Kamma: 5 definitions


Kamma means something in Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)

Kamma (कम्म, “profession”) is a Prakrit technical term referring to “names derived from professions” and representing kind of a rule when deriving personal names for men, mentioned in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning kamma) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kamma.—(IE 8-6; EI 12, 19), Kannaḍa; same as stambha= skambha; a land measure equal to one-hundredth of a mattaru or nivartana. Note: kamma is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of kamma in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kamma, (nt.) (Vedic karman, work esp. sacrificial process. For ending °man=Idg. *men cp. Sk. dhāman=Gr. dh=ma, Sk. nāman=Lat nomen) the doing, deed, work; orig. meaning (see karoti) either building (cp. Lit. kùrti, Opr. kūra to build) or weaving, plaiting (still in mālākamma and latā° “the intertwining of garlands and creepers”; also in kamma-kara possibly orig. employed in weaving, i.e. serving); cp. Lat. texo, to weave=Sk. takṣan builder, artisan, & Ger. wirken, orig. weben. Grammatically karman has in Pāli almost altogether passed into the —a decl. , the cons. forms for Instr. & Abl. kammā and kammanā Gen. Dat. kammuno, are rare. The Nom. pl. is both kammā and kammāni.

I. Crude meaning. 1. (lit.) Acting in a special sense, i.e. office, occupation, doing, action, profession. Two kinds are given at Vin. IV, 6, viz. low (hīna) & high (ukkaṭṭha) professions. To the former belong the kammāni of a koṭṭhaka and a pupphacchaḍḍaka, to the latter belong vāṇijjā and gorakkhā. -Kamma as a profession or business is regarded as a hindrance to the religious life, & is counted among the ten obstacles (see palibodha). In this sense it is at Vism. 94 explained by navakamma (see below 2a). -kassa° ploughing, occupation of a ploughman Vism. 284; kumbhakāra° profession of a potter J. VI, 372; tunna° weaving Vism. 122; PvA. 161. purohita° office of a high-priest (=abstr. n. porohiccaṃ) SnA 466; vāṇija° trade Sāsv. 40. -kammanā by profession Sn. 650, 651; kammāni (pl.) occupations Sn. 263=Kh V. 6 (anavajjāni k. =anākulā kammantā Sn. 262). paresaṃ k°ṃ katvā doing other people’s work=being a servant VvA. 299; sa° pasutā bent upon their own occupations D. I, 135, cp. attano k°- kubbānaṃ Dh. 217. kamma-karaṇa-sālā work-room (here: weaving shed) PvA. 120.

2. Acting in general, action, deed, doing (nearly always —°) (a) (active) act, deed, job, often to be rendered by the special verb befitting the special action, like cīvara° mending the cloak VvA. 250; uposatha° observing the Sabbath Vbh. 422; nava° making new, renovating, repairing, patching Vin. II, 119, 159 (°karoti to make repairs); J. I, 92: Vism. 94, adj. navakammika one occupied with repairs Vin. II, 15; S. I, 179; patthita° the desired action (i.e. sexual intercourse) DhA. II, 49; kammaṃ karoti to be active or in working, to act: nāgo pādehi k. k. the elephant works with his feet M. I, 414; kata° the job done by the thieves DhA. II, 38 (corehi), as adj. kata° cora (& akata °cora) a thief who has finished his deed (& one who has not) Vism. 180, also in special sense: occasion for action or work, i.e. necessity, purpose: ukkāya kammaṃ n’atthi, the torch does not work, is no good Vism. 428. (b) (passive) the act of being done (-°), anything done (in its result), work, often as collect. abstr. (to be translated. by E. ending —ing): apaccakkha° not being aware, deception Vbh. 85; daḷhī° strengthening, increase Vbh. 357, Vism. 122; citta° variegated work, mālā° garlands, latā° creeper (-work) Vism. 108; nāma° naming Bdhd 83; pañhā° questioning, “questionnaire” Vism. 6.—So in definitions niṭṭhuriya°=niṭṭhuriya Vbh. 357; nimitta°= nimitta, obhāsa°=obhāsa (apparition › appearing) Vbh. 353.—(c) (intrs.) making, getting, act, process (-°). Often trsl. as abstr. n. with ending —ion or —ment, e.g. okāsa° opportunity of speaking, giving an audience Sn. p. 94; pātu° making clear, manifestation DhA. IV, 198 anāvi°, anuttāni° concealment Vbh. 358; kata° (adj.) one who has done the act or process, gone through the experience SnA 355; añjali°, sāmīci° veneration, honouring (in formula with nipaccakāra abhivādana paccuṭṭhāna) D. III, 83 (≈Vin. II, 162, 255); A. I, 123; II, 180; J. I. 218, 219.

