Phalaka, Phālaka, Phalākā: 24 definitions


Phalaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Falak.

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In Hinduism

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Phalaka (फलक) refers to “abacus”. It is sculptured as a part of the pillar (stambha).

Source: Google Books: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation

Phalaka (फलक).—Part of the standard pilaster;—Below the potikās come the phalaka, a flat plate. Underneath is a double-curved moulding, the maṇḍi, something like a dish, sometimes fluted, or petalled as a lotus flower. Generally the two seem to form a single unit (the phalaka/maṇḍi), though in pre-Karṇāṭa architecture phalakas are found without maṇḍis, and differentiation between the two elements begin wherever, to provide a transition between a circular pillar and the square bracket shaft, the phalaka is made square but the maṇḍi circular.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Phalakā (फलका) refers to the “metal footplate of a metal icon”, as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—The Vaiṣṇava Āgamas insist that the metal icons should be made through a casting process called Madhūcchiṣṭa-kriyā. [...] After fine carving work the metal icon is fit on the pedestal which is known as jaṭibandhana. The metal icon is created and cast separately in two parts—a) the pīṭha and, b) the body of the icon from kirīṭa to the metal footplate (phalakā). The lower most part of the main icon (phalakā attached to the feet of the icon) is inserted into the socket (on top) of the pedestal after depositing the precious gems (ratna) into it

The rim of the pedestal is hammered and folded inside which grips strongly the phalakā of the main icon and the pedestal is adjusted so as to appear one piece. Atri specifies that the icon is placed on the pedestal should not bend/ lean and hilt.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Phalaka (फलक):—Surfaces / facets a property of material

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Phalaka (फलक) refers to “planks”, according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—Accordingly, [while describing the gross form of Navātman called Śabdarāśinavātman]: “(Navātman) has a big body and burns intensely, illumining the sky with (his) radiant energy. [...] He resides in the midst of hidden jewels and (his) penis (is long and) sticks to (his) shanks. (His) hips are (like large) planks (phalaka) and he is adorned with beautiful cheeks. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Phalaka (फलक) is a Sanskrit word for a weapon translating to “shield”. Sculptures or other depictions of Hindu dieties are often seen holden this weapon in their hand.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Phalaka (फलक) refers to the “buckler (of rapture)”, according to Padhāna-sutta.—Accordingly, “Māra asked: ‘What are my inner armies?’ The Bodhisattva replied: ‘[...]’ The Bodhisattva who has not yet crushed all these armies puts on the armor of patience, grasps the sword of wisdom, takes the buckler of rapture (dhyāna-phalaka) and arrests the arrows of the afflictions: this is called inner patience”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Phalaka.—(IE 3-5), a wooden slab used as a slate. Note: phalaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Phalaka in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

phalaka : (m.; nt.) a board; plank; a shied. || phālaka (m.) one who splits or breaks.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Phālaka, (adj.) (fr. phāleti) splitting; one who splits Vism. 413 (kaṭṭha°). (Page 478)

— or —

Phalaka, (fr. phal=*sphal or *sphaṭ (see phalati), lit. that which is split or cut off (cp. in same meaning “slab”); cp. Sk. sphaṭika rock-crystal; on Prk. forms see Pischel, Prk. Gr. §206. Ved. phalaka board, phāla ploughshare; Gr. a)ζpalon, spolaζ, yaliζ scissors; Lat. pellis & spolium; Ohg. spaltan=split, Goth, spilda writing board, tablet; Oicel. spjald board) 1. a flat piece of wood, a slab, board, plank J. I, 451 (a writing board, school slate); V, 155 (akkhassa ph. axle board); VI, 281 (dice-board). pidhāna° covering board VbhA. 244= Vism. 261; sopāna° staircase, landing J. I, 330 (maṇi°); Vism. 313; cp. MVastu I. 249; °āsana a bench J. I, 199; °kāya a great mass of planks J. II, 91. °atthara-sayana a bed covered with a board (instead of a mattress) J. I, 304, 317; II, 68. °seyya id. D. I, 167 (“plank-bed”).—2. a shield J. III, 237, 271; Miln. 355; DhA. II, 2. ‹-› 3. a slip of wood or bark, used for making an ascetic’s dress (°cīra) D. I, 167, cp. Vin. I, 305. ditto for a weight to hang on the robe Vin. II, 136.—4. a post M. III, 95 (aggaḷa° doorpost); ThA. 70 (Ap. V, 17). (Page 477)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

