Hrid, Hṛt, Hrit, Hṛd: 29 definitions

Introduction:

Hrid means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Hṛt and Hṛd can be transliterated into English as Hrt or Hrit or Hrd or Hrid, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Hṛd (हृद्) or Hṛdaya refers to the “heart”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The Nakṣatras—Rohiṇī and Kṛttikā, form the body of the Vatsara Puruṣa, the two Āṣāḍhas form his navel, Āśleṣā forms the heart [i.e., hṛd] and Maghā, the heart-bladder; when benefíc planets pass through these, there will be happiness in the land; if malefic planets should pass through the body, there will be suffering from fire and winds; if they should pass through the navel, there will be suffering from starvation; if they should pass through the heart-bladder, roots and fruits will suffer, and if they should pass through the heart [i.e., hṛdaya], crops will perish”.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Hṛt (हृत्).—Circum-radius. Note: Hṛt is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: academia.edu: The Śaiva Yogas and Their Relation to Other Systems of Yoga

Hṛt (हृत्, “heart”) refers to one of the sixteen types of “locus” or “support” (ādhāra) according to the Netratantra. These ādhāras are called so because they “support” or “localise” the self and are commonly identified as places where breath may be retained. They are taught in two different setups: according to the tantraprakriyā and according to the kulaprakriyā. Hṛt belongs to the latter system.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Hṛd (हृद्) refers to the “heart” representing one of the nine Granthis (‘knots’ or ‘joints’), according to verse 4.497ff of the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—Accordingly, “[...] A series of nine lotuses is visualized situated at points in the body called granthis (knots or joints). These are located at the crown of the head, the forehead, throat, navel, knees, mouth, heart (hṛd), genitals, and feet, following the order of their sequence in nyāsa. The eight-petalled lotuses situated therein are loci for installation of the principal nine deities: Kapālīśabhairava, who is installed in the crown lotus, and two sets of four goddesses, the Devīs and the Dūtīs [i.e., Danturā, to be installed on the heart]. [...]”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Hṛd (हृद्) refers to the “heart”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 22.5-10ab]—“Listen! I will speak to the question that remains in your heart (hṛdsaṃśayaṃ te hṛdi sthitam). All the innumerable mantras, on all occasions, have the majesty of Śiva and Śakti, all are endowed with Śakti, all grant rewards and liberation, and [all] are nourished by one's own Śakti. However, the highest Deva is tranquil, in possession of imperceptible guṇas, [namely] Śiva who consists of all, who is pure, and who is to be understood as unsurpassed. [...]

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Hṛt (हृत्):—Heart, Cardia

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Croaking Frogs: (Yoga)

Hṛd (हृद्) refers to the “heart” representing one of the sixteen vital centres of the body (i.e., ādhāra), according to the Jyotsnā 3.73 (Cf. Gorakṣaśataka 14 and Svātmārāma’s Haṭhapradīpikā 3.72).—In Haṭhayoga, ādhāra refers to a vital point of the body, a seat of vital function. Jyotsnā verse 3.73 cites a passage attributed to Gorakṣa listing the ādhāras as [e.g., hṛd (heart), ...]. The Haṭhapradīpikā refers to sixteen ādhāras but does not name them or explain what they are. The Gorakṣaśataka also refers to sixteen ādhāras as something the Yogī should be familiar with, but does not name them.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Hṛt (हृत्) or “heart” refers to one of the seventeen stages of the rise of kuṇḍalinī, according to Abhinavagupta as drawn from the Devyāyāmala.—Cf. The seventeen syllables [i.e., saptadaśākṣara] of Mantramātā.—[...] These seventeen units [are] to be arranged in as many locations along the axis of the subtle body,  [as was] clearly known to Abhinava. Thus he presents an ascending series marking the stages of the rise of Kuṇḍalinī, the highest stage of which is that of the ‘Pure Self’ heralded by the Transmental just below it. In this set-up, drawn by Abhinavagupta from the Devyāyāmala, there are seventeen stages. These are [e.g., the Heart (hṛt), ...].

2) Hṛd (हृद्) refers to the “heart”, corresponding the Saura system: one of the sixteen spiritual disciplines (darśana) issued from the limbs of the body of the Goddess, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] All spiritual disciplines, whatever the tradition, are necessarily grounded in the same energy of the Śāmbhava state. They issue, as the texts put it, from the limbs of the body of the goddess who is this energy. These range from the lowest extremity—the left big toe—where Buddhism originates, to the highest—the End of Sixteen—where the Śāmbhava state is attained which is the source of the Kubjikā tradition. The systems (darśana) and their corresponding places of origin in the Goddess’s body are as follows: [5) Saura—the heart—hṛd, ...].

