Upacara, Upacāra, Upācāra: 19 definitions
Upacara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Upachara.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Upacāra (उपचार).—(l) taking a secondary sense; implication; lit. moving for a sense which is near about; the same as लक्षणा (lakṣaṇā). The word आचार (ācāra) is explained as उपचार (upacāra), employment or current usage, by Patañjali; cf. आचारात् । आचार्याणामुपचारात् । (ācārāt | ācāryāṇāmupacārāt |) M. Bh. I.1.1. Vārt. 4; (2) substitution of the letter सं (saṃ) for विसर्ग (visarga) : cf. प्रत्ययग्रहणोपचारेषु च (pratyayagrahaṇopacāreṣu ca), P.IV.1.1 Vārt. 7.
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Upācāra (उपाचार).—Change of Visarga into s (स् (s)); sibilation of Visarga, e. g. ब्रह्मणः पतिः (brahmaṇaḥ patiḥ) = ब्रह्मणस्पतिः (brahmaṇaspatiḥ). The words उपचार (upacāra) and उपाचरित (upācarita) are found used in the same sense by ancient Grammarians. See उपचार (upacāra); cf. समापाद्यं नाम वदन्ति षत्वं, तथा णत्वं सामवशांश्च सन्धीन् । (samāpādyaṃ nāma vadanti ṣatvaṃ, tathā ṇatvaṃ sāmavaśāṃśca sandhīn |) ...उपाचारं लक्षणतश्च सिद्धम्, आचार्या व्यालिशाकल्यगार्ग्याः (upācāraṃ lakṣaṇataśca siddham, ācāryā vyāliśākalyagārgyāḥ) R. Pr. VIII.12.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Upacāra (उपचार).—(Hospitality). They are sixteen in number. (Things to be offered to the guest). They are called Ṣoḍaśopacāras. They are given below:—(1) Āsana (seat) (2) Pādya (water to wash feet (3) Arghya (water to drink) (4) Snānīya (bath) (5) Anulepana (ashes or other fragrant things for besmearing) (6) Dhūpa (smoke) (7) Dīpa (light) (8) Naivedya (food) (9) Tāmbūla (Betel) (10) Śītalajala (cool drinks) (11) Vasana (clothing) (12) Bhūṣaṇa (ornaments) (13) Mālya (garland) (14) Gandha (sweet-smelling things) (15) Ācamanīyaka (water to rinse mouth) (16) Sutalpa (Good bed).
These are the sixteen offerings that we have to give to our guests.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Upacāra (उपचार) refers to a the “sixteen types of homage and services”, as described while explaining the mode of worshipping the phallic form (liṅga) of Śiva in the Śivapurāṇa 1.11. Accordingly, “[...] the devotee shall install the phallic emblem (liṅga) and it will accord directly the region of Śiva. Or the devotee shall worship the mobile emblem with the sixteen types of homage and services as prescribed. It accords the region of Śiva gradually. [...]”.
The sixteen types of service (upacāra) are:—
- invocation (āvāhana);
- offering the seat (āsana);
- water offering (arghya);
- washing of the feet (pādya);
- water for rinsing the mouth as a mystical rite (ācamana);
- oil bath (abhyaṅgasnāna);
- offering of cloth (vastra);
- Scents (gandha);
- flowers (puṣpa);
- incense (dhūpa);
- lamps (dīpa);
- food offering (nivedana);
- waving of lights (nīrājana);
- betel leaves (tāmbūla);
- obeisance (namaskāra);
- mystical discharge and conclusion (visarjana).
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas
Upacāra (उपचार) refers to the different types of “offerings” in pūjā (ritual worship), as defined in the Śaivāgamas.—Pūjā consists of offering hospitality, in the form of water to wash the feet, to drink, water for ablutions, offering a bath, new clothes, fragrant unguents, fragrant flowers and ornaments, food and so on. Each step in the pūjā process is called “saṃskāra” and each offering is called “upacāra”.
The list of upacāras varies slightly between Āgamas but broadly it is as listed in the table below.
