Samghata, Saṃghāta, Saṃghāṭa: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Samghata means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Sanghat.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Saṃghāta (संघात, “breach of alliance”) refers to one of the four varieties of the grand style (sāttvatī), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 22. Sāttvatī represents one of the four styles (vṛtti) employed in a dramatic production.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Saṃghāta (संघात).—One of the four varieties of sāttvatī (grand style);—Disrupting an alliance for the sake of a policy in favour of a friend or due to an accident or [one’s] own fault, is called Breach of Alliance (saṃghāta).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Saṃghāta (संघात).—Aggregate, collection ; the word is often used in grammar in connection with letters (वर्ण (varṇa)); cf. वर्णसंघात (varṇasaṃghāta); पदम् (padam) cf. also संघातस्यैकार्थ्यात् सुबभावो वर्णात् (saṃghātasyaikārthyāt subabhāvo varṇāt) M. Bh. on Siva sutra 5 Vart. 13; the word is also used in connection with a collection of words; cf. संघातस्य समाससंज्ञा प्राप्नोति । ऋद्धस्य राज्ञ पुरुषः (saṃghātasya samāsasaṃjñā prāpnoti | ṛddhasya rājña puruṣaḥ) M. Bh. on P. I.4.13 Vart. 8;

2) Saṃghāta.—Effort made in the utterance of a word; cf संघातो नाम प्रयत्नः स बाह्याभ्यन्तरत्वेन द्विधा । अनन्त-भट्टभाप्य (saṃghāto nāma prayatnaḥ sa bāhyābhyantaratvena dvidhā | ananta-bhaṭṭabhāpya) on V. Pr. I. 9. cf. also स संघातादीन् वाक् (sa saṃghātādīn vāk) V. Pr. I.9.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Saṃghāta (संघात):—Compactness; one of the action attributed to Prithvi mahabhuta.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Saṃghāta (संघात) refers to one of the eight great hells according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—Accordingly, “the Bodhisattva sees the great Saṃghāta hell where wicked rākṣasas, guardians of hell (nirayapāla), take on all kinds of shapes: they become oxen (go), horses (aśva), pigs (sūkara), sheep (edaka), deer (mṛga), dogs (kukkura), foxes (lomaśin?), tigers (vyāghra), wolves (vṛka), lions (siṃha), donkeys, big birds, eagles (garutmat), and vultures (gṛdhra). Having thus taken on the heads of birds and animals, they come to devour, gnaw at and tear up the damned”.

Also, “in their previous lives, these unfortunates had frequently killed oxen, horses, pigs, sheep, deer, does, rabbits, tigers, wolves, lions, donkeys and big birds, and so all these animals that harbor resentment against them take on their bird or animal forms and come to torment these damned”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Saṃghāta (संघात) refers to the “crushing hell” and represents one of the “eight hot hells” (uṣṇa-naraka) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 121). It can also be spelled as Saṅghāta. The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., saṃghāta). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Saṃghāta (संघात, “fusion”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.26, “(Molecules) are formed by division (fission), union (fusion) and division-cum-union”.—What is meant by fusion (saṃghāta)? Collection together of joining / combining of two separate sub-atoms or aggregates are called fusion. How many sub-atoms (paramāṇu) are needed to form an aggregate (skandha) by fusion (saṃghāta)? Two or more sub-atoms are needed to form an aggregate.

How does fusion (saṃghāta) and fission (bheda) together create an aggregate (skandha)? When one aggregate separates or is divided into sub aggregate and one of such divisions combine with another aggregate, then we get a new aggregate by fusion and fission.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Saṃghāta (संघात), also spelled Saṅghāta, refers to “interfusion karma” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by interfusion (saṃghāta) body-making (nāma) karma? The karmas rise of which causes attainment of close interpenetration (without any intervening spaces) of the space points of the body is the body-making karma of molecular interfusion.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃghāṭa (संघाट).—Fitting and joining of timbers, joinery, carpentry; तौ काष्ठसंघाटमथो चक्रतुः सुमह्लाप्लवम् (tau kāṣṭhasaṃghāṭamatho cakratuḥ sumahlāplavam) Rām.2. 55.14.

Derivable forms: saṃghāṭaḥ (संघाटः).

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Saṃghāta (संघात).—1 Union, combination, an association; त्वक् च मांसं तथाऽस्थीनि मज्जा स्नायुश्च पञ्चमम् । इत्येतदिह संघातम् (tvak ca māṃsaṃ tathā'sthīni majjā snāyuśca pañcamam | ityetadiha saṃghātam) Mb.12.184.2.

2) A multitude, an assemblage, a collection; उपायसंघात इव प्रवृद्धः (upāyasaṃghāta iva pravṛddhaḥ) R.14.11; जलसंघात इवासि विद्रुतः (jalasaṃghāta ivāsi vidrutaḥ) Ku.4.6; Bg.13.6.

3) Killing, slaughter.

4) Phlegm.

5) Formation of compounds.

6) Name of a division of hell.

7) A particular mode of walking (in dramas).

8) Flow; यस्य शोणितसंघाता भेरी मण्डूककच्छपा (yasya śoṇitasaṃghātā bherī maṇḍūkakacchapā) Mb.12.98.31 (com. śoṇitasaṃghātā śoṇitaughamayī).

