Yogadrstisamuccaya of Haribhadra Suri (Study)

by Riddhi J. Shah | 2014 | 98,110 words

This page relates ‘Adhyatmasara by Upadhyaya Yashovijaya’ of the study on the Yogadrstisamuccaya: a 6th-century work on Jain Yoga authored by Haribhadra Suri consisting of 228 Sanskrit verses. The book draws from numerous sources on traditional Yoga. Three important topics are stipulated throughout this study: 1) nature of liberation, 2) a liberated soul, and 3) omniscience.—This section belongs to the series “Influence of the Yogadrishtisamuccaya”.

Chapter 6.4 - Adhyātmasāra by Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya

The Adhyātmasāra is one of the most valuable composition of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya. He has divided this composition in seven prabandhas. Each prabandha is again divided into some adhikāras. They are as follow:

First Prabandha:

  1. Adhyātmamahātmya Adhikāra,
  2. Adhyātmasvarūpa Adhikāra,
  3. Daṃbhatyāga Adhikāra,
  4. Bhavasvarūpacintā Adhikāra.

Second Prabandha:

  1. Vairāgyasaṃbhava Adhikāra,
  2. Vairāgyabheda Adhikāra,
  3. Vairāgyaviṣaya Adhikāra.

Third Prabandha:

  1. Mamatvatyāga Adhikāra,
  2. Samatā Adhikāra,
  3. Sadanuṣṭhāna Adhikāra,
  4. Manaḥśuddhi Adhikāra.

Fourth Prabandha:

  1. Samyaktva Adhikāra,
  2. Mithyātvatyāga Adhikāra,
  3. Asadgrahatyāga Adhikāra.

Fifth Prabandha:

  1. Yoga Adhikāra,
  2. Dhyāna Adhikāra,
  3. Dhyānastuti Adhikāra.

Sixth Prabandha:

  1. Ātmaniścaya Adhikāra,
  2. Jinamatastui Adhikāra.

Seventh Prabandha:

  1. Anubhava Adhikāra,
  2. Sajjanastuti Adhikāra.

In Vairāgyasaṃbhava Adhikāra, the fifth adhikāra Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has said that a worldly being, who is addicted to sensual pleasures (viṣayāsakta), can never have genuine indifference to worldly objects (vairāgya) [1] . In the same adhikāra Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya pronounces that a seeker’s disliking for causes of worldly existence is caused by his acknowledgement of worthlessness of worldly existence (bhavanairguṇya darśana). Since the seeker has realized an insignificance of worldly existence, he abstains from engaging into worldly affairs. Such a seeker owns genuine indifference to worldly objects[2] . Thus Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya emphasizes that the genuine indifference to worldly objects is achieved by a seeker through acknowledging insignificance of worldly existence and abstaining from engaging into worldly affairs.

Here, it is said that a samyagdṛṣṭi soul, who possesses fourth stage of spiritual development (guṇasthāna), acknowledges worthlessness of the worldly existence. Therefore the samyagdṛṣṭi soul ought to own genuine indifference to worldly objects. However such is not the case. It is so because though the samyagdṛṣṭi soul has acknowledged worthlessness of worldly existence, he is still engaged into the worldly affairs due to intense rise of cāritramohanīya karman[3] . Even though there exists the cause (kāraṇa) named acknowledgement of insignificance of worldly existence in the samyagdṛṣṭi soul, the effect (kārya), called, attainment of indifference to worldly objects does not take place in the samyagdṛṣṭi soul. The cāritramohanīya karman is the only obstructer that does not allow the samyagdṛṣṭi soul to abstain from engaging into the worldly affairs. Unless he abstains from them, he will not be able to attain the genuine indifference to worldly objects.

Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya declares that in spite of engaging into worldly affairs there is one type of samyagdṛṣṭi soul, whose right faith (samyagdarśana) is purer than other samyagdṛṣṭi souls, is capable of attaining the genuine indifference to worldly objects[4] . Due to better purity of right faith his acknowledgement of insignificance of worldly existence causes acquisition of indifference to worldly objects. His performance of worldly affairs is free from attachment for them. Whatever worldly affairs he undertakes is caused by rise of the nikācita karman accumulated by him and the śātāvedanīya karman is main reason for his involvement in worldly affairs[5] .

Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya refers, in his Adhyātmasāra, the statement made by Haribhadrasūri.