phāḷakā (फाळका).—m (phāḷaṇēṃ) A large slip (of wood, fruit &c.) 2 A side-piece of a plantain-leaf. Used as a dish at meals.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

phāḷakā (फाळका).—m A large slip. A side-piece of a plantain-leaf.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Phalaka (फलक).—1 A board, plank, slab, tablet; कालः काल्या भुवनफलके क्रीडति प्राणिशारैः (kālaḥ kālyā bhuvanaphalake krīḍati prāṇiśāraiḥ) Bhartṛhari 3.39; द्यूत°, चित्र° (dyūta°, citra°) &c.

2) Any flat surface; चुम्ब्यमानकपोलफलकाम् (cumbyamānakapolaphalakām) K.218; धृत- मुग्धगण्डफलकैर्विबभुः (dhṛta- mugdhagaṇḍaphalakairvibabhuḥ) Śiśupālavadha 9.47,37; cf. तट (taṭa).

3) A shield; Rām.1.

4) A slab, tablet, leaf or page for writing upon.

5) The buttocks, hips.

6) The palm of the hand.

7) Fruit, result, consequence.

8) Profit, gain.

9) Menstruation.

1) The head of an arrow.

11) The pericarp of a lotus.

12) A broad and flat bone (of the forehead).

13) A wooden seat; तवार्हते तु फलकं कूर्चं वाऽप्यथवा बृसी (tavārhate tu phalakaṃ kūrcaṃ vā'pyathavā bṛsī) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 5.35.15.

14) Bark (as material for clothes).

Derivable forms: phalakam (फलकम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Phalaka (फलक).—(1) m., °kaḥ Mahāvyutpatti 9192 = Tibetan sgrog guḥi rten ma, holder for a strap; perhaps a fastener, something like a button, to be affixed to a monk's robe, and to which a strap is fastened; I believe phalaka has this meaning in Pali gaṇṭhika-pha° pāsaka-pha° Vin. ii.136.38; 137.1, 3 (not a kind of cloth, perhaps made of leaves, as assumed [Sacred Books of the East] 17.246); so Chin. on Mahāvyutpatti, leather bag or pocket with button(s); (2) nt., in Śatasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 1430.9, cited approximately in Śikṣāsamuccaya 210.5 as: gāṃ hatvā tīkṣṇena śastreṇa catvāri phalakāni kṛtvā, according to Bendall and Rouse four quarters (of the animal), which seems implausible; possibly four leather bags (of the hide)? compare Chin. cited above; or belts? (this meaning given for AMg. phalaga in [Ardha-Māgadhī Dictionary]); (3) nt., grain (of sand): vālikā- phalakāni Gaṇḍavyūha 134.20 f.; (4) see s.v. Halaka; (5) see also phalaha. (In Divyāvadāna 316.26 phalaka may mean bark, as in Sanskrit, used as material for garments.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Phalaka (फलक).—mn.

(-kaḥ-kaṃ) 1. A shield. 2. A bench. 3. A plank. 4. A layer. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A bone, the os frontis, or bone of the forehead. 2. A leaf or page for writing on. 3. A plant, (Mesua ferrea.) n.

