Phalaka, Phālaka: 20 definitions



Phalaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Falak.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Phalakā (फलका) refers to the “metal footplate of a metal icon”, as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—The Vaiṣṇava Āgamas insist that the metal icons should be made through a casting process called Madhūcchiṣṭa-kriyā. [...] After fine carving work the metal icon is fit on the pedestal which is known as jaṭibandhana. The metal icon is created and cast separately in two parts—a) the pīṭha and, b) the body of the icon from kirīṭa to the metal footplate (phalakā). The lower most part of the main icon (phalakā attached to the feet of the icon) is inserted into the socket (on top) of the pedestal after depositing the precious gems (ratna) into it

The rim of the pedestal is hammered and folded inside which grips strongly the phalakā of the main icon and the pedestal is adjusted so as to appear one piece. Atri specifies that the icon is placed on the pedestal should not bend/ lean and hilt.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Phalaka (फलक) refers to “abacus”. It is sculptured as a part of the pillar (stambha).

Source: Google Books: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation

Phalaka (फलक).—Part of the standard pilaster;—Below the potikās come the phalaka, a flat plate. Underneath is a double-curved moulding, the maṇḍi, something like a dish, sometimes fluted, or petalled as a lotus flower. Generally the two seem to form a single unit (the phalaka/maṇḍi), though in pre-Karṇāṭa architecture phalakas are found without maṇḍis, and differentiation between the two elements begin wherever, to provide a transition between a circular pillar and the square bracket shaft, the phalaka is made square but the maṇḍi circular.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Phalaka (फलक) is a Sanskrit word for a weapon translating to “shield”. Sculptures or other depictions of Hindu dieties are often seen holden this weapon in their hand.

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Phalaka.—(IE 3-5), a wooden slab used as a slate. Note: phalaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Phalaka in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

phalaka : (m.; nt.) a board; plank; a shied. || phālaka (m.) one who splits or breaks.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Phālaka, (adj.) (fr. phāleti) splitting; one who splits Vism. 413 (kaṭṭha°). (Page 478)

— or —

Phalaka, (fr. phal=*sphal or *sphaṭ (see phalati), lit. that which is split or cut off (cp. in same meaning “slab”); cp. Sk. sphaṭika rock-crystal; on Prk. forms see Pischel, Prk. Gr. §206. Ved. phalaka board, phāla ploughshare; Gr. a)ζpalon, spolaζ, yaliζ scissors; Lat. pellis & spolium; Ohg. spaltan=split, Goth, spilda writing board, tablet; Oicel. spjald board) 1. a flat piece of wood, a slab, board, plank J. I, 451 (a writing board, school slate); V, 155 (akkhassa ph. axle board); VI, 281 (dice-board). pidhāna° covering board VbhA. 244= Vism. 261; sopāna° staircase, landing J. I, 330 (maṇi°); Vism. 313; cp. MVastu I. 249; °āsana a bench J. I, 199; °kāya a great mass of planks J. II, 91. °atthara-sayana a bed covered with a board (instead of a mattress) J. I, 304, 317; II, 68. °seyya id. D. I, 167 (“plank-bed”).—2. a shield J. III, 237, 271; Miln. 355; DhA. II, 2. ‹-› 3. a slip of wood or bark, used for making an ascetic’s dress (°cīra) D. I, 167, cp. Vin. I, 305. ditto for a weight to hang on the robe Vin. II, 136.—4. a post M. III, 95 (aggaḷa° doorpost); ThA. 70 (Ap. V, 17). (Page 477)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

phāḷakā (फाळका).—m (phāḷaṇēṃ) A large slip (of wood, fruit &c.) 2 A side-piece of a plantain-leaf. Used as a dish at meals.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

phāḷakā (फाळका).—m A large slip. A side-piece of a plantain-leaf.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Phalaka (फलक).—1 A board, plank, slab, tablet; कालः काल्या भुवनफलके क्रीडति प्राणिशारैः (kālaḥ kālyā bhuvanaphalake krīḍati prāṇiśāraiḥ) Bh.3.39; द्यूत°, चित्र° (dyūta°, citra°) &c.

2) Any flat surface; चुम्ब्यमानकपोलफलकाम् (cumbyamānakapolaphalakām) K.218; धृत- मुग्धगण्डफलकैर्विबभुः (dhṛta- mugdhagaṇḍaphalakairvibabhuḥ) Śi.9.47,37; cf. तट (taṭa).

3) A shield; Rām.1.

4) A slab, tablet, leaf or page for writing upon.

5) The buttocks, hips.

6) The palm of the hand.

7) Fruit, result, consequence.

8) Profit, gain.

9) Menstruation.

1) The head of an arrow.

11) The pericarp of a lotus.

12) A broad and flat bone (of the forehead).

13) A wooden seat; तवार्हते तु फलकं कूर्चं वाऽप्यथवा बृसी (tavārhate tu phalakaṃ kūrcaṃ vā'pyathavā bṛsī) Mb.5.35.15.

