Raktacandana, Rakta-candana, Raktacamdana: 21 definitions

Introduction:

Raktacandana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Raktachandana.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Raktacandana in Ayurveda glossary

Cikitsa (natural therapy and treatment for medical conditions)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ayurveda: Cikitsa

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन) is a Sanskrit word referring to Pterocarpus santalinus, a species of tree from the Fabaceae (legume) family of flowering plants. It is also known as Raktasāra. In English, the tree is called “red sandelwood”, “red sanders” or “saunderswood”. It has the following botanical synonym: Lingoum santalinum. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The Sanskrit compound Raktacandana is composed of the words Rakta (‘red’) and Candana (‘sandal’).

This plant (Raktacandana) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन) refers to the medicinal plant Pterocarpus santalinus L. F., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (as well as the Pharmacopoeia).—Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal. The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Raktacandana] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

The plant plant Pterocarpus santalinus L. F. (Raktacandana) is known as Candana according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. f.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning raktacandana] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous next»] — Raktacandana in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन) refers to “red sandal-wood”, representing the material to be used for the images (pratimā) of the planet Mars, according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[Images of and offerings to grahas]—The materials which are used to compose the images (pratimā) of the grahas are prescribed: red copper (Sun), crystal (Moon), red sandal-wood (Mars) [i.e., raktacandana], gold (Mercury and Jupiter), silver (Venus), iron (Saturn), lead (Rāhu) and white copper (Ketu). Such prescriptions for the planetary images are not found in gṛhya texts except in the Āśvalāyanagṛhyapariśiṣṭa (2.3) where the materials are almost the same as those in Yājñavalkyasmṛti, the only difference being the use of saffron for Mercury instead of gold. According to the Śāntikalpa (13.3), red copper (Sun and Mars), gold (Mercury and Jupiter), silver (Moon and Venus), and black iron (Saturn, Rāhu, and Ketu) are used.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Raktacandana in Kavya glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन) refers to “red-sandalwood”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 224-228).—Accordingly, “[Then he notices the dvārapāla (guardian of the gate), about which it is said that] [Caṇḍikā] had protected her entrance with an iron buffalo installed in front, which, because of the fact that it had been marked by palms [dyed with] red-sandalwood (raktacandana), seemed to have been stamped by Yama’s hand-prints red with blood, the red eyes of which were being licked by jackals greedy for drops of blood”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Raktacandana in Shaktism glossary
Source: Addaiyan Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences: Tantra Literature of Kerala- Special Reference to Mātṛsadbhāva

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन) or “red sandal tree” refers to of the trees used for making Bimbas or Pratimās, according to the Mātṛsadbhāva, one of the earliest Śākta Tantras from Kerala.—Mātṛsadbhāva is a Kerala Tantric ritual manual dealing with the worship of Goddess Bhadrakālī (also known as Rurujit) along with sapta-mātṛs or Seven mothers. [...] There are many descriptions about the flora and fauna in Mātṛssadbhāva. [...] In the fourth chapter the author discussed about different types of trees [e.g., raktacandana] can be used to make pratimā or bimba.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

[«previous next»] — Raktacandana in Vastushastra glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन) is classified as a “tree beneficial for the construction of temples”, according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The eco-friendly suggestions of Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa are seen to protect the greenery and to balance a pollution free environment. [...] The architect is suggested to go to the forest to collect appropriate wood (e.g., from the Raktacandana tree) for temples in an auspicious day after taking advice from an astrologer. [...] According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the woods of some particular trees remain beneficial for the construction of temples. At the time of cutting the trees [e.g., Raktacandana] one should clean the axe by smearing honey and ghee. After collecting the suitable wood from forest, the architect uses it according to his requirements and purposes.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन) refers to “red sandalwood” used in the Sūryārgha (sun offering) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “[...] [Make patron put a ṭīkā red mark on the ritual lamp.] To Śrī Sūrya, red sandalwood (raktacandana), homage. [Make patron offer a red flower to the ritual lamp.] To Śrī Sūrya, a red flower, homage. [Make patron put a sacred thread on the ritual lamp.] To Śrī Sūrya, a red sacred thread, homage. [Make patron hold rice and pray.] Oṃ homage to Śrī Sūrya the divine. Appearing as the Mantra flower, An ancient sage, whose great rays spread like a crown, Remover of all sins and obstacles, I bow to the maker of day”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Raktacandana in Mahayana glossary
Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन) refers to “(grounded) red sandal” (suitable for an offering ceremony), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [as the Bhagavān taught the detailed offering-manual], “[...] Four Nāga kings should be prepared in the middle of the ditch. [...] Retinues of seven should be made for each. They should be three-, two- or five-headed and their bodies should be smeared with various fragrances. Having ground sandal, red sandal (raktacandana), fragrant sandal, padmaka wood and saffron, it should be scattered along with fumigation. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Biology (plants and animals)

[«previous next»] — Raktacandana in Biology glossary
Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Raktacandana in India is the name of a plant defined with Pterocarpus santalinus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Lingoum santalinum (L.f.) Kuntze (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Publications of the Bureau of Science Government Laboratories (1904)
· Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2006)
· Pharmaceutical Biology (2007)
· Flora de Filipinas (1837)
· A Numerical List of Dried Specimens (5842)
· Revisio Generum Plantarum (1891)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Raktacandana, for example side effects, chemical composition, health benefits, diet and recipes, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Raktacandana in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

raktacandana (रक्तचंदन).—m (S) Red sandalwood, Pterocarpus Santalinus Kœn., Adenanthera Pavonina. Linn. Also Sappanwood, Cœsalpinia Sappan.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

raktacandana (रक्तचंदन).—m Red sandal-wood. Sappan wood.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Raktacandana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन).—

1) redsandal.

2) saffron.

Derivable forms: raktacandanam (रक्तचन्दनम्).

Raktacandana is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms rakta and candana (चन्दन).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Red wood, either red Sandal or sappan wood. (Ptrocarpus Santalinus.) 2. Saffron. E. rakta red and candana Sandal.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन).—[neuter] red sandal.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन):—[=rakta-candana] [from rakta > raj] n. red sandal, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

2) [v.s. ...] Caesalpina Sappan, [ib.]

3) [v.s. ...] saffron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन):—[rakta-candana] (naṃ) 1. n. Red wood; saffron.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Raktacandana (रक्तचन्दन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Rattaṃdaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Raktacandana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Raktacandana in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Raktacaṃdana (ರಕ್ತಚಂದನ):—

1) [noun] the small, deciduous tree Pterocarpus santalinus of Papilionaceae family with hard wood; red sandal wood.

2) [noun] the cane Daemonoropsis propinquus ( = Daemia draco) of Areacaceae family.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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