- Pādya (water to wash one’s feet)
- Ācamanīya (water to drink, offered at mouth)
- Arghya (water for ritual ablution offered at head)
- Snānatoya (ritual bath)
- Vastra (new/ washed clothes)
- Ābharaṇa (ornaments)
- Gandha or Vilepana (fragrant sandal paste)
- Puṣpa or Kusuma (fragrant flowers)
- Dhūpa (fragrant incense)
- Dīpa (lamp, waved in ritual action)
- Naivedya or Havis (ritual food offering)
- Tāmbūla or Mukhavāsa (betel leaves, nuts and other mouth fresheners)
- Bali (ritual food offering for protective deities)
- Homa or Agnikārya (fire ritual)
- Nityotsava (ritual procession around the temple)
- Stotra [Ārya or Drāviḍa] (chanting veda/ dēvāram)
- Vādya (playing musical instruments; specific tāla during certain rituals)
- Gīta (classical singing; specific rāga during certain rituals)
- Nṛtta or Śuddhanṛtta/ Saukhya karma (classical dance)
The ṣoḍaṣa-upacāra are defined as follows: After Bali, Homa, Tāmbūla, the Ācārya entertains the Lord with the sounding of the pañcamahāśābda and offers darpaṇa (mirror), chattra (umbrella), cāmara (fly-whisk), geya (song), nṛtta (dance), japa (mantra chanting) and stotra (hymns).
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Ganapatya (worship of Ganesha)Source: Google Books: Ganapati: Song of the Self
Upacāra (उपचार) refers to a “certain sequence of items” used during the worship of a deity (pūjā).—More elaborate types of worship consist of an offering complete with a certain sequence of items (upacāra),each one being accompanied by the recitation of certain mantras. Such types of pūjās may vary from 16 items to 108 or even more. As a rule, the name of a pūjā is often given according to the number of items that are being offered, that is, pañcopacāra-pūjā (5 five items), ṣoḍaśopacāra-pūjā (16 items), and so on.
Ganapatya (गाणपत्य, gāṇapatya) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Ganesha is revered and worshipped as the prime deity (ishta-devata). Being a minor though influential movement, Ganapatya evovled, llike Shaktism and Shaivism, as a separate movement leaving behind a large body of literature.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
See Apacara.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
F (Access concentration).Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
Upacara means proximity, crownprince. It is sometimes called proximate concentration.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
'moment of access'; s. javana.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
upacāra : (m.) neighbourhood; preparative or preliminary action.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Upacāra, (fr. upa + car) — 1. approach, access Vin. II, 120, 152; IV, 304; J. I, 83, 172; DhsA. 328 (phal°).—2. habit, practice, conduct Vin. II, 20 (dassan°); SnA 140 (id.); J. III, 280.—3. way, means application, use of (esp. of spells etc.) J. III, 280 (mantassa); VI, 180; Miln. 153, 154 (dur° an evil spell); VvA. 127 (gram. t. t. kāraṇ°).—4. entrance, access, i.e. immediate vicinity or neighbourhood of (-°) J. IV, 182 (nagar°); usually as gām° Vin. I, 109; III, 46; IV, 230; KhA 77; SnA 83, 179.—5. attention, attendance Vin. IV, 272; J. VI, 180; Miln. 154.—6. civility, polite behaviour J. II, 56; VI, 102.—7. On upacāra as philos, t. t. and its relation to appanā see Dhs. trsln. 53, 54; Cpd. 55; Mystic p. XI. Thus used of samādhi (neighbourhood-, or access-concentration, distinguishing it from appanā-samādhi) at Vism. 85, 126, 144 and passim. (Page 140)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
upacāra (उपचार).—m (S) An application (of labor or effort, of means or materials) to effect or accomplish; adoption of measures; trial or use of remedies &c.: also any one of the applications, operations, efforts, trials, means, remedies, materials, apparatus, articles &c. made, used, or employed. 2 A common term for the particulars and points of idolworship; of which sixteen are enumerated. See ṣōḍaśōpacāra. 3 A common term for the particulars and points of medicine or medical treatment; of which seven main ones are specified. See saptōpacāra. 4 Treatment, esp. medical. 5 Attentions and courtesies (to priests, guests, visitors). 6 Deflection of words from their literal and primitive sense; using a metaphor or figure: also a metaphor or figure; tropical or figurative speech.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
upacāra (उपचार).—m An application (of labour, &c.) to effect. Adoption of measures, trial or use of remedies, treatment, esp. medical. A formality, a ceremonial rite.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Upacāra (उपचार).—1 Service, attendance; honouring worshipping, entertaining; Mk.4; अस्खलितोपचाराम् (askhalitopacārām) R.5.2; K.344.