14) Bark (as material for clothes).

Derivable forms: phalakam (फलकम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Phalaka (फलक).—(1) m., °kaḥ Mahāvyutpatti 9192 = Tibetan sgrog guḥi rten ma, holder for a strap; perhaps a fastener, something like a button, to be affixed to a monk's robe, and to which a strap is fastened; I believe phalaka has this meaning in Pali gaṇṭhika-pha° pāsaka-pha° Vin. ii.136.38; 137.1, 3 (not a kind of cloth, perhaps made of leaves, as assumed [Sacred Books of the East] 17.246); so Chin. on Mahāvyutpatti, leather bag or pocket with button(s); (2) nt., in Śatasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 1430.9, cited approximately in Śikṣāsamuccaya 210.5 as: gāṃ hatvā tīkṣṇena śastreṇa catvāri phalakāni kṛtvā, according to Bendall and Rouse four quarters (of the animal), which seems implausible; possibly four leather bags (of the hide)? compare Chin. cited above; or belts? (this meaning given for AMg. phalaga in [Ardha-Māgadhī Dictionary]); (3) nt., grain (of sand): vālikā- phalakāni Gaṇḍavyūha 134.20 f.; (4) see s.v. Halaka; (5) see also phalaha. (In Divyāvadāna 316.26 phalaka may mean bark, as in Sanskrit, used as material for garments.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Phalaka (फलक).—mn.

(-kaḥ-kaṃ) 1. A shield. 2. A bench. 3. A plank. 4. A layer. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A bone, the os frontis, or bone of the forehead. 2. A leaf or page for writing on. 3. A plant, (Mesua ferrea.) n.

(-kaṃ) The buttocks. E. kan added to the preceding, or phal to split or divide, aff. vun .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Phalaka (फलक).—[phala + ka], I. (m. and) n. 1. A board, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 396. 2. A bench, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 204 ([Kullūka Schol. ed. [Mānavadharmaśāstra]]). 3. A layer, a base, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 77 (at the end of a comp. adj., f. , Having a base of crystal). 4. Surface, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 28. 5. A shield. 6. A leaf for writing on, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 199, 13 (? a small table). 7. The bone of the forehead. Ii. n. 1. The buttocks. 2. The receptacle of the seed = core; in gaṇḍa-, a core-like, or core-representing cheek, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 47 (at the end of a comp. adj. Having cheeks instead of cores).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Phalaka (फलक).—(adj. —° [feminine] likā) result, advantage.* gain; [abstract] tva [neuter]

phalaka [neuter] tablet, board etc. = phala + a wooden bench, the palm of the hands, shield.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Phalaka (फलक):—[from phal] (ifc. (ikā) f.) = phala, fruit, result, gain (-tva n.), [Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti on Manu-smṛti ii, 146]

2) [v.s. ...] menstruation (cf. nava-phalikā)

3) [v.s. ...] (phalaka) n. (m. [gana] ardharcādi; ifc. f(ā). ) a board, lath, plank, leaf. bench, [Brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] n. a slab or tablet (for writing or painting on; also = page, leaf), [Kāvya literature; Yājñavalkya [Scholiast or Commentator]; Lalita-vistara]

5) [v.s. ...] a picture (= citra-ph), [Mṛcchakaṭikā iv, 3/4]

6) [v.s. ...] a gaming-board (cf. śāri-ph)

7) [v.s. ...] a wooden bench, [Mahābhārata]

8) [v.s. ...] a slab at the base (of a pedestal; cf. sphaṭika-ph)

9) [v.s. ...] any flat surface (often in [compound] with parts of the body, applied to broad flat bones cf. aṃsa-, phaṇā-, lalāṭa-ph etc.)

10) [v.s. ...] the palm of the hand, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] the buttocks, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] the top or head of an arrow, [Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti on Manu-smṛti vii, 90]

13) [v.s. ...] a shield, [Mahābhārata]

14) [v.s. ...] bark (as a material for clothes), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

15) [v.s. ...] the pericarp of a lotus, [Śiśupāla-vadha]

16) [v.s. ...] = -yantra, [Golādhyāya]

17) [v.s. ...] a layer, [Horace H. Wilson]

18) [v.s. ...] the stand on which a monk keeps his turban, [Buddhist literature]

19) [v.s. ...] m. Mesua Roxburghii, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) Phalakā (फलका):—[from phalaka > phal] f. (ā or ikā) See below.

21) [from phal] f. [varia lectio] for halakā [gana] prekṣādi.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Phalaka (फलक):—[(kaḥ-kaṃ)] 1. m. n. A shield; bench; plant; layer. m. Os frontis; a leaf; Messua ferrea. n. Buttocks.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Phalaka (फलक):—m. n. gaṇa ardharcādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher.2,4,31.] [Siddhāntakaumudī 249,a,1.]