3. (Specialised) an “act” in an ecclesiastical sense; proceedings, ceremony, performed by a lawfully constituted chapter of bhikkhus Vin. I, 49, 53, 144, 318; II, 70, 93; V, 220 sq.; Khus J. P. T. S. 1883, 101. At these formal functions a motion is put before the assembly and the announcement of it is called the ñatti Vin. I, 56, after which the bhikkhus are asked whether they approve of the motion or not. If this question is put once, it is a ñattidutiyakamma Vin. II, 89; if put three times, a ñatticatuttha° Vin. I, 56 (cp. Vin. Texts I. 169 n2). There are 6 kinds of official acts the Saṅgha can perform: see Vin. I, 317 sq.; for the rules about the validity of these ecclesiastical functions see Vin. I, 312—333 (cp. Vin T. II. 256—285). The most important ecclesiastical acts are: apalokanakamma, ukkhepanīya° uposatha° tajjaniya° tassapāpiyyasikā° nissaya°, patiññākaraṇīya°, paṭipucchākaraṇīya° paṭisāraṇiya° pabbājaniya°, sammukhākaraṇīya°.—In this sense: kammaṃ karoti (w. Gen.) to take proceedings against Vin. I, 49, 143, 317; II, 83, 260; kammaṃ garahati to find fault with proceedings gone through Vin. II, 5; kammaṃ paṭippassambheti to revoke official proceedings against a bhikkhu Vin. III, 145.

4. In cpds. : -âdhiṭṭhāyaka superintendent of work, inspector Mhvs 5, 174; 30, 98; -âdhipateyya one whose supremacy is action Miln. 288; -ārambha commencement of an undertaking Mhvs 28, 21; -âraha (a) entitled to take part in the performance of an “act” Vin. IV, 153; V, 221; —ārāma (a) delighting in activity D. II, 77; A. IV, 22; It. 71, 79; -ārāmatā taking pleasure in (worldly) activity D. II, 78=A. IV, 22, cp. Vbh. 381; A. III, 116, 173, 293 sq. , 330, 449; IV, 22 sq. , 331; V, 163; It. 71; âvadāna a tale of heroic deeds J. VI, 295; -kara or °kāra: used indiscriminately. 1. (adj.) doing work, or active, in puriso dāso+pubbuṭṭhāyī “willing to work” D. I, 60 et sim. (=DA. I, 168: analaso). A. I, 145; II, 67; Vv 754; 2. (n.) a workman, a servant (a weaver?) usually in form dāsā ti vā pessā ti vā kammakarā ti vā Vin. I, 243; D. I, 141=Pug. 56 (also °kārā); A. II, 208; III, 77, 172; Th. 2, 340; J. I, 57. Also as dāsā pessā k°kārā A. III, 37=IV. 265, 393, and dāsā k° kārā Vin. I, 240, 272; II, 154; D. III, 191; S. I, 92;—a handyman J. I, 239; Miln. 378; (f) —ī a female servant Vin. II, 267; °kāra Vin. IV, 224, kārī Dhs. A98=VvA. 73 (appl. to a wife); -karaṇa 1. working, labour, service J. III, 219; PvA. 120; DA. I, 168; 2. the effects of karma J. I, 146; -karanā and kāraṇā see below; -kāma liking work, industrious; a° lazy A. IV, 93=J. II, 348; -kāraka a workman, a servant DA. I, 8; Mhvs 30, 42; Nd2 427; a sailor J. IV, 139; -garu bent on work Miln. 288; -ccheda the interruption of work J. I, 149; 246; III, 270; —jāta sort of action J. V, 24 (=kammam eva); -dhura (m. nt.) draught-work J. I, 196; -dheyya work to be performed, duty A. IV, 285=325; cp. J. VI, 297; -dhoreyya “fit to bear the burden of action” Miln. 288 (cp. Mil. trsl. II. 140); —niketavā having action as one’s house or temple ibid.; -nipphādana accomplishing the business J. VI, 162; -ppatta entitled o take part in an eccles. act Vin. I, 318; V, 221; -bahula abounding in action (appl. to the world of men) Miln. 7; -mūla the price of the transaction Miln. 334; -rata delighting in business D. II, 78; It. 71; -vatthu objects, items of an act Vin. V, 116; -vācā the text or word of an official Act. These texts form some of the oldest literature and are embodied in the Vinaya (cp. Vin. I, 317 sq.; III, 174, 176; IV, 153, etc.). The number of officially recognized k° is eleven, see J. P. T. S. 1882, 1888, 1896, 1907; k°ṃ karoti to carry out an official Act Mhvs 5, 207; DhsA. 399;—°ṃ anussāveti to proclaim a k°, to put a resolution to a chapter of bhikkhus Vin. I, 317; -vossagga difference of occupation J. VI, 216; -sajja (a) “ready for action, ” i.e. for battle J. V, 232; -sādutā “agreeableness to work” DhsA. 151 (cp. kammaññatā & kamyatā); —sāmin “a master in action, ” an active man Miln. 288; -sippī an artisan VvA. 278; -sīla one whose habit it is to work, energetic, persevering Miln. 288; indolent, lazy J. VI, 245; a°-ttaṃ indolence, laziness Mhvs 23, 21; —hīna devoid of occupation, inactive Miln. 288.