The verse in the Adhyātmasāra is:

ataścākṣepakajñānāt kāntāyāṃ bhogasannidhau |
na śuddhiprakṣayo - yasmāddhāribhadraṃ idaṃ vacaḥ ||117||

In this verse it is said that though the body of a beholder of kāntā dṛṣṭi enjoys sensuous pleasures, his mind remains immersed in the religious truth derived from scriptures. He does so because he possesses the ākṣepaka knowledge[6] . Therefore, the subject in question’s sensuous enjoyments does not become a cause of further worldly existence. Thus said Haribhadrasūri. Here, Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya tries to imply that the aspirant, about whom he was talking in verse number one hundred and fourteen, owns the sixth kāntā yogadṛṣṭi. Further, Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya reproduces verses 165 to 168 of Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya in Adhyātmasāra as verses 118-121. These verses emphasize that the sensuous enjoyments of the beholder of sixth yogadṛṣṭi can never become a cause of further worldly existence. Moreover, Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya says that engagement into worldly pleasures does not hinders the spirituality of the beholder of kāntā dṛṣṭi, who owns purer right faith. It is so because his spirituality has become more powerful than his activity of sensuous enjoyments. Here Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya gives an illustration of a particle of fire, fire-flame and forest-fire. The blowing wind is capable of destroying a fire particle but unable to extinct the fire-flame. If the blowing wind tries to extinguish the fire-flame, it turns into the forest-fire. Similarly until an aspirant owns spirituality like a fire-particle, the wind of sensuous enjoyment destroys it. When the aspirant’s spirituality becomes stronger like the fire-flame, the wind of sensuous pleasures turns the fire-flame into the strongest forms like forest-fire[7] . To conclude Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya says that a soul does not accumulate karmans by merely undertaking sensuous enjoyment. It is the addiction to sensuous pleasures that causes accumulation of karmans[8] . Therefore, it is said that though a samyagdṛṣṭi soul, whose right faith (samyagdarśana) is purer than other samyagdṛṣṭi souls, engages into worldly affairs, he is capable of attaining the genuine indifference to worldly objects.

In the fifteenth adhikāra called Yogasvarūpa Adhikāra Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya discusses two types of Yoga. They are:

  1. Karmayoga
  2. Jñānayoga.

In the Adhyātmasāra it is said that one who practices the karmayoga has attachment for daily religious practices (āvaśyaka krīya) and high regards for sayings of a tīrthṅkara. Since he has attachment for daily religious practices, he accumulates auspicious karmans (puṇya) which result into attainment of heavenly pleasures instead of liberation[9] . While one who practices the jñānayoga remains so immersed in the self-realization that he practices daily religious activities with detachment. Therefore the performance of daily religious activities no more obstructs the subject in question’s way to liberation. Hence he attains liberation very soon. For instance if he wanders to bring food (gocharī), he does not have attachment for that particular activity. Thus his attachment free practicing of daily religious activities does not cause accumulation of auspicious karmans. Hence he attains liberation very soon. Therefore the performance of daily religious activities no more obstructs the subject in question’s way to liberation.

Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya uses a simile to compare the difference between the daily activities of one who perform them with vigilance (apramatta) i.e a jñānayogin and nonvigilance (pramatta) i.e. a karmayogin. Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya states that while learning gemology, a son of a jeweler observes a gem with an intention of gaining knowledge about it. When the son has to purchase a gem from a trader, he also observes the gem. However, his observation of a gem is different during the time of learning and is different while purchasing[10] . Same is the case with performance of daily activities undertaken by a karmayogin and a jñānayogin. The same simile is used by Haribhadrasūri in verse one hundred and eighty of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya in the same context.

The following verse from the fifteenth adhikāra of Adhyātmasāra matches with the one hundred and fourth verse of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya.

Both the verses are respectively as follows:

sarvajño mukhya ekastat- pratipattiśca yāvatām |
sarve'pi te tamāpannā mukhyaṃ, sāmānyato budhāḥ ||558||

pratipattistatastasya, sāmānyenaiva yāvatām |
te sarve'pi tamāpannā, itinyāyagati parā ||104||

Further in the same adhikāra Upādhyāya Yaśoviajaya says that whatever knowledge a non-omniscient has regarding the form and nature of sarvajña, it is general and not peculiar.

