Shodhana, Śodhana, Sodhana: 35 definitions

Introduction:

Shodhana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śodhana can be transliterated into English as Sodhana or Shodhana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Shodhan.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Google Books: The Alchemical Body

Śodhana is the “(preliminary) purification” of mercury, its physical cleansing through washing, melting, marinating, and roasting it in various preparations.

Source: PMC: Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification and modification

Śodhana (detoxification/purification) is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. Śodhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy.

In Ayurveda, Śodhana is in practice since the times of Caraka Saṃhitā, but its use expanded with the development of Rasaśāstra since 8th century CE. Śodhana process is specially designed for the drugs from mineral origin; however, it is recommended for all kinds of drugs to remove their doṣās (impurities or toxic content). It is cited in the treatises of Ayurveda that by the used of proper method of processing, viṣa can be converted into amṛta (nectar) and on other hand on adoption of inappropriate methods, nontoxic materials become a toxic.

The concept of Śodhana in Ayurveda not only covers the process of purification/detoxifcation of physical as well as chemical impurities but also covers the minimization of side effects and improving the potency/therapeutic efficacy of the purified drugs.

Source: Academia.edu: Ayurveda and Pharmaceutics (rasashastra)

Śodhana (Detoxification or Purification):—Āyurvēda proposes some steps in the preparation of food, which are known as āhāra vidhi viśēṣayatana. Karaṇa or Saṃskaraṇa is one of them. Similarly the pharmaceutical tradition of Āyurvēda makes Śodhana of herbal and mineral substances as an obligatory process to make the medicaments safe and useful. Mercury, being the most important ingredient and potentially hazardous if not properly processed, became a pivotal ingredient in all the alchemical products. Therefore, very elaborate steps of detoxification were proposed for mercury. Moreover, many supernatural and unnatural phenomena were ascribed to its effects.

Source: CCRAS: Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, Appendix I

Śodhana is the process which removes the impurities to some extent and helps in increasing the therapeutic values of the drugs.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Śodhana (शोधन) refers to “eliminating therapy”, and is mentioned in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—The Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci is an example of this category. This book attracts reader by its very easy language and formulations which can be easily prepared and have small number of herbs. It describes only those formulations (viz., Śodhana) which are the most common and can be used in majority conditions of diseases.

Treatment of three Doṣas is described in 97th to 99th stanzas. There are therapeutics described in one stanza for each Doṣa. 100th stanza related with Śodhana (Eliminating therapy) of particular Doṣas.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification

Śodhana (शोधन) refers to “detoxification/purification” prescribed for medicinal purposes involving poisonous drugs.—Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. Śodhana (detoxification/purification) is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. [...] Śodhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy.

In Ayurveda, Śodhana is in practice since the times of Caraka Saṃhitā, but its use expanded with the development of Rasaśāstra since 8th century CE. Śodhana process is specially designed for the drugs from mineral origin; however, it is recommended for all kinds of drugs to remove their doṣas (impurities or toxic content). It is cited in the treatises of Ayurveda that by the use of proper method of processing, viṣa can be converted into amṛta (nectar) and on other hand on adoption of inappropriate methods, nontoxic materials become a toxic. The concept of Śodhana in Ayurveda not only covers the process of purification/detoxifcation of physical as well as chemical impurities but also covers the minimization of side effects and improving the potency/therapeutic efficacy of the purified drugs.

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa

Śodhana (शोधन) refers to the “purification” of wounds (vraṇa), according to Āyurveda sections in the Garuḍapurāṇa.—[...] After Viśodhana (wash off the ulcer's/wound's impurities by medicated decoction), the following formulations can be used for śodhana (purification) and ropaṇa (healing) externally:—[... e.g.,] The eraṇḍa-mūla (Castor root), two types of haridrā (Turmeric), Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica), Viśvabheṣaja (Zingiber officinale), Rasona (Allium sativum) and saindhava (rock salt) are ground well with takra (butter milk) or kāñjī (sour gruel). [...]