II. Applied (pregnant) meaning: doing, acting with ref. to both deed and doer. It is impossible to draw a clear line between the source of the act (i.e. the acting subject, the actor) and the act (either the object or phenomenon acted, produced, i.e. the deed as objective phenomenon, or the process of acting, i.e. the deed as subjective phenomenon). Since the latter (the act) is to be judged by its consequences, its effects, its manifestation always assumes a quality (in its most obvious characteristics either good or bad or indifferent), and since the act reflects on the actor, this quality is also attached to him. This is the popular, psychological view, and so it is expressed in language, although reason attributes goodness and badness to the actor first, and then to the act. In the expression of language there is no difference between: 1. the deed as such and the doer in character: anything done (as good or bad) has a corresponding source; 2. the performance of the single act and the habit of acting: anything done tends to be repeated; 3. the deed with ref. both to its cause and its effect: anything done is caused and is in itself the cause of something else. As meanings of kamma we therefore have to distinguish the foll. different sides of a “deed, ” viz.

1. the deed as expressing the doer’s will, i.e. qualified deed, good or bad; 2. the repeated deed as expression of the doer’s habit=his character; 3. the deed as having consequences for the doer, as such a source qualified according to good and evil; as deed done accumulated and forming a deposit of the doer’s merit and demerit (his “karma”). Thus pāpakamma=a bad deed, one who has done a bad deed, one who has a bad character, the potential effect of a bad deed=bad karma. The context alone decides which of these meanings is the one intended by the speaker or writer.

Concerning the analysis of the various semantic developments the following practical distinctions can be made: 1. Objective action, characterized by time: as past=done, meaning deed (with kata); or future=to be done, meaning duty (with kātabba). 2. Subjective action, characterized by quality, as reflecting on the agent. 3. Interaction of act and agent: (a) in subjective relation, cause and effect as action and reaction on the individual (individual “karma, ” appearing in his life, either here or beyond), characterized as regards action (having results) and as regards actor (having to cope with these results): (b) in objective relation, i.e. abstracted from the individual and generalized as Principle, or cause and effect as Norm of Happening (universal “karma, ” appearing in Saṃsāra, as driving power of the world), characterized (a) as cause, (b) as consequence, (c) as cause-consequence in the principle of retribution (talio), (d) as restricted to time.

1. (Objective): with ref. to the Past: kiṃ kammaṃ akāsi nārī what (deed) has this woman done? Pv. I, 92; tassā katakammaṃ pucchi he asked what had been done by her PvA. 37, 83, etc.—with ref. to the Future: k. kātabbaṃ hoti I have an obligation, under 8 kusītavatthūni D. III, 255=A. IV, 332; cattāri kammāni kattā hoti “he performs the 4 obligations” (of gahapati) A. II, 67.

