Gunana, Guṇana: 13 definitions


Gunana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Gunan.

In Hinduism

Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Guṇana (गुणन, “multiplication”) refers to one of the twenty operations (logistics) of pāṭīgaṇita (“science of calculation which requires the use of writing material—the board”), according to Pṛthudakasvāmī’s commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta by Brahmagupta, a Sanskrit treatise on ancient Indian mathematics (gaṇita-śāstra) and astronomy from the 7th century.—The common Hindu name for multiplication is guṇana. This term appears to be the oldest as it occurs in Vedic literature. The terms hanana, vadha, kṣaya, etc. which mean “killing” or “destroying” have been also used for multiplication. These terms came into use after the invention of the new method of multiplication with the decimal place-value numerals; for in the new method the figures of the multiplicand were successively rubbed out (destroyed) and in their places were written the figures of the product.

Synonyms of hanana (killing) have been used by Āryabhaṭa I (499), Brahmagupta (628), Śrīdhara (c. 750) and later writers. These terms appear also in the Bakhshali Manuscript. The term abhyāsa has been used both for addition and multiplication in the Śulba works (800 B.C.). This shows that at that early period, the process of multiplication was made to depend on that of repeated addition. The use of the word parasparakṛta (making together) for multiplication in the Bakhshali Manuscript is evidently a relic of olden times.

Brahmagupta mentions four methods of guṇana (multiplication):

  1. gomūtrikā,
  2. khaṇḍa,
  3. bheda and
  4. iṣṭa.

Śrīdhara and Mahāvīra mentions four methods of multiplication:

  1. kapāṭasandhi,
  2. tastha,
  3. rūpavibhāga and
  4. sthānavibhāga.

Āryabhaṭa II mentions only the common method of kapāṭasandhi. Bhāskara II, besides the above four, mentions Brahmagupta’s method of iṣṭa-guṇana. Gaṇeśa (1545) mentions the gelosia method of multiplication under the name of kapāṭasandhi and adds that the intelligent can devise many more methods of multiplication. The method is also given in the Gaṇitamañjarī.

Note: These methods were transmitted to Arabia in the eighth century and were thence communicated to Europe, where they occur in the writings of medieval mathematicians.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

guṇana (गुणन).—n (S) Multiplication. 2 Enumerating or counting.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Guṇana (गुणन).—[guṇ-lyuṭ]

1) Multiplication.

2) Enumeration.

3) Describing merits or qualities, pointing out or enumerating merits; इह रसभणने कृतहरिगुणने मधुरिपुपदसेवके (iha rasabhaṇane kṛtahariguṇane madhuripupadasevake) Gītagovinda 7.

4) Reiterated study, repetition.

-nī Examining books, studying; collating and correcting copies to determine the value of variants.

Derivable forms: guṇanam (गुणनम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Guṇana (गुणन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Describing, relating to qualities. 2. Enumerating. 3. Mulitiplication. E. guṇa to number, lyuṭ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Guṇana (गुणन).—[guṇ + ana], n. Exalting, [Gītagovinda. ed. Lassen.] 7, 29.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Guṇana (गुणन):—[from guṇa] n. multiplication

2) [v.s. ...] enumeration, [Horace H. Wilson]

3) [v.s. ...] pointing out merits or virtues, [Gīta-govinda vii, 29]

4) [v.s. ...] reiterated study, repetition, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Guṇana (गुणन):—(naṃ) 1. n. Describing; enumerating; multiplying.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Guṇana (गुणन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Guṇaṇa, Guṇaṇā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Gunana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Guṇana (गुणन) [Also spelled gunan]:—(nm) multiplication; —[cinha] sign of multiplication; ~[phala] product of multiplication.

2) Gunanā (गुनना) [Also spelled gunna]:—(v) to ponder (over); to assimilate.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Guṇaṇa (गुणण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Guṇana.

2) Guṇaṇā (गुणणा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Guṇanā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Guṇana (ಗುಣನ):—[noun] (math.) the arithmetical process of obtaining from (a number) another that is a specified number of times its value; multiplication.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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