2) Civility, politeness, courtesy, polite behaviour, (external display of courtesy); °परिभ्रष्टः (paribhraṣṭaḥ) H.1.114. devoid of civility, uncourteous; °विधिर्मनस्विनीनाम् (vidhirmanasvinīnām) M.3.3; उपचारैरुपाचरत् (upacārairupācarat) Ks.16.29; मिथ्योपचारैश्च वशीकृतानाम् (mithyopacāraiśca vaśīkṛtānām) H.1.75; नोपचारेण ब्रूयाः (nopacāreṇa brūyāḥ) Rām.; °पदं न चेदिदम् (padaṃ na cedidam) Ku.4.9. a merely complimentary saying, a flattering compliment; °मात्रमधुरम् (mātramadhuram) K.222,27; M.4; °क्रिया (kriyā) Ms. 8.357 showing marks of favour, courting, (sending perfumes &c.).
3) Salutation, usual or customary obeisance, homage; नोपचारमर्हन्ति (nopacāramarhanti) Ś.3.17; °यन्त्रणया (yantraṇayā) M.4; °अतिक्रमम् (atikramam) 4,5; °अञ्जलिः (añjaliḥ) R.3.11 folding the hands in salutation.
4) A form or mode of address or salutation; तेन वाक्योपचारेण विस्मिताः राजसत्तमाः (tena vākyopacāreṇa vismitāḥ rājasattamāḥ) Mb.5.162. 45; रामभद्र इत्येव मां प्रत्युपचारः शोभते तातपरिजनस्य (rāmabhadra ityeva māṃ pratyupacāraḥ śobhate tātaparijanasya) U.1; यथा गुरुस्तथोपचारेण (yathā gurustathopacāreṇa) 6; V.5; Śi.9.78.
5) External show or form, ceremony; प्रावृषेण्यैरेव लिङ्गैर्मम राजोपचारः (prāvṛṣeṇyaireva liṅgairmama rājopacāraḥ) V.4 royal service, pomp or state of royalty; भूषणाद्युप- चारेण (bhūṣaṇādyupa- cāreṇa) Mu.3.23. v. l.
6) A remedy, physicking, application of cure, of remedy; शिशिर° (śiśira°) Dk.15; शीत° (śīta°) Pt.1; Dk.23; K.12.
7) Practice, performance, art, conduct, management, procedure; व्रतचर्या° (vratacaryā°) Ms.1. III; प्रसाधन° (prasādhana°) 1.32,9.259; कामोपचारेषु (kāmopacāreṣu) Dk.81 in the conduct of love-affairs; समन्त्रं सोपचारम् (samantraṃ sopacāram) (astram) Mb.; अवेशसदृशप्रणयोपचाराम् (aveśasadṛśapraṇayopacārām) Mk.8.23 course of love &c.; वाक्यो- पचारे कुशला (vākyo- pacāre kuśalā) Rām.2.44.3 skilled in the employment of words; use, usage; यत्र लौकिकानामुपचारः (yatra laukikānāmupacāraḥ) v. l. for व्याहारः (vyāhāraḥ) in U.6.
8) Means of doing homage or showing respect; प्रकीर्णाभिनवोपचारम् (prakīrṇābhinavopacāram) (rājamārgam) R.7.4 (hanging garlands &c.); 5.41.
9) Hence, any necessary or requisite article (of worship, ceremony, decoration, furniture &c.); presenting flowers, perfumes &c.; सन्मङ्गलोपचाराणाम् (sanmaṅgalopacārāṇām) R.1.77; क्लृप्तोपचारां चतुरस्रवेदीम् (klṛptopacārāṃ caturasravedīm) Ku.7.88; कुसुमैः कृतोपचारः (kusumaiḥ kṛtopacāraḥ) V.2; so °रमणीयतया (ramaṇīyatayā) Ś.6; °वत्सु मञ्चेषु (vatsu mañceṣu) R.6.1 the necessary decorations (canopy &c.); (the Upachāras or articles of worship are variously numbered, being 5, 1, 16, 18 or 64).