2. (Subjective) (a) doing in general, acting, action, deed; var. kinds of doings enum. under micchājīva D. I, 12 (santikamma, paṇidhi°, etc.); tassa kammassa katattā through (the performance of) that deed D. III, 156; dukkaraṃ kamma-kubbataṃ he who of those who act, acts badly S. I, 19; abhabbo taṃ kammaṃ kātum incapable of doing that deed S. III, 225; sañcetanika k. deed done intentionally M. III, 207; A. V, 292 sq.; pamāṇakataṃ k. D. I, 251=S. IV, 322. kataraṃ k°ṃ karonto ahaṃ nirayaṃ na gaccheyyaṃ? how (i.e. what doing) shall I not go to Niraya? J. IV, 340; yaṃ kiñci sithilaṃ k°ṃ ... na taṃ hoti mahapphalaṃ ... S. I, 49=Dh. 312=Th. 1, 277; kadariya° a stingy action PvA. 25; k. classed with sippa, vijjā-caraṇa D. III, 156; kāni k°āni sammā-niviṭṭha established slightly in what doings? Sn. 324; (b) Repeated action in general, constituting a person’s habit of acting or character (cp. kata II. 1. a.); action as reflecting on the agent or bearing his characteristics; disposition, character. Esp. in phrase kammena samannāgata “endowed with the quality of acting in such and such a manner, being of such and such character”: tīhi dhammehi samannāgato niraye nikkhitto “endowed with (these) three qualites a man will go to N. ” A. I, 292 sq.; asucinā kāyak°ena sam° asucimanussā “bad people are those who are of bad ways (or character)” Nd2 112; anavajja kāya-k° sam° A. II, 69 (cp. A. IV, 364); kāya-kammavacī-kammena sam° kusalena (pabbajita) “a bhikkhu of good character in deed and speech” D. I, 63; kāya ... (etc.) —k°sam° bāla (and opp. paṇḍita) A. II, 252 (cp. A. I, 102, 104); visamena kāya (etc.) —k° sam° A. I, 154=III, 129; sāvajjena kāya (etc.) —k° sam° A. II, 135 — kammaṃ vijjā ca dhammo ca sīlaṃ jīvitam uttamaṃ, etena maccā sujjhanti, na gottena dhanena vā S. I, 34=55; M. III, 262, quoted at Vism. 3, where k. is grouped with vipassanā, jhāna, sīla, satipaṭṭhāna as main ideals of virtue; kammanā by character, as opp. to jaccā or jātiyā, by birth: Sn. 136; 164; 599; nihīna° manussā (of bad, wretched character) Sn. 661; manāpena bahulaṃ kāya (etc.) —kammena A. II, 87=III, 33, 131; and esp. with mettā, as enum. under aparihāniyā and sārāṇīyā dhammā D. II, 80; A. III, 288; mettena kāya‹-› (etc.)—kammena D. II, 144; III, 191; A. V, 350 sq. (c) Particular actions, as manifested in various ways, by various channels of activity (k°-dvārā), expressions of personality, as by deed, word and thought (kāyena, vācāya, manasā). Kamma kat) e)coxήn means action by hand (body) in formula vacasā manasā kammanā ca Sn. 330, 365; later specified by kāya-kamma, for which kāya-kammanta in some sense (q. v.), and complementing vacī-k° mano-k°; so in foll. combinations: citte arakkhite kāya-k° pi arakkhitaṃ hoti (vacī° mano°) A. I, 261 sq.; yaṃ nu kho ahaṃ idaṃ kāyena k° kattukāmo idaṃ me kāya-k° attabyādhāya pi saṃvatteyya ... “whatever deed I am going to do with my hands (I have to consider: ) is this deed, done by my hands, likely to bring me evil?” M. I, 415; kāya-(vacī- etc.) kamma, which to perform & to leave (sevitabbaṃ and a°) A. I, 110=III, 150; as anulomika° A. I, 106; sabbaṃ kāya-k° (vacī° mano°) Buddhassa ñāṇânuparivattati “all manifestation of deed (word & thought) are within the knowledge of Buddha” Nd2 235; yaṃ lobhapakataṃ kammaṃ karoti kāyena vā