Karkata, Karkaṭa: 21 definitions

Introduction:

Karkata means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Karkaṭa (कर्कट, “crab”) refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with ‘combined hands’ (saṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-four combined Hands).—Karkaṭa (crab): the fingers of the hands are interlocked, and the hands turned inwards or outwards. Usage: group, stoutness, blowing the conch, stretching the limbs, bending thebough of a tree.

According to another book: in the Urṇa-nābha hand, the fingers of one hand are introduced into the interspaces of thoseof the other hand. Its patron deity is Viṣṇu. Usage: lamentation, yawning, breathing hard, crab, blowing the conch, cracking the fingers by women.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Karkaṭa (कर्कट, “crab”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with combined hands (saṃyuta-hasta);—(Instructions): When the fingers of the hands are interlocked the Karkaṭa hand is produced.

(Uses): It is used to indicate the bees-wax, massaging of the limbs, yawning just after awakening from sleep, a big body, supporting the chin and holding a conch-shell [for blowing it].

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Karkaṭa (कर्कट) refers to one of the thirteen Saṃyuktahastas or “combined hand gestures” (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The hasta-mudrās (lit. “hand-gestures”) are very essential to denote some particular action or state in dancing and these mudrās are formed with the help of hands and fingers.—According to the Śabdakalpadruma, karkaṭa means kulira i.e., crab. In karkaṭa-hasta, fingers are passed between the fingers of both hands together and it makes the shape of a crab. This posture is used while yawning. According to Abhinayadarpaṇa, this posture is used to denote coming of a crowd, showing the stomach, filling the conch-shell, twisting limbs, pulling branch etc.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Karkaṭa (कर्कट) is the name of a nāga chief, presiding over Gabhasti, according to the Parākhyatantra 5.44-45. Gabhasti refers to one of the seven pātālas (‘subterranean paradise’). The word pātāla in this tantra refers to subterranean paradises for seekers of otherworldly pleasures and each the seven pātālas is occupied by a regent of the daityas, nāgas and rākṣasas.

The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Karkaṭa (कर्कट) refers to one of the seven forest-products that are fit for oblation according to verse 25.59 of the Īśvarasaṃhitā, dealing with the classification of the places for building the fire-pits (kuṇḍa). Accordingly, “bamboo (veṇu), śyāmāka, nīvāra (wild gram), jartila, gavīdhuka, karkaṭa and kanaka are the seven which grow in the forest. Śāli is important among them. Others are to be taken in its absence, or that of others”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Karkaṭa (कर्कट) corresponds to “cancer” (mid July to mid August) and refers to one of the zodiac signs (rāśī) in the Vedic calendar.—Rāśī refers to the different signs of the zodiac through which the sun travels. For precise dates, please refer to a Vedic calendar. In accordance with the zodiac sign the sun is situated in, one would utter [for example, karkaṭa-rāśī sthite bhāskare]

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Karkaṭa (कर्कट) or Karka refers to the sign of Cancer, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen, deceitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. [...] If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Gemini (Mithuna), chaste women, princes, powerful petty chiefs, learned men, people living on the banks of the Yamunā and the rulers of Bahlikā and Matsya with their subjects will suffer miseries. If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Cancer (Karka) [i.e., karkaṭa] the Ābhīras, the Śabaras, the Pallavas, the Mallas, the Matsyas, the Kurus, the Śakas, the Pāñcālas and the Vikalās will be afflicted with miseries and food grains will be destroyed”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Karkaṭa (कर्कट) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Karkaṭī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jalacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jalacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Karkaṭa] are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife..

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Karkata in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Pistacia chinensis ssp. Integerrima Pistacia chinensis subsp. integerrima (J.L.Stewart) Rech.f. from the Anacardiaceae (Cashew) family having the following synonyms: Pistacia integerrima, Rhus integerrima. For the possible medicinal usage of karkata, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karkaṭa (कर्कट).—m (S) karkāṭaka n karkōṭaka n A pair of compasses. 2 A crab.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karkaṭa (कर्कट).—1 A crab.