1) Behaviour, conduct, demeanour; वैश्यशूद्रोपचारं च (vaiśyaśūdropacāraṃ ca) Ms.1.116; (religious) conduct in life; साधूनामुपचारज्ञः (sādhūnāmupacārajñaḥ) Rām.; परिजन° (parijana°) Mk.1.
11) Use, employment; K.183.
12) Any religious performance, a ceremony; प्रयुक्तपाणिग्रहणोपचारौ (prayuktapāṇigrahaṇopacārau) Ku.7.86; Mv.1.24.
13) (a) Figurative or metaphorical use, secondary application (opp. mukhya or primary sense); अचेतनेऽपि चेतनवदुपचारदर्शनात् (acetane'pi cetanavadupacāradarśanāt) Ś. B; कूलं पिपतिषतीत्यचेतनेऽपि कूले चेतनवदुपचारो दृश्यते (kūlaṃ pipatiṣatītyacetane'pi kūle cetanavadupacāro dṛśyate) Mahābhārata on P.IV. 3.86 personification; so छत्रिणो गच्छन्तीत्येकेनापि छत्रिणा बहूनां छत्रित्वोपचारदर्शनात् (chatriṇo gacchantītyekenāpi chatriṇā bahūnāṃ chatritvopacāradarśanāt) Ś. B.; करणे कर्तृत्वोपचारात् (karaṇe kartṛtvopacārāt) ibid.; न चास्य करधृतत्वं तत्त्वतोऽस्तीति मुख्येऽपि उपचार एव शरणं स्यात् (na cāsya karadhṛtatvaṃ tattvato'stīti mukhye'pi upacāra eva śaraṇaṃ syāt) K. P.1. (b) Supposed or fancied identification founded on resemblance; उभयरूपा चेयं शुद्धा उपचारेणामिश्रि- तत्वात् (ubhayarūpā ceyaṃ śuddhā upacāreṇāmiśri- tatvāt) K. P.2. (S. D. explains upacāra by atyantaṃ viśakalitayoḥ sādṛśyātiśayamahimnā bhedapratītisthaganamātram).
14) A bribe.
15) A pretext; Śi.1.2.
16) A request, solicitation.
17) Occurrence of स् (s) and ष् (ṣ) in the place of Visarga.
18) Name of a परिशिष्ट (pariśiṣṭa) of the Sāmaveda.
Derivable forms: upacāraḥ (उपचारः).
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1) Position (of a word in a sentence).
3) Same as उपाचरित (upācarita) q. v. above.
Derivable forms: upācāraḥ (उपाचारः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Upacāra (उपचार).—m. (= Pali id.; see also s.v. tāḍāvacara), (1) environs, neighborhood: Gaṇḍavyūha 151.18 deśapradeśopacāreṣu nimnonnata-samaviṣameṣv; Daśabhūmikasūtra 81.24 (mahābrahmā…) lokadhātau gahananimnopacārān avabhāsayati; (2) access (for Pali compare [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary] s.v. 7, with references): Bodhisattvabhūmi 44.14 (see prajñapti 4).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ) 1. Service, attendance. 2. Physicking, the practice of medicine. 3. Practice, profession, usage. 4. A present, a bribe. 5. Presenting delicacies or necessaries, water, betel, &c. 6. Tending the sick, nursing. 7. Solicitation, request. 8. Incomplete act, one in progress. 9. A form of speech, a phrase that leaves something to be inferred ellipsis, &c. E. upa well, much, &c. car to go, ghañ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Upacāra (उपचार).—i. e. upa-car + a, m. 1. Homage, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 66. 2. Service, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 56, 9. 3. Courting, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 357. 4. Means of doing homage, garlands, etc., [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 7, 4. 5. Practice, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 111; performance, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 259. 6. Ceremony, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 7, 86. 7. Physicking, [Suśruta] 1, 117, 7; medical use, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 19, 17. 8. Behaviour, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 32, 8.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Upacara (उपचर):—[=upa-cara] [from upa-car] mfn. accessory, supplementary, [Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa]
2) [v.s. ...] m. access, approach, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa ii, 3, 4, 30]
3) [v.s. ...] attendance, cure, [Suśruta] (cf. sūpacara.)