3) Hṛd (हृद्) refers to the “heart”, which is associated with the Jīvagranthi, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “(12) The Knot of the Living Being is in the place of the heart [i.e., hṛdhṛdi sthāne], while (13) the one called Viṣṇu is in the throat. [...]”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Hṛd (हृद्) refers to the “heart”, according to Sāhib Kaul’s Śārikāstrotra.—Accordingly, “[...] He who recites your syllable with pure heart (śuddha-hṛd) and proper devotion, O Śārikā, which consists of abja and vaktravṛtta, in his mouth a fully developed voice stays, which has the beauty of unfolding through various good emotions. He who recites your syllable, consisting of abja and vaktravṛtta, and called asthyātmā, O Śārikā, is liberated in life and, enjoying supreme bhogas, will later dissolve in your state, O Bhavānī. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Hṛd (हृद्) refers to the “heart”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.9.—Accordingly, as Himācala (Himavat) said to Menā:—“O dear, at the end of the latter half of the night, I too had a dream. Please listen to it lovingly. [...] Advising our daughter to render service to that saint I requested him to approve of it but He didn’t. A great discussion took place (between her and Śiva based on Sāṅkhya and Vedānta). Thereafter at His bidding my daughter stayed there. Concealing her love in the heart [i.e., hṛd] she served Him with devotion. This is the dream I had, O bright-faced lady and I have told you all. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Hṛd (हृद्) refers to the “heart”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 8.88-90.—Accordingly: “The wise say that death is the natural state of embodied creatures and life is a change in that state. If a being remains breathing even for a moment it is surely fortunate. The foolish man regards the loss of his dear one as a dart shot into his heart (hṛd). Another man looks on the same as a dart that has been pulled out, for it is a door to beatitude. When we are taught that our own body and soul unite and then separate, tell me which wise person should be tormented by separation from the external objects of the senses?”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Hṛd (हृद्) refers to the “heart”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Those possessions which are pitiless, having imparted a great burning in the heart of men (hṛdhṛdi puṃsāṃ kathaṃ), certainly will go away. How could they be for your pleasure?”.

2) Hṛd (हृद्) refers to the “mind”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “A bad birth is hard to be accomplished even in a dream for him whose judgment, which is extremely skilful at examination like a door-keeper, shines in the mind (hṛdhṛdi sphurati). Having got rid of the multitude of imaginings, when the steady mind holds onto [its] nature, then it is indeed the best [form of] stopping the influx of karma for a mendicant”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

Hṛt (हृत्) [or हृद्, hṛd].—n S The heart or the mind; the faculty or the seat of feeling and thought. In comp. as hṛdrōga. 2 In anatomy. The heart.

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hṛt (हृत्).—a S That bears off or takes away. In comp. as duḥkhahṛt, prāṇahṛt, pāpahṛt, puṇyahṛt.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

Hṛt (हृत्).—n The heart or the mind.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

hṛd (हृद्).—n The heart or the mind.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Hṛt (हृत्).—a. (At the end of comp. only) Taking away, seizing, removing, carrying off, attracting &c.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Hṛd (हृद्).—n. (This word has no forms for the first five inflections, and is optionally substituted for hṛdaya after acc. dual)

1) The mind, heart; त्यक्तं गृहाद्यपि मया भवताप- शान्त्यै नासीदसौ हृतहृदो मम मायया ते (tyaktaṃ gṛhādyapi mayā bhavatāpa- śāntyai nāsīdasau hṛtahṛdo mama māyayā te) Bhagavaccharaṇa S.15.

2) The chest, bosom, breast; इमां हृदि व्यायतपातमक्षिणोत् (imāṃ hṛdi vyāyatapātamakṣiṇot) Kumārasambhava 5.54.

3) The soul.

4) The interior or essence of anything.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hṛt (हृत्).—Adj. Taking away, seizing, attracting, &c., (at the end of compounds only.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hṛd (हृद्).—n. (-hṛt or hṛd) The heart, the mind, the faculty or seat of thought and feeling. E. hṛ to take, aff. kvip, and tuk added; This word has no forms for the first five cases; according to some it is not a separate word but an optional substitute for hṛdaya .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hṛd (हृद्).—n. 1. The heart, [Hitopadeśa] 77, 3, M. M.; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 151 (former part of a comp.). 2. The mind.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hṛt (हृत्).—(—°) bringing, taking, removing, destroying.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hṛd (हृद्).—[neuter] the heart, [especially] as seat of the emotions and mental activity i.[grammar]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Hṛt (हृत्):—[from hṛ] a mfn. (only ifc.) bringing, carrying, carrying away, seizing etc. (See bali-, taila-, pāpa, -bhayahṛt etc.)

2) [from hṛd] b in [compound] for hṛd.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Hṛd (हृद्):—n. (optionally substituted for hṛdaya in the weak cases id est. in all except the first five inflexions; thought to be connected with śrad q.v.) the heart (as the seat of feelings and emotions), soul, mind (as seat of thought and intellectual operations; hṛdy avedin, ‘having no capacity of knowledge in the heart or mind’, said of animals), breast, chest, stomach, interior (also in older language, ‘interior of the body’), [Ṛg-veda]; etc.

2) cf. [Greek] καρδία, κραδίη; [Latin] cor (cordis); [German] Herz; [English] heart.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hṛd (हृद्):—[(t-d)] 5. n. The heart, the mind.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Hṛd (हृद्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Hara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Hrid in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Hrit in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) truth; righteousness; divine law..—hrit (ऋत) is alternatively transliterated as Ṛta.

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