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] juice, essence, [Horace H. Wilson]

10) [v.s. ...] treacle, molasses, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] glass, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] n. any corrosive or acrid substance, [Kathāsaritsāgara xciii, 14]

13) [v.s. ...] a factitious or medicinal salt (commonly black salt, viḍ-lavaṇa and kṛṣṇa-l), [Horace H. Wilson]

14) [v.s. ...] water, [Horace H. Wilson]

15) b raka, raṇa, etc. See √kṣar.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṣara (क्षर):—(raḥ) 1. n. Water. m. A cloud; trickling, oozing.

2) Kṣāra (क्षार):—(raḥ) 1. m. Glass; juice; treacle; salt; ashes; borax; alkali; a cheat. n. A factitious salt.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kṣara (क्षर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Khara, Khāra, Chāra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kshara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kṣāra (क्षार) [Also spelled kshar]:—(nm) an alkali; —[guṇa] alkaline property; —[bhūmi] barren land.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kṣara (ಕ್ಷರ):—

1) [adjective] melting away; dissolving; disintegrating.

2) [adjective] tending to frequent change; that can be changed; mutable.

3) [adjective] having a gross body ( consisting of physical organs, but not subtle ones); mundane; earthly.

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Kṣāra (ಕ್ಷಾರ):—

1) [adjective] of, tasting of or containing salt; salty.

2) [adjective] of, like or having the properties of an alkali; alkaline.

3) [adjective] cutting or sarcastic in utterance; biting; caustic; pungent (said of speech); causing mental pain; stinging.

4) [adjective] flowing or leaking out slowly (as through very small holes); oozing; seeping; leaking.

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Kṣāra (ಕ್ಷಾರ):—

1) [noun] a chemical compound derived from an acid by replacing hydrogen, wholly or partly, with a metal or an electropositive radical; a chemical salt.

2) [noun] the quality of such a substance.

3) [noun] the white or greyish powder remaining after something has been thoroughly burned; ash.

4) [noun] a hard, brittle substance made by fusing silicates with soda or potash, lime, and, sometimes, various metallic oxides into a molten mass; glass.

5) [noun] that which lends a tang or piquancy; esp., sharp pungent humour or wit; a word, speech or remark made with an intention or inflicting pain to or to degrading, another.

6) [noun] (fig.) a wicked person; a scoundrel; a rogue.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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