4) Upacāra (उपचार):—[=upa-cāra] [from upa-car] m. approach, service, attendance, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi i, 111, 2 seqq.]
5) [v.s. ...] act of civility, obliging or polite behaviour, reverence, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Śakuntalā] etc. (64 Upacāras are enumerated in the Tantra-sāra, quoted by, [Tārānātha tarkavācaspati’s Vācaspatyam, Sanskrit dictionary])
6) [v.s. ...] proceeding, practice
7) [v.s. ...] behaviour, conduct
8) [v.s. ...] mode of proceeding towards ([genitive case]), treatment, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Āpastamba-dharma-sūtra; Manu-smṛti] etc.
9) [v.s. ...] attendance on a patient, medical practice, physicking, [Suśruta; Pañcatantra; Vikramorvaśī]
10) [v.s. ...] a ceremony, [Kumāra-sambhava vii, 86]
11) [v.s. ...] present, offering, bribe
12) [v.s. ...] solicitation, request, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) [v.s. ...] ornament, decoration, [Kumāra-sambhava; Raghuvaṃśa vii, 4]
14) [v.s. ...] a favourable circumstance, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa 300]
15) [v.s. ...] usage, custom or manner of speech, [Nyāya]
16) [v.s. ...] a figurative or metaphorical expression (rāt ind. metaphorically), metaphor, figurative application, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha] [commentator or commentary] on [Śiśupāla-vadha] etc.
17) [v.s. ...] pretence, pretext, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [v.s. ...] a kind of Sandhi (substitution of s and ṣ in place of Visarga), [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 8-3, 48]
19) [v.s. ...] Name of a Pariśiṣṭa of the Sāma-veda.
20) Upācāra (उपाचार):—[=upā-cāra] [from upā-car] m. proceeding, procedure, [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra]
21) [v.s. ...] established use (of a word), [Nirukta, by Yāska i, 4]
22) [v.s. ...] a particular Sandhi (See above), [Atharvaveda-prātiśākhya iv, 74; Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Upacara Bhavana, Upacara Samadhi, Upacaracchala, Upacaraka, Upacarakarana, Upacarakarman, Upacarana, Upacaraniya, Upacarapada, Upacarapara, Upacaraparibhrashta, Upacaraparita, Upacarashodasharatnamala, Upacarat, Upacarati, Upacaravinaya.
Ends with (+1): Adaraupacara, Ashtadashopacara, Asuri-upacara, Balopacara, Durupacara, Gamupacara, Hitupacara, Maharajopacara, Mithyopacara, Pancopacara, Purastadupacara, Rajasi Upacara, Samopacara, Samupacara, Saumyopacara, Shishiropacara, Shodashopacara, Supacara, Vakyopacara, Vara Upacara.
Full-text (+224): Pushpa, Upacarakarana, Upacarapada, Dhupa, Dipa, Durupacara, Aupacarika, Upacaracchala, Upacaraparita, Upacarakarman, Upacaraparibhrashta, Arghya, Naivedya, Samopacara, Upacarat, Upacara Samadhi, Tambula, Kamacchanda Nivarana, Assapura, Thina Middha Nivarana.
Search found 40 books and stories containing Upacara, Upa-cara, Upa-cāra, Upā-cāra, Upacāra, Upācāra; (plurals include: Upacaras, caras, cāras, Upacāras, Upācāras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Conditions (by Nina van Gorkom)
Practicing Insight on Your Own (by Acharn Thawee Baladhammo)
A Manual of Abhidhamma (by Nārada Thera)
Appanā Thought-Process < [Chapter IV - Analysis of Thought-Processes]
Stages of Mental Culture < [Chapter IX - Mental Culture]
Compendium of Calm < [Chapter IX - Mental Culture]
A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas (by Sujin Boriharnwanaket)
Chapter 5 - The Three Attainments < [Part 5 - The Development Of Insight]
Chapter 3 - Different Kinds Of Purity < [Part 5 - The Development Of Insight]
Introducing Buddhist Abhidhamma (by Kyaw Min, U)
Vipassana Meditation (by Chanmyay Sayadaw)