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śodhana (शोधन) refers to the “cleaning” of wounds, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

Source: PMC: Detoxification of Croton tiglium L. seeds

In Ayurveda, Śodhana is a unique process of detoxification which is employed partly to purify/detoxify and partly to potentiate the effect of various kinds of drugs used in Ayurvedic medicine with a view to reduce their toxic contents/effects as well as to enhance their therapeutic properties. Commonly used ingredients for Śodhana are cow's milk, cow's urine, ghee, and juice of few plants. Milk is considered as the best among all the media (Śodhanīya dravya) used in the Śodhana process.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Śodhana (शोधन):—A pharmaceutical procss of Purification / Detoxification / Refining / imparting useful properties in the materials

2) [śodhanaṃ] Cleansing of the wound

Source: National Mission for Manuscripts: Traditional Medicine System in India

Śodhana (शोधन) refers to “penetrating/purifying” and is the action (karma) associated with Tīkṣṇa (“sharp”): one of the twenty Śārīraguṇa (or Gurvādiguṇa), which refers to the “twenty qualities of the body”—where guṇa (property) represents one of the six divisions of dravya (drugs).—Śārīraka-guṇas are twenty in number. There are ten guṇas with their opposite guṇas. [...] Manda (“dull”) has the predominant bhūta (element) of earth, water and the associated actions of “slowing/pacifying/śamana”; while Tīkṣṇa (“sharp”) has the predominant bhūta (element) of fire and is associated with the action “penetrating/purifying/śodhana”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: archive.org: Sardhatrisatikalottaragama

Śodhana (शोधन) refers to “purification (of the earth)” which is prescribed as one of the operations/ preliminary ceremonies related to the kuṇḍa (“fire-pit”), according to the various Āgamas and related literature. Śodhana is mentioned in the Mataṅgapārameśvara (Kriyā-pāda, chap 4), Mṛgendra-āgama (Kriyā-pāda, chapter 6), Suprabheda-āgama (Kriyā-pāda, chapter 11), Pūrvakāraṇa-āgama (chapter 22), Dīpta-āgama (chapter 33) and the Cintya-āgama (chapter 10).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Śodhana (शोधन) refers to the “purification (of the bad karma)”, according to the Tantrāloka 15.27-30.—Accordingly, “He should destroy all the past and future karmas for the liberation-seeker who is indifferent. He should only purify the prārabdha karma. For the Sādhaka he should purify [the karmas] in the same manner for the purpose of powers. This is the śivadharmiṇī-dīkṣā, which removes the worldly religion. The purification (śodhana) of only the bad karma, and not the meritorious, is the lokadharmiṇī-dīkṣā, which is without the worship of mantras. Upon the death of his current body he enjoys [the supernatural powers], starting with aṇimā; and having enjoyed these he goes upwards to where he was joined [during the initiation ritual], at a sakala or niṣkala level”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Śodhana (शोधन) refers to “purification”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “[...] Purification [i.e., śodhana] takes place in the middle of the Secret Place (guhya) (the Yoni). He should check the inhaled breath (apāna). He should check the exhaled breath (prāṇa) there. By checking (the two breaths, Kuṇḍalinī) straightens and should enter the Circle of the Moon. The Supreme Energy (kalā), whose form is (subtle and straight) like a spider’s thread, rains down (nectar). Thus, one should recollect that the Self is flooded with the drops (of that energy) blazing with rays (of power). (One should recollect) that it is sprinkled by means of that Yoga of Nectar (amṛtayoga). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Shodhana in Yoga glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)

Śodhana (शोधन) refers to “purification” and represents one of the achievements of Haṭhayoga, according to the 17th-century Haṭhayogasaṃhitā: a compilation on Haṭhayoga that borrows extensively from the Haṭhapradīpikā.—[...] The stated aim of Haṭhayoga is to achieve purification (śodhana), firmness (dṛḍhatā), steadiness (sthairya), constancy (dhairya), lightness (lāghava), direct perception (pratyakṣa) and liberation (nirlipta) of the body (ghaṭa). Its Haṭhayoga has seven auxiliaries: the ṣaṭkarma, āsana, mudrā, pratyāhāra, prāṇasaṃyāma, dhyāna and samādhi.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