vācāya vā manasā vā tassa vipākaṃ anubhoti ... Nett 37; kin nu kāyena v° m° dukkaṭaṃ kataṃ what evil have you done by body, word or thought? Pv. II, 13 and frequent; ekūna-tiṃsa kāyakammāni Bdhd 49. (d) Deeds characterized as evil (pāpa-kammāni, pāpāni k°, pāpakāni k°; pāpakamma adj. , cp. pāpa-kammanta adj.). pāpakamma: n’atthi loke raho nāma p° pakubbato “there is no hiding (-place) in this world for him who does evil” A. I, 149; so p°-o dummedho jānaṃ dukkaṭaṃ attano ... “he, afflicted with (the result of) evil-doing ... ” A. III, 354; p°-ṃ pavaḍḍhento ibid.; yaṃ p°-ṃ kataṃ sabban taṃ idha vedanīyaṃ “whatever wrong I have done I have to suffer for” A. V, 301; pabbajitvāna kāyena p°-ṃ vivajjayī “avoid evil acting” Sn. 407; nissaṃsayaṃ p°-ṃ ... “undoubtedly there is some evil deed (the cause of this) i.e. some evil karma Pv IV. 161. -pāpaṃ kammaṃ: appamattikam pi p° k° kataṃ taṃ enaṃ nirayaṃ upaneti “even a small sin brings man to N. ” A. I, 249, tayā v’etaṃ p° k° kataṃ tvañ ñeva etassa vipākaṃ paṭisaṃvedissasi “you yourself have done this sin you yourself shall feel its consequences” M. III, 180= A. I, 139, na hi p° kataṃ k° sajju khīraṃ va muccati Dh. 71=Nett 161; yassa p° kataṃ k° kusalena pithīyati so imaṃ lokaṃ pabhāseti “he will shine in this world who covers an evil deed with a good one” M. II, 104= Dh. 173=Th. 1, 872; p°-ssa k°-ssa samatikkamo “the overcoming of evil karma” S. IV, 320; p°ssa k°ssa kiriyāya “in the performance of evil” M. I, 372; p°āni k°āni karaṃ bālo na bujjhati “he, like a fool, awaketh not, doing sinful deeds” Dh. 136=Th. 1, 146; pāpā p°ehi k°ehi nirayaṃ upapajjare “sinners by virtue of evil deeds go to N. ” Dh. 307; te ca p°esu k°esu abhiṇham upadissare Sn. 140. -pāpakāni kammāni: p°ānaṃ k°ānaṃ hetu coraṃ rājāno gāhetvā vividhā kammakāraṇā kārenti “for his evil deeds the kings seize the thief and have him punished” A. I, 48; ye loke p°āni k° karonti te vividhā kamma-kāraṇā karīyanti “those who do evil deeds in this world, are punished with various punishments” M. III, 186=A. I, 142; k°ṃ karoti p°ṃ kāyena vācā uda cetasā vā Sn. 232 (=kh 190); similarly Sn. 127; karontā p°ṃ k°ṃ yaṃ hoti kaṭukapphalaṃ, “doing evil which is of bitter fruit” Dh. 66= S. I, 57=Nett 131; k°ehi p°ehi Sn. 215.—In the same sense: na taṃ k°ṃ kataṃ sādhu yaṃ katvā anutappati “not well done is that deed for which he feels remorse” S. I, 57=Dh. 67=Nett 132; āveni-kammāni karonti (with ref. to saṅgha-bheda) A. V, 74; adhammikakammāni A. I, 74; asuci-k°āni (as suggested by 5 and attributes: asuci, duggandha, etc.) A. III, 269; sāvajjakammāni (as deserving Niraya) (opp. avajja › sagga) A. II, 237; kammāni ānantarikāni deeds which have an immediate effect; there are five, enumerated at Vbh. 378. ‹-› (e) deeds characterized as good or meritorious (kusala, bhaddaka, etc.) taṃ k°ṃ katvā kusalaṃ sukhudrayaṃ D. III, 157; puñña-kammo of meritorious (character) S. I, 143; kusalehi k°ehi vippayuttā carati viññāṇacariyā Ps. I, 80; kusalassa k°ssa katattā Vbh. 173 sq.; 266 sq.; 297 sq.; kusala-k°-paccayāni Bdhd 12; puññakamma, merit, compd with kapparukkha in its rewarding power VvA. 32 (cp. puññânubhāva-nissandena “in consequence of their being affected with merit” PvA. 58) — Cp. also cpds. : kamma-kilesa, k°-ṭṭhāna, k°-patha; k°lakkhaṇa k°-samādāna.