2) Cancer, the fourth sign of the zodiac.

3) A kind of crane.

4) The fibrous root of a lotus.

5) A thorn.

6) The curved end of the beam of a balance.

7) A kind of coitus (ratibandha).

8) The radius of a circle.

9) Compass, circuit.

1) A kind of pin or wedge.

-ṭī 1 A female crab.

2) A kind of cucumber.

3) The curved end of a balance.

4) A small water-pot.

Derivable forms: karkaṭaḥ (कर्कटः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karkaṭa (कर्कट).—m.

(-ṭaḥ) 1. A crab. 2. The sign of the zodiac, (Cancer.) 3. A kind of bird, the numidian crane. 4. A long gourd: see tumbī. 5. The fibrous root of the lotus. 6. The curved end of the beam of a balance, to which the strings supporting the scale are attached. 7. A compass. 8. The radius of a circle. f.

(-ṭā) A plant, commonly Kurkavali, (Momordica mixta.) f. (-ṭī) 1. A kind of cucumber, (Cucumis utilatissimus, Rox.) 2. The fruit of the silk cotton tree. 3. A snake. 4. A water jar. E. karka a Sautra root, to laugh or smile, and aṭan affix, fem. affix ṭāp or ṅīṣ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karkaṭa (कर्कट).—a form of * karkarta, i. e. an old reduplicated form of kṛt + a, I. m. 1. A crab, [Pañcatantra] iv. [distich] 10. 2. The sign of the zodiac, Cancer, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 19, 2. 3. The name of a plant, [Suśruta] 2, 253, 12. Ii. f. ṭī, A female crab, Mahābhārata 4, 272. Iii. m., f. ṭī, The curved end of the beam of a balance, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 74.

— Cf. [Latin] cancer; .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karkaṭa (कर्कट).—[masculine] a crab; the sign Cancer.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karkaṭa (कर्कट):—[from karka] m. a crab, [Suśruta; Pañcatantra] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] the sign Cancer, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] a particular bird, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of several plants

5) [v.s. ...] the fibrous root of a plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] the curved end of the beam of a balance (to which the strings supporting the scale are attached), Mit.

7) [v.s. ...] a pair of compasses in a particular position

8) [v.s. ...] a particular position of the hands

9) [v.s. ...] a kind of fever, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

10) [v.s. ...] a kind of coitus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Karkaṭā (कर्कटा):—[from karkaṭa > karka] f. Momordica Mixta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karkaṭa (कर्कट):—[(ṭaḥ-ṭhī)] 1. 3. m. A crab, Cancer; a crane; a gourd; root of the lotus, end of the balance beam. a compass; a radius. f. (ṭā) A plant (Momordica mixta). (ṭī) Fruit of the silk-cotton tree; a snake. f. A water-jar; a cucumber.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Karkaṭa (कर्कट) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kakkaḍa, Karakaḍa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Karkata in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Karkaṭa (ಕರ್ಕಟ):—

1) [noun] = ಕರ್ಕ [karka]3 - 1 & 6.

2) [noun] (myth.) name of a hell.

3) [noun] (dance) a hand-gesture in which the stretched fingers of one hand passing through the fingers of the other hand, the palms being facing upward or inward.

4) [noun] the root of a lotus plant.

5) [noun] a hard or harsh substance.

6) [noun] the vine Cucumis sativus of Cucurbitaceae family and its fruit; cucumber.

7) [noun] any of a family (Gruidae) of usu. large gruiform wading white birds with very long legs and neck, and a long, straight bill; a crane.

8) [noun] a very short, hard, leafless branch or stem with a sharp point; a thorn.

9) [noun] a particular posture in coitus.

10) [noun] any straight linedrawn from the centre of a circle to any point on its circumference; radius.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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