Haribhadrasūri says the same thing in the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya. The verses are as follows:

na jñāyate viśeṣastu sarvathā'sarvadarśibhiḥ |
ato na te tamāpannā viśiṣya bhuvi ke cana ||559||
savajrñapratipattyaṃśāttulyatā sarvayoginām |
dūrāsannadibhedastu tadbhṛtyatvaṃ nihanti na ||560||

   – Adhyātmasāra

viśeṣastu punastasya, kārtsyenā'sarvadarśibhiḥ |
sarvairnajñāyate tena, tamāpanno na kaścana ||105||
yathaivaikāsya nṛpate - rbahavo'pi samāśritāḥ |
dūrāsannādibhede'pi, tadbhṛtyāḥ sarvaeva te ||107||

   – Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya

In verse five hundred and sixty of Adhyātmasāra Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya mentions an illustration of a king and his attendants. The illustration same is found in the verse one hundred and seven of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya.

In the fifteenth adhikāra namely Yogasvarupa Adhikāra Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya quotes seven verses from 562 to 568 spoken by Kālātīta. In these verses it is stated that though the Iśvara(God) is defined by different words in various philosophical schools, the form of Iśvara is one and the same[11] . The similar statement is made by Haribhadrasūri regarding the sarvajña (omniscient) in the verse numbered one hundred and three of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya[12] .

The verses:

sarvaṃ paravaśaṃ daḥु khaṃ, savarmātmavaśaṃ sukham |
etadakु taṃ samasena, lakṣaṇaṃ sukhaduḥkhayoḥ ||172||
puṇyāpekṣamapi hayevaṃ,
sarvaṃ paravaśaṃ sthitam |
tataśca duḥkhamevaitad,dhyānajaṃ tāttvikaṃ sukham ||173||

These two verses are from the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya of Haribhadrasūri. The first verse briefly defines pain and pleasure. In the next verse it is said that the pleasure acquired as a result of auspicious karmans (puṇya) is also of the nature of pain. The first verse says that ‘whatever lies in the power of other is of the nature of pain’. True to this definition the pleasure which is dependent of something other than itself is nothing but pain. These matters are discussed and elaborated in the verses 738 to 751 of the eighteenth adhikāra namely Ātmaniścaya Adhikāra of the Adhyātmasāra by Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya. These verses conclude that it is not only the inauspicious karman (pāpa) that is of the nature of pain but also the auspicious karmans (puṇya).

This is how the certain verses of Adhyātmasāra which either reproduce or resemble with the content of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya. There are certain verses in which Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya has elaborated topics mentioned in the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya by Haribhadrasūri.

Footnotes and references:


yadīndaḥुsyāt ku hūrātrau phalaṃ yadayavake śini |
tadā viṣayasaṃsargacitte vairāgyasaṅkramaḥ ||110||


bhavahetuṣu taddveṣā[?]-dviṣayeṣvapravṛttitaḥ |
vairāgyaṃsyānnirābādhaṃ bhavanairguṇyadaśarnāt ||111||


caturthe'pi guṇasthāne nanvevaṃ tat prasajyate |
yuktaṃ khalu pramātṛṇāṃ bhavanairguṇyadaśarnam ||1112||
, cāritramohasya mahimā ko'pyayaṃ khalu |
yadanyahetuyoga'pi phalāyogo'tra dṛśyate ||113||


daśāviśeṣe tatrāpi nacedaṃ nāsti sarvathā |
svavyāpārahṛtā''saṅgaṃ tathā castavabhāṣitam ||114||


bhavecchā yasya vicchinna pravṛttiḥ karmabhāvajā |
ratistasya viraktasya sarvatra śubhavedyataḥ ||116||


The ākṣepaka knowledge means to withdraw the psyche (citta), of a person, which is involved in sensuous pleasures.


dharmaśaktiṃ na hantyatra bhogayoga balīyasīṃ |
hanti dīpāpaho vāya-ुjvarlantaṃ na davānalam ||122||


badhyate bāḍhamāsakto yathāśleṣmāṇi makṣikā |
śuṣkagolavadaśliṣṭo viṣayebhyo na badhyate ||123||


āvaśyakādirāgeṇa, vātsalyādbhagavadgirām |
prāpnotisvagarsaukhyāni, na yāti paramaṃ padam ||498||


ratnaśikṣādṛganyā hi tanniyojanadṛg yathā |
phalabhedāttathā''cārakriyā'pyasya vibhidyate ||506||


mukto buddho'rhanvā'pi yadaiśvaryeṇa samanvitaḥ |
tadīśvaraḥ sa evasyāt, saṃjñābhedo'tra ke valam ||563||
anādiśuddha ityādiryo bhedo yasya kalpyate |

tattattantrānusāreṇa manye so'pi nirarthakaḥ ||564||


sarvajño nāma yaḥ kaścit, pāramāthirkaeva hi |
sa eka eva sarvatra, vyaktibhede'pi tattvataḥ || 103 ||

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