3. (Interaction) A. in subjective relation; (a) character of interaction as regards action; action or deed as having results: phala and vipāka (fruit and maturing); both expressions being used either singly or jointly, either°-or independt; phala: tassa mayhaṃ atīte katassa kammassa phalaṃ “the fruit of a deed done by me in former times” ThA. 270; Vv 479 (=VvA. 202); desanā ... k-phalaṃ paccakkhakāriṇī “an instruction demonstrating the fruit of action” PvA. 1; similarly PvA. 2; cp. also ibid. 26, 49, 52, 82 (v. l. for kammabala). vipāka: yassa k°ssa vipākena ... niraye pacceyyāsi ... “through the ripening of whatever deed will you be matured (i.e. tortured) in N. ” M. II, 104; tassa k°ssa vipākena saggaṃ lokaṃ uppajji “by the result of that deed he went to Heaven” S. I, 92; II, 255; k-vipāka-kovida “well aware of the fruit of action, ” i.e. of retribution Sn. 653; kissa kvipākena “through the result of what (action)” Pv. I, 65; inunā asubhena k-vipākena Nett 160; k-vipāka with ref. to avyākata-dhammā: Vbh. 182; with ref. to jhāna ibid. 268, 281; with ref. to dukkha ibid. 106; k-vipāka-ja produced by the maturing of (some evil) action, as one kind of ābādha, illness: A. V, 110=Nd2 3041; same as result of good action, as one kind of iddhi (supernatural power) Ps. II, 174;—vipāka (adj.). asakkaccakatānaṃ kammānaṃ vipāko the reaper of careless deeds A. IV, 393; der. vepakka (adj.) in dukkha-vepakka resulting in pain Sn. 537. -phala+vipāka: frequent in form. sukaṭa dukkhaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko: D. I, 55=III, 264=M. I, 401=S. IV, 348=A. I, 268=IV. 226= V. 265, 286 sq.; cp. J. P. T. S. 1883, 8; nissanda-phalabhūto vipāko ThA. 270; tiṇṇaṃ k°ānaṃ phalaṃ, tiṇṇaṃ k-ānaṃ vipāko D. II, 186 — (b) the effect of the deed on the doer: the consequences fall upon the doer, in the majority of cases expressed as punishment or affliction: yathā yathâyaṃ puriso kammaṃ karoti tathā tathā taṃ paṭisaṃvedissati “in whichever way this man does a deed, in the same way he will experience it (in its effect)” A. I, 249; na vijjati so jagati-ppadeso yathā ṭhito muñceyya pāpa-kammā “there is no place in the world where you could escape the consequences of evil-doing” Dh. 127=Miln. 150=PvA. 104, cp. Divy 532; so the action is represented as vedaniya, to be felt; in various combinations: in this world or the future state, as good or bad, as much or little A. IV, 382; the agent is represented as the inheritor, possessor, of (the results of) his action in the old formula: kammassakā sattā k-dāyādā k-yonī k-bandhū ... yaṃ k°ṃ karonti kalyānaṃ vā pāpakaṃ vā tassa dāyādā bhavanti M. III, 203=A. III, 72 sq. =186=V. 88~288 sq. (see also cpds.). The punishment is expressed by kammakaraṇa (or °kāraṇa), “being done back with the deed, ” or the reaction of the deed, in phrase kamma-karaṇaṃ kāreti or kārāpeti “he causes the reaction of the deed to take place” and pass, kamma-karaṇā karīyati he is afflicted with the reaction, i.e. the punishment of his doing. The 5 main punishments in Niraya see under kāraṇaṃ, the usual punishments (beating with whips, etc.) are enumerated passim, e.g. M. III, 164, 181; and Nd2 604. (As regards form and meaning Morris J. P. T. S. 1884, 76 and 1893, 15 proposes kāraṇā f. “pain, punishment, “ fr. kṝ to tear or injure, “the pains of karma, or torture”; Prof. Duroiselle follows him, but with no special reason: the derivation as nt. causative-abstr. fr. karoti presents no difficulty. ) — ye kira bho pāpakāni k°-āni karonti te diṭṭh’eva dhamme evarūpā vividhā k-kāraṇā karīyanti, kim aṅga pana parattha! “Those who, as you know, do evil are punished with various tortures even in this world, how much more then in the world to come!” M. III, 181; M. III, 186=A. I, 142; sim. k°-kāraṇāni kārenti (v. l. better than text-reading) S. IV, 344; Sdhp. 7; Nd2 on dukkha. As k-karaṇaṃ saṃvidahiṃsu J. II, 398; kamma-kāraṇa-ppatta one who undergoes punishment Vism. 500. See also examples under 2d and M. I, 87; A. I, 47; J. V, 429; Miln. 197.