1) am Ende eines adj. comp. (f. phalikā) = phala a) Erfolg, Vortheil, Gewinn: brahmaprāptiphalakatvāt [Kullūka] zu [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 2, 146.] — b) die monatliche Reinigung; s. navaphalikā . —

2) n. Brett, Latte, Blatt (vgl. phalahaka): adhiṣavaṇe [Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 7, 30.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 3, 4, 5, 22.] praugye [3, 4, 9.] dvāra [Śāṅkhāyana’s Gṛhyasūtrāṇi 3, 3.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 13, 4, 3, 1.] [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 20, 2, 20.] [Pañcaviṃśabrāhmaṇa 17, 1, 14.] preṅkha [Śāṅkhāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 17, 1, 2.] vipathaśca phalakāstīrṇaḥ [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 33. 44.] nauḥ phalakāstīrṇā [Suśruta 1, 341, 18.] āsīta guruṇā sārdhaṃ śilāphalakanauṣu ca [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 2, 204.] śālmalīphalake ślakṣṇe nenijyānnejakaḥ śanaiḥ [8, 396.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 1, 317.] dāru [Kullūka] zu [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 3, 226.] (kva) samudre yānabhaṅganimagnāyāḥ phalakāsādanam [RATNĀV. 4, 5.] Brettchen [Suśruta 1, 136, 19.] sphaṭikaphalakā kāñcanī vāsayaṣṭiḥ (für Pfauen; Fuss nach [SCHÜTZ]) [Meghadūta 77.] [SIDDH. ŚIR. 11, 2. 18.] yantra 16. so v. a. Schachbrett (vgl. śāriphalaka) [Spr. 2294.] = citraphalaka [Mṛcchakaṭikā 59, 9.] lipi Schreibtafel [Rgva tch’er rol pa ed. Calc. 143, 14.] [Vyutpatti oder Mahāvyutpatti 157.] pāṇḍulekhyena (v. l. lekhena) phalake bhūmau vā prathamaṃ likhet . ūnādhikaṃ (v. l. nyūnādhikaṃ) tu saṃśodhyaṃ (lies saṃśodhya) paścātpattre niveśayet .. [VYĀSA im Vyavahāratattva] [Śabdakalpadruma]; vgl. u. pāṇḍulekha . [Sūryasiddhānta 6, 12.] phalaka heisst auch das Gestell für die Binde des buddh. Geistlichen [Vyutpatti oder Mahāvyutpatti 213.] phaṇā die Platte der Haube einer Schlange [Spr. 2763.] Häufig von breiten, platten Knochen (m. = asthikhaṇḍa [Jaṭādhara im Śabdakalpadruma]) gebraucht: aṃsa Schulterblatt [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 10, 2, 6, 14.] [Suśruta 1, 345, 8. 346, 14.] kapola (am Ende eines adj. comp. f. ā) [Śiśupālavadha 9, 37.] [Spr. 1235.] lalāṭa [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 87,5.] [Oxforder Handschriften 248,a,26.] Vgl. ūru, jānu, śroṇi . Handfläche [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 12, 2, 4, 7.] die Hinterbacken [ŚABDĀRTHAK.] bei [WILSON.] —

3) m. n. Schild [Amarakoṣa 2, 8, 2, 58.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 783.] [Halāyudha 2, 305.] savye saphalake [Mahābhārata 10, 377.] phalakāni neben carmāṇi [12, 3690.] meghaprakāśa [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 93, 12 (102, 14 Gorresio).] [Spr. 2032.] pāṇi [Amarakoṣa 2, 8. 2, 39.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 239.] —

4) n. ein best. Gefäss [Suśruta 1, 171, 19.] —

5) ein best. Kleiderstoff: carmacīvarakuśamuñjaphalakavāsas adj. [Hārāvalī] bei [Kullūka] zu [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 6, 6.] [Harivaṃśa 14304.] phalakaparidhāna (so ist zu lesen) [Mahābhārata 12, 11276.] —

6) Pfeilspitze: karṇyākāra, agnidīpta [Kullūka] zu [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 90.] —

7) n. Samenkapsel der Lotusblüthe [Śiśupālavadha 9, 47.] —

8) m. Mesua Roxburghii Wight. [Śabdacandrikā im Śabdakalpadruma] —

9) f. ā v.l. für halakā gaṇa prekṣādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 2, 80.] — phalaka in der Bed. Brett, Platte von 1. phal, also urspr. ein abgespaltenes Stück.

--- OR ---

Phalaka (फलक):—

2) [Daśakumāracarita] in [Benfey’ Chrestomathie aus Sanskritwerken 199, 13.] [Sp. 1201, Z. 1 v. u.] yantra bezeichnet ein best. von Bhāskara erfundenes astronomisches Instrument [Scholiast] zu [GOLĀDHY. 11, 15.] phalakākhyayantra [GOLĀDHY. 11, 16.] phalaka allein dass. [2. 18. fgg.] —

6) vgl. u. mahāyasa .

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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