1) Śodbana (शोद्बन, “clearing”) is another name for Vyavakalita (“subtraction”) which represents one of the twenty operations (logistics) of pāṭīgaṇita (“science of calculation which requires the use of writing material—the board”), according to Pṛthudakasvāmī’s commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta by Brahmagupta, a Sanskrit treatise on ancient Indian mathematics (gaṇita-śāstra) and astronomy from the 7th century.—The terms [e.g., śodhana (clearing)] [...], have been used for subtraction.

2) Śodhana (शोधन) or Śodhana refers to the “(complete) clearance of equations”, according to the principles of Bījagaṇita (“algebra” or ‘science of calculation’).—After an equation (samīkaraṇa or samīkāra) is formed, writing it down for further operations is technically called nyāsa (putting down, statement) of the equation. In the Bakhshali treatise the two sides of an equation are put down one after the other in the same line without any sign of equality being interposed. [...] The operation to be performed on an equation next to its statement (nyāsa) is technically known as samaśodhana (from sama, meaning equal or complete, and śodhana, clearance; hence literally meaning, equi-clearance or complete clearance) or simply śodhana. The nature of this clearance varies according to the kind of the equation.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Śodhana (शोधन):—“Calcination”, which is described in the literature of the art as shodhana, "purification", is the process used to prepare these bhasma for administration.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

The elder brother of Kapila, who later became Kapilamaccha (q.v.). His mother was Sadhini and his sister Tapana.

He entered the Order with Kapila, in the time of Kassapa Buddha, and lived in the forest, engaged in meditation, attaining arahantship soon after. DhA.iv.37; SNA.i.305f.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Śodhana (शोधन) refers to the “purification” (of the site), according to Kuladatta’s Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, a text within Tantric Buddhism representing a construction manual for monasteries.—Accordingly, [kalaśādhivāsanā, chapter 3]—“If an Ācārya does not have a strong conviction in the Vajradhātu, there is no obstacle to his doing all the rites from purification of the site (bhū-śodhana) to consecration [of images etc.] with a strong conviction in his own chosen deity”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Shodhana in India is the name of a plant defined with Carum carvi in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Carum gracile Lindley (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Regnum Vegetabile, or ‘a Series of Handbooks for the Use of Plant Taxonomists and Plant Geographers’ (1993)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera (1821)
· Acta Horti Gothoburgensis (1926)
· Flora Orientalis (1888)
· Das Pflanzenreich (1927)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Shodhana, for example side effects, chemical composition, extract dosage, health benefits, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Shodhana in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sodhana : (nt.) cleansing; correcting.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sodhana, (nt.) (fr. sodheti) cleansing Vism. 276 (as f. °nā); examining J. I, 292; payment (see uddhāra) J. I, 321. (Page 725)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śōdhana (शोधन).—n (S) Cleaning, cleansing, clarifying, refining, purifying, correcting; freeing from feculence, dross, impurity, inaccuracy &c. 2 In arithmetic. Subtraction: also reduction. 3 Payment (of debt), liquidation.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śōdhana (शोधन).—n Cleaning, correcting; reduction; liquidation.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śodhana (शोधन).—a. (- f.) [शुध्-णिच्-ल्यु ल्युट् वा (śudh-ṇic-lyu lyuṭ vā)] Purifying, cleansing &c.

-nam 1 (a) Purifying, cleansing. (b) Cleansing or washing of a wound.

2) Correction, clearing away errors; (śapathaṃ) करोतु परिषन्मध्ये शोधनार्थं ममैव च (karotu pariṣanmadhye śodhanārthaṃ mamaiva ca) Rām.7.95.6.

3) Exact determination.

4) Payment, discharge, acquittance.