B. in objective relation: universal karma, law of cause and consequence.—(a) karma as cause of existence (see also d, purāṇa° and pubbe kataṃ k°): compared to the fruitful soil (khetta), as substratum of all existence in kāma, rūpa, arūpa dhātu A. I, 223 (kāmadhātu-vepakkañ ce kammaṃ nâbhavissa api nu kho kāmabhavo paññāyethā ti? No h’etaṃ ... iti kho kammaṃ khettaṃ ... ); as one of the 6 causes or substrata of existence A. III, 410; kammanā vattati loko kammanā vattati pajā “by means of karma the world goes on, mankind goes on” Sn. 654; kamma-paccayā through karma PvA. 25 (=Kh 207); k°ṃ kilesā hetu saṃsārassa “k. and passions are the cause of saṃsāra (renewed existence)” Nett 113; see on k. as principle: Ps. II, 78; 79 (ch. VII. , kamma-kathā) M. I, 372 sq.; Nett. 161; 180—182; k. as 3 fold: Bdhd 117; as 4 fold M. III, 215; and as cause in general Vism. 600 (where enumerated as one of the 4 paccaya’s or stays of rūpa, viz. k. , citta, utu, āhāra); Bdhd 63, 57, 116, 134 sq.; Vbh. 366; Miln. 40 sq. as a factor in the five-fold order (dhammatā or niyama) of the cosmos: k°-niyama DA. on D 11, 12; DhsA. 272; Cp. cpds. : kammaja (resulting from karma) Bdhd 68, 72, 75; °-vātā, birth-pains i.e. the winds resulting from karma (caliṃsu) DhA. I, 165; DhA. II, 262; k°-nimitta Bdhd 11, 57, 62; k°-sambhava Bdhd 66; k°-samuṭṭhāna Vism. 600; Bdhd 67, 72; see further cpds. below.—(b) karma as result or consequence. There are 3 kamma-nidānāni, factors producing karma and its effect: lobha, dosa, moha, as such (tīṇi nidānāni kammānaṃ samudayāya, 3 causes of the arising of karma) described A. I, 134=263=III, 338=Nd2 517; so also A. V, 86; 262; Vbh. 208. With the cessation of these 3 the factor of karma ceases: lobha-kkhayā kamma-nidāna-saṃkhayo A. V, 262. There are 3 other nidānāni as atīte anāgate paccuppanne chanda A. I, 264. and 3 others as producing or inciting existence (called here kamma-bhava, consequential existence) are puñña, apuñña, ānejja (merit, demerit and immovability) Vbh. 137=Nd2 471.—(c) karma as causeconsequence: its manifestation consists in essential likeness between deed and result, cause and effect: like for like “as the cause, so the result. ” Karma in this special sense is Retribution or Retaliation; a law, the working of which cannot be escaped (cp. Dh. 127, as quoted above 3 A (b), and Pv. II, 717: sace taṃ pāpakaṃ kammaṃ karissatha karotha vā, na vo dukkhā pamutt’atthi) — na hi nassati kassaci kammaṃ “nobody’s (trace, result of) action is ever lost” Sn. 666; puññâpuñña-kammassa nissandena kanaka vimāne ekikā hutvā nibbatti “through the consequence of both merit and demerit” PvA. 47; cp. VvA. 14; yatth’assa attabhāvo nibbattati tattha taṃ k°ṃ vipaccati “wherever a man comes to be born, there ripens his action” A. I, 134;— correspondence between “light” and “dark” deeds and their respective consequence are 4 fold: kaṇha-kamma›kaṇha vipāka, sukka°, kaṇhasukka, akaṇha-asukka: D. III, 230=M. I, 389=A. II, 230 sq.; so sakena kammena nirayaṃ upapajjati Nd2 304III; k°-ânubhāva —ukkhitta “thrown, set into motion, by the power of k. ” PvA. 78; sucarita-k-ânubhavâvanibbattāni vimānāni “created by the power of their result of good conduct” VvA. 127; k-ânubhāvena by the working of k. PvA. 77; k°-vega-ukkhittā (same) PvA. 284; yathā kamm-ûpaga “undergoing the respective consequences (of former deeds) affected with respective karma: see cpds. , and cp. yathā kammaṃ gato gone (into a new existence) according to his karma J. I, 153 & frequent; see cpds.; k-sarikkhatā “the karma-likeness, ” the correspondence of cause and consequence: taṃ k-s°ṃ vibhāventaṃ suvaṇṇamayaṃ ahosi “this, manifesting the karma-correspondence, was golden” VvA. 6; so also k-sarikkhaka, in accordance with their deed, retributionary, of kamma-phalaṃ, the result of action: tassa kamma-sarikkhakaṃ kammaphalaṃ hoti “for her the fruit of action became like action, ” i.e. the consequence was according to her deed. PvA. 206; 284; 258; as nt. : k-s°ṃ pan’assa udapādi “the retribution for him has come” DhA. I, 128; J. III, 203; cp. also Miln. 40 sq.; 65 sq.; 108.—(d) The working and exhaustion of karma, its building up by new karma (nava°) and its destruction by expiration of old karma (purāṇa). The final annihilation of all result (°kkhaya) constitutes Arahantship. nava›purāṇa-kamma: as aparipakka, not ripe, and paropakka, ripe D. I, 54=S. III, 212; as pañca-kammuno satāni, etc. ibid.; kāyo ... purāṇaṃ k°ṃ abhisaṅkhataṃ (“our body is an accumulation of former karma”) S. II, 65=Nd2 680 D; see also A. II, 197; Pv IV. 71; PvA. 1, 45; Nett 179; and with simile of the snake stripping its slough (porāṇassa k°ssa parikkhīṇattā ... santo yathā kammaṃ gacchati) PvA. 63.—k°-nirodha or °kkhaya: so ... na tāva kālaṃ karoti yāva na taṃ pāpakammaṃ vyanti hoti “He does not die so long as the evil karma is unexhausted” A. I, 141≈; nava-purāṇāni k°āni desissāmi k°-nirodhaṃ k°-nirodha-gāminiñ ca paṭipadaṃ “the new and the old karma I shall demonstrate to you, the destruction of k. and the way which leads to the destruction of k. ” S. IV, 132~A. III, 410; ... navānaṃ k°ānaṃ akaraṇā setughātaṃ; iti k-kkhayā dukkhakkhayo ... (end of misery through the end of karma) A. I, 220=M. II, 214; same Ps. I, 55—57; cp. also A. I, 263; Nd2 411 (expl. as kamma-parāyaṇa vipāka-p°: “gone beyond karma and its results, ” i.e. having attained Nibbāna). See also the foll. cpds. : k°-âbhisaṅkhīsa, °āvaraṇa, °kkhaya, °nibandhana.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Kamma (कम्म) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Bhuj.

2) Kamma (कम्म) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Karman.

3) Kamma (कम्म) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kārmaṇa.

4) Kammā (कम्मा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Karman.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kamma (ಕಮ್ಮ):—[noun] an old unit of measuring the land.

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Kamma (ಕಮ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] the grass Pennisetum typhoides (= Holcus spicata, = Panicum spicatum) of Poaceae family.

2) [noun] its grain; spiked millet; (?).

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Kamma (ಕಮ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] action; work; deed.

2) [noun] execution; performance.

3) [noun] obligtory duty.

4) [noun] the results of one’s past action, deeds, etc.; the effect.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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