Karman: 10 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Karman means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Studies in Hindu Law and Dharmaśāstra

Manu first lists (Manu-smṛti 10.75) the six acitivities (karman) of the Brāhmaṇa:

  1. Teach (adhyāpana),
  2. studying (adhyayana),
  3. performing his own sacrifices (yajana),
  4. performing sacrifices for others (yājana),
  5. giving gifts (dāna),
  6. receiving gifts (pratigraha)

these are the six activities of a Brāhmaṇa.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Karman (कर्मन्).—Object of a transitive verb defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. It is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. 1. Vikārya, when a transformation or change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity. 2. Prāpya, the object in which no change is seen by the action of the subject. 3. Nirvartya, when the object is brought into being under a specific name.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Karman (कर्मन्).—(l) object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् (karman) is that it is put in the accusative case; cf. कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया (karturīpsitatamaṃ karma, karmaṇi dvitīyā); P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म (karma) a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; cf. कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म (karturīpsitatamaṃ karma); तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् (tathāyuktaṃ cānīpsitam) ; अकथितं च (akathitaṃ ca) and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ (gatibuddhipratyavasānārthaśabdakarmākarmakāṇāmaṇi kartā sa ṇau) P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म (yat kriyate tat karma) Kāt. II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् (kartrāpyam) Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म (karturvyāpyaṃ karma) Hem. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity (क्रिया (kriyā)) as saṃpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṃpradāna etc. It is termed अकथितकर्म (akathitakarma) in such cases; cf. अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् (apādānādiviśeṣakathābhiravivakṣitamakathitam) Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित (akathita) above. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया (kriyā); it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् (uka, kta, ktavatu, tṛn), etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned above; cf. P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed (अभिहित (abhihita)) by a verbal termination (तिङ् (tiṅ)), or a verbal noun termination (कृत् (kṛt)), or a nounaffix (तद्धित (taddhita)), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. e.g. कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः (kaṭaḥ kriyate, kaṭaḥ kṛtaḥ, śatyaḥ, prāptodakaḥ grāmaḥ) etc. It is called अभिहित (abhihita) in such cases;cf. P.II.3.1.Sec the word अन-भिहित (ana-bhihita) above.The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम (īpsitatama) is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य (vikārya) when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति (kāṣṭhāni bhasmīkaroti, ghaṭaṃ bhinatti) etc. It is called प्राप्य (prāpya) when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति (grāmaṃ gacchati, ādityaṃ paśyati) etc. It is called निर्वर्त्य (nirvartya) when the object is brought into being under a specific name; e.g. घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति (ghaṭaṃ karoti, odanaṃ pacati); cf. निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् (nirvartye ca vikāryaṃ ca prāpyaṃ ceti tridhā matam | tatrepsitatamam) Padamañjarī on I.4.49: cf. also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Nyāsa on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम (īpsitatama) is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (anīpsita) (ग्रामं गच्छन् (grāmaṃ gacchan)) व्याघ्रं पश्यति (vyāghraṃ paśyati), (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य (audāsīnyena prāpya) or इतरत् (itarat) or अनुभय (anubhaya) e.g. (ग्रामं गच्छन् (grāmaṃ gacchan)) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति (vṛkṣamūlāni upasarpati), (c) अनाख्यात (anākhyāta) or अकथित (akathita) e.g. बलिं (baliṃ) in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (baliṃ yācate vasudhām) (d) अन्यपूर्वक (anyapūrvaka) e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते (akṣān dīvyati, grāmamabhiniviśate); cf. Padamañjarī on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित (prāpya, viṣayabhūta, nirvartya, vikriyātmaka, īpsita, anīpsita) and इतरत् (itarat), defining कर्म (karma) as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म (kartrā kriyayā yad āpyaṃ tat kārakaṃ karma); cf. कर्त्राप्यम् (kartrāpyam) Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and com. thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते (jenendramadhīte) is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत (viṣayabhūta). (2) The word कर्मन् (karman) is also used in the sense of क्रिया (kriyā) or verbal activity; cf. उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि (udenūrdhvakarmaṇi) P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च (ādikarmaṇi ktaḥ kartari ca) P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे (kartari karmavyatihāre) P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोग-द्योतका भवन्ति (nāmākhyātayostu karmopasaṃyoga-dyotakā bhavanti) Nir. I. 3.4, where Durgācārya explains karman as 'sense' (अर्थ (artha)).

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Karman.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘ten’. (EI 3), eight in kind. Note: karman is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karman (कर्मन्).—-m. Viśvakarmā; शक्रस्य नु सभा दिव्या भास्वरा कर्मनिर्मिता (śakrasya nu sabhā divyā bhāsvarā karmanirmitā) Mb.2.7.1. -n. [कृ-मनिन् (kṛ-manin) Uṇ.4.144]

1) Action, work, deed.

2) Execution, performance; प्रीतोऽस्मि सोऽहं यद् भुक्तं वनं तैः कृतकर्मभिः (prīto'smi so'haṃ yad bhuktaṃ vanaṃ taiḥ kṛtakarmabhiḥ) Rām.5.63.3.