5) Expiation, atonement; अज्ञान- भुक्तं तूत्तार्यं शोध्यं वाप्याशु शोधनैः (ajñāna- bhuktaṃ tūttāryaṃ śodhyaṃ vāpyāśu śodhanaiḥ) Manusmṛti 11.16.

6) Refining of metals.

7) Retaliation, requital, punishment.

8) Subtraction (in math.).

9) Green vitriol.

1) Feces, ordure.

11) Removal, eradication; कष्टकानां च शोधनम् (kaṣṭakānāṃ ca śodhanam) Manusmṛti 1.115.

-naḥ The lime.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śodhana (शोधन).—mfn.

(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) Cleaning, purifying &c., that which cleanses, refines, &c. n.

(-naṃ) 1. Cleaning, cleansing, purifying. 2. Correcting, freeing from faults or errors. 3. Correcting, as a writing. 4. Subtraction, (in arithmetic.) 5. The refining of metals. 6. A sort of refining, practised for chemical or medical purposes: exposing the metals to heat, and then sprinkling them with the urine of cows, &c. 7. Payment, acquittance. 8. Feces, ordure. 9. Green vitriol. 10. Determination. 11. Punishment. 12. Expiation. m.

(-naḥ) The lime. f. (-nī) A broom. E. śudh to be make pure, aff. lyuṭ or yuc .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śodhana (शोधन).—i. e. śudh + ana, I. adj. Cleaning, purifying. Ii. m. The lime. Iii. f. , A broom. Iv. n. 1. Cleaning, removing what may be prejudicial, [Hitopadeśa] 97, 15; purifying. 2. Expiation, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 125. 3. Punishment, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 115. 4. Correcting from faults. 5. Rooting up, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 253. 6. Precise determination, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 212, 11. 7. The refining of metals. 8. Payment, acquittal. 9. Fæces, ordure. 10. Green vitriol.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śodhana (शोधन).—[adjective] & [neuter] = [preceding]; [neuter] also means of purification; justification, inquiry, examination.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śodhana (शोधन):—[from śoddhavya] mfn. cleaning, purifying, cleansing, refining, purgative, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

2) [v.s. ...] m. the citron tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] Alangium Hexapetalum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [from śoddhavya] n. the act of cleaning, purifying, correcting, improving, [Nirukta, by Yāska; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] refining (as of metals for chemical or medicinal purposes), [Horace H. Wilson]

6) [v.s. ...] a means of purification, [Manu-smṛti; Suśruta]

7) [v.s. ...] clearing up, sifting, investigation, examination, correction, [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra; Hitopadeśa; Yājñavalkya [Scholiast or Commentator]]

8) [v.s. ...] payment, acquittance, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) [v.s. ...] justifying, exculpating, [Rāmāyaṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] expiation, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

11) [v.s. ...] retaliation, punishment, [ib.]

12) [v.s. ...] removal, eradication, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

13) [v.s. ...] (in [arithmetic]) subtraction, [Bījagaṇita]

14) [v.s. ...] excrement, ordure, [ib.]

15) [v.s. ...] green vitriol, [ib.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śodhana (शोधन):—(naṃ) 1. n. Fæces; green vitriol; cleansing; correcting; refining; subtraction; payment. m. The lime. f. (ī) A broom. a. Cleansing, purifying.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Sodhanā (सोधना) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Sujjhaṇayā, Sujjhavaṇa, Sohaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shodhana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Shodhana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Śodhana (शोधन) [Also spelled shodhan]:—(nm) purification; cleansing, refinement; rectification, correction, setting right; (re-) payment; treatment; hence [śodhaka] (nm); [śodhanīya, śodhita, śodhya] (a).

2) Śodhanā (शोधना):—(v) to purify/cleanse/refine/ correct; to work out an auspicious moment (for marriage etc.) by astrological calculation.

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...

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śōdhana (ಶೋಧನ):—[noun] ಶೋಧನೆ [shodhane].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

[«previous next»] — Shodhana in Nepali glossary
Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Śodhana (शोधन):—n. 1. purifying; clearing; 2. research;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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