9) A hard part (kaṭhināṃśa); आकाशात् खलु यो घोषः संघातस्तु महीगुणः (ākāśāt khalu yo ghoṣaḥ saṃghātastu mahīguṇaḥ) Mb.12.285.7.

1) Combat, war.

11) A caravan.

12) A bone.

13) Intensity.

Derivable forms: saṃghātaḥ (संघातः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Saṃghata (संघत).—adj. (= Sanskrit saṃhata, compare Pischel 267; Prakrit saṃghaa), compact: nitya-ātmasukhasaṃjña-°taṃ (…mokṣadvāru vivarāhi) Gaṇḍavyūha 55.1 (verse).

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Saṃghāṭa (संघाट).—m., and °ṭā, f., vessel, jar (of metal, for storing treasure); only in composition, preceded by loha- or lohī-(compare lohī): catvāro loha-°ṭāḥ suvarṇasya pūrṇāḥ Divyāvadāna 14.25; catasraḥ lohī-°ṭāḥ suvarṇapūrṇās 16.26; (hiraṇya- suvarṇasya) caturo lohasaṃghāṭān (acc. pl.), v.l. °ṭā(ḥ), Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 28.25 (Chin. jar); (catvāro) lohasaṃghāṭā(ḥ) Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iii.135.12.

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Saṃghāta (संघात).—m. (= Pali id., Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names); also Sanskrit id.), name of a (hot) hell: Mahāvyutpatti 4922; Dharmasaṃgraha 121; Mahāvastu i.5.10; 9.8; 13.11, etc.; 21.1; 42.16; 337.5; ii.350.10 = iii.274.12; iii.454.7; Divyāvadāna 67.21; 366.28; Gaṇḍavyūha 157.19; Avadāna-śataka i.4.8 etc.; in Jātakamālā 196.9 the name is explained, those who go there are crushed by clashing mountains; similarly Pali (root han with sam).

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Sāṃghāta (सांघात).—adj. (Sanskrit Gr.; Sanskrit saṃghāta plus -a), due to or based on a conglomeration: paramāṇu-°ta-tvāt Mūla-madhyamaka-kārikā 93.10.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃghāta (संघात).—i. e. sam-han, [Causal.], + a, m. 1. Association, connexion, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 56 (śilā-, properly, of a stone, i. e. its strong structure, a hard stone). 2. Assemblage, multitude, [Pañcatantra] 157, 24; [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 260; cluster, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 153, 8. 3. Killing, striking. 4. A division of Tartarus. 5. Phlegm.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃghāta (संघात).—[masculine] ([neuter]) stroke, blow, hurt; shutting (of a door); collision, contest, fight; close union, aggregate, complex, collection, heap, mass; composition of words or formation of compounds ([grammar]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṃghāta (संघात):—[=saṃ-ghāta] [from saṃ-han] a etc. See sub voce

2) [=saṃ-ghāta] [from saṃ-gha] b m. (rarely n.; ifc. f(ā). ) striking or dashing together, killing, crushing, [Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] closing (of a door etc.), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] combat, war, battle, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Kāṭhaka; Mahābhārata]

5) [v.s. ...] compressing, condensation, compactness, hardening, [Yājñavalkya; Harivaṃśa; Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

6) [v.s. ...] close union or combination, collection, cluster, heap, mass, multitude, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Mahābhārata] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] a company of fellow-travellers, caravan, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] a collection of mucus, phlegm (cf. saṃghāṇaka), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] a bone, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] any aggregate of matter, body, [Bhagavad-gītā; Purāṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] intensity, [Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta]

12) [v.s. ...] a poem composed in one and the same metre, [Kāvyādarśa]

13) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) a compound as a compact whole (opp. to its single parts), [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 2-3, 56]

14) [v.s. ...] a vowel with its consonant (opp. to varṇa, ‘a letter’), [Kātyāyana]

15) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) a [particular] gait or mode of walking, [Horace H. Wilson]

16) [v.s. ...] Name of a division of the infernal regions (cf. saṃhāta), [Yājñavalkya; Buddhist literature]

17) Saṃghaṭa (संघट):—[=saṃ-ghaṭa] [from saṃ-ghaṭ] mf(ā)n. heaped, piled up, [Agni-purāṇa]

18) Saṃghāṭa (संघाट):—[=saṃ-ghāṭa] [from saṃ-ghaṭ] m. fitting and joining of timber, joinery, carpentry, [Rāmāyaṇa]

19) [v.s. ...] a pot (?), [Divyāvadāna]

20) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) = saṃ-ghāta (in padaand varṇa-s, qq.vv.)

21) Saṃghāta (संघात):—[=saṃ-ghāta] c etc. See [column]1.

22) Sāṃghāta (सांघात):—mfn. ([from] saṃ-ghāta) = saṃ-ghāte dīyate, or kāryam [gana] vyuṣṭādi.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṃghaṭa (संघट) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Saṃgala, Saṃghaḍa, Saṃghāḍa, Saṃghāḍaga, Saṃghāya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Samghata in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samghata in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Saṃghāta (संघात) [Also spelled sanghat]:—(nm) stroke, blow; heap, multitude.

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