3) Business, office, duty; संप्रति विषवैद्यानां कर्म (saṃprati viṣavaidyānāṃ karma) M.4.

4) A religious rite (it may be either nitya, naimittika or kāmya).

5) A specific action, moral duty.

6) (a) Performance of religious rites as opposed to speculative religion or knowledge of Brahman (opp. jñāna); अपरो दहृने स्वकर्मणां ववृते (aparo dahṛne svakarmaṇāṃ vavṛte) R.8.2. (b) Labour, work.

7) Product, result.

8) A natural or active property (as support of the earth).

9) Fate, the certain consequence of acts done in a former life; कर्मायत्तं फलं पुंसां बुद्धिः कर्मानुसारिणी (karmāyattaṃ phalaṃ puṃsāṃ buddhiḥ karmānusāriṇī) Bh.2.89,94.

1) (In gram.) The object of of an action; कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म (karturīpsitatamaṃ karma) P.I.4.49.

11) (In Vaiś. Phil.) Motion considered as one of the seven categories of things; (thus defined:-- ekadravyamaguṇaṃ saṃyogavibhāgeṣvanapekṣakāraṇaṃ karma Vaiś. Sūtra. (It is five-fold:-utkṣepaṇaṃ tato'vakṣepaṇamākuñcanaṃ tathā | prasāraṇaṃ ca gamanaṃ karmāṇyetāni pañca ca || Bhāṣā P.6.)

12) Organ of sense. प्रजापतिर्ह कर्माणि ससृजे (prajāpatirha karmāṇi sasṛje) Bṛ. Up.1.5.21.

13) Organ of action; कर्माणि कर्मभिः कुर्वन् (karmāṇi karmabhiḥ kurvan) Bhāg.11.3.6.

14) (In Astr.) The tenth lunar mansion.

15) Practice, training; सर्वेषां कर्मणा वीर्यं जवस्तेजश्च वर्धते (sarveṣāṃ karmaṇā vīryaṃ javastejaśca vardhate) Kau. A.2.2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karman (कर्मन्).—i. e. kṛ + maṇ, n. 1. Action, Bhāṣāp. 5; [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 2, 28. 2. Work, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 22, 17. 3. Business, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 18, 42 sqq.; [Pañcatantra] 7, 9. 4. Religious action as sacrifice, etc., Chr. 296, 2 = [Rigveda.] i. 112, 2. 5. The actions of a former life as the cause of men’s subsequent births and fate, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 77; cf. karmatas, and [Pañcatantra] 134, 9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karman (कर्मन्).—[neuter] action, deed, work, [especially] holy work, sacrifice, rite; result, effect; organ of sense; the direct object ([grammar]); fate, destiny.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karman (कर्मन्):—n. (ā m., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), (√kṛ, [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 144]), act, action, performance, business, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) office, special duty, occupation, obligation (frequently ifc., the first member of the compound being either the person who performs the action e.g. vaṇik-k or the person or thing for or towards whom the action is performed e.g. rāja-k, paśu-k or a specification of the action e.g. śaurya-k, prīti-k), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Bhartṛhari] etc.

3) any religious act or rite (as sacrifice, oblation etc., [especially] as originating in the hope of future recompense and as opposed to speculative religion or knowledge of spirit), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Raghuvaṃśa] etc.

4) work, labour, activity (as opposed to rest, praśānti), [Hitopadeśa; Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya] etc.

5) physicking, medical attendance, [Caraka]

6) action consisting in motion (as the third among the seven categories of the Nyāya philosophy; of these motions there are five, viz. ut-kṣepaṇa, ava-kṣepaṇa, ā-kuñcana, prasāraṇa, and gamana, qq.vv.), [Bhāṣāpariccheda; Tarkasaṃgraha]

7) calculation, [Sūryasiddhānta]

8) product, result, effect, [Manu-smṛti xii, 98; Suśruta]

9) organ of sense, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv] (or of action See karmendriya)

10) (in [grammar]) the object (it stands either in the [accusative] [in active construction], or in the [nominative case] [in passive construction], or in the [genitive case] [in connection with a noun of action]; opposed to kartṛ the subject), [Pāṇini 1-4, 49 ff.] (it is of four kinds, viz. a. nirvartya, when anything new is produced e.g. kaṭaṃ karoti, ‘he makes a mat’ ; putraṃ prasūte, ‘she bears a son’; b. vikārya, when change is implied either of the substance and form e.g. kāṣṭhaṃ bhasma karoti, ‘he reduces fuel to ashes’; or of the form only e.g. suvarṇaṃ kuṇḍalaṃ karoti, ‘he fashions gold into an ear-ring’; [case] prāpya, when any desired object is attained e.g. grāmaṃ gacchati, ‘he goes to the village’; candraṃ paśyati, ‘he sees the moon’; d. anīpsita, when an undesired object is abandoned e.g. pāpaṃ tyajati, ‘he leaves the wicked’)

11) former act as leading to inevitable results, fate (as the certain consequence of acts in a previous life), [Pañcatantra; Hitopadeśa; Buddhist literature], (cf. karma-pāka and -vipāka)

12) the tenth lunar mansion, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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