(-kaṃ) The buttocks. E. kan added to the preceding, or phal to split or divide, aff. vun .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Phalaka (फलक).—[phala + ka], I. (m. and) n. 1. A board, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 396. 2. A bench, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 204 ([Kullūka Schol. ed. [Mānavadharmaśāstra]]). 3. A layer, a base, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 77 (at the end of a comp. adj., f. , Having a base of crystal). 4. Surface, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 28. 5. A shield. 6. A leaf for writing on, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 199, 13 (? a small table). 7. The bone of the forehead. Ii. n. 1. The buttocks. 2. The receptacle of the seed = core; in gaṇḍa-, a core-like, or core-representing cheek, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 47 (at the end of a comp. adj. Having cheeks instead of cores).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Phalaka (फलक).—(adj. —° [feminine] likā) result, advantage.* gain; [abstract] tva [neuter]

phalaka [neuter] tablet, board etc. = phala + a wooden bench, the palm of the hands, shield.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Phalaka (फलक):—[from phal] (ifc. (ikā) f.) = phala, fruit, result, gain (-tva n.), [Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti on Manu-smṛti ii, 146]

2) [v.s. ...] menstruation (cf. nava-phalikā)

3) [v.s. ...] (phalaka) n. (m. [gana] ardharcādi; ifc. f(ā). ) a board, lath, plank, leaf. bench, [Brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] n. a slab or tablet (for writing or painting on; also = page, leaf), [Kāvya literature; Yājñavalkya [Scholiast or Commentator]; Lalita-vistara]

5) [v.s. ...] a picture (= citra-ph), [Mṛcchakaṭikā iv, 3/4]

6) [v.s. ...] a gaming-board (cf. śāri-ph)

7) [v.s. ...] a wooden bench, [Mahābhārata]

8) [v.s. ...] a slab at the base (of a pedestal; cf. sphaṭika-ph)

9) [v.s. ...] any flat surface (often in [compound] with parts of the body, applied to broad flat bones cf. aṃsa-, phaṇā-, lalāṭa-ph etc.)

10) [v.s. ...] the palm of the hand, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] the buttocks, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] the top or head of an arrow, [Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti on Manu-smṛti vii, 90]

13) [v.s. ...] a shield, [Mahābhārata]

14) [v.s. ...] bark (as a material for clothes), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

15) [v.s. ...] the pericarp of a lotus, [Śiśupāla-vadha]

16) [v.s. ...] = -yantra, [Golādhyāya]

17) [v.s. ...] a layer, [Horace H. Wilson]

18) [v.s. ...] the stand on which a monk keeps his turban, [Buddhist literature]

19) [v.s. ...] m. Mesua Roxburghii, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) Phalakā (फलका):—[from phalaka > phal] f. (ā or ikā) See below.

21) [from phal] f. [varia lectio] for halakā [gana] prekṣādi.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Phalaka (फलक):—[(kaḥ-kaṃ)] 1. m. n. A shield; bench; plant; layer. m. Os frontis; a leaf; Messua ferrea. n. Buttocks.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Phalaka (फलक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Phalaa, Phalaga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Phalaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Phalaka in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Phalaka (फलक) [Also spelled falak]:—(nm) face; blade; a board, plank; canvas; palm (of the hand), a sheet (of paper); slab.

2) Phalaka (फलक) [Also spelled falak]:—(nm) the sky; heaven; —[ṭūṭanā] the heavens to fall, calamity to befall.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Phalaka (ಫಲಕ):—

1) [noun] a flat piece of wood or similar material, often rectangular, for some special use; a board.

2) [noun] a large, smooth, usu. dark surface of slate or other material on which to write or draw with chalk; chalkboard; a black-board.

3) [noun] one side of a leaf of a book, newspaper, letter, etc.; a page.

4) [noun] a broad, metal sheet held by policemen, soldiers to ward off blows, missiles, etc.; a shield.

5) [noun] a fruit.

--- OR ---

Phaḷaka (ಫಳಕ):—[noun] = ಫಲಕ [phalaka].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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