Kshanti, aka: Kṣānti; 8 Definition(s)

Introduction

Kshanti means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kṣānti can be transliterated into English as Ksanti or Kshanti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana

Kṣāntī (क्षान्ती).—The main stream of Krauñcadvīpa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 55.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

1) Kṣānti (क्षान्ति) or Kṣāntiṛṣi is the name of a Bhikṣu according to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter VII).—“When people come to insult him, strike him, beat him, slash him, tear off his skin, cut him to pieces and take his life, his mind feels no hatred (dveṣa). Thus, when king Kia li (Kali) cut off his hands (hasta), feet (pāda), ears (karṇa) and nose (nāsā), the Bhikṣu Tchan (Kṣānti) kept a strong mind (dṛḍha-citta) without emotion (acala)”.

Note: In the Mahāvastu his name is Kṣāntivādin or Kṣāntivāda. He was born under the name of Kuṇḍaka into a rich family from Kāsi or Benares or into a brahmin family in the city of Pūtana in southern India.

2) Kṣānti (क्षान्ति) refers to a set of “two patiences”, representing qualities acquired by the Bodhisattvas accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata, according to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X. There are two kinds of patiences (kṣānti):

  1. patience towards beings (sattvakṣānti),
  2. patience towards dharmas (dharmakṣānti).

According to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XIV, “There are two kinds of patience (kṣānti): i) the patience toward beings (sattvakṣānti); ii) the patience toward the Dharma (dharmakṣānti). The Bodhisattva who practices patience toward beings acquires immense merit (apramāṇa-puṇya); the Bodhisattva who practices patience toward the Dharma acquires immense wisdom (apramāṇa-prajñā). Endowed with these two benefits, merit and wisdom, he obtains the realization of all his wishes (yatheṣṭa-siddhi): he is like the person who, having eyes and feet, can go wherever he wishes”.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

General definition (in Buddhism)

1) Kṣānti (क्षान्ति, “patience”) or kṣāntipāramitā represents the third of the “six perferctions” (ṣaṭpāramitā) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 17). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., ṣaṣ-pāramitā and kṣānti). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Kṣānti forms, besides a part of the “six perferctions” (ṣaṭpāramitā), also a part of the “ten perfections” (daśa-pāramitā).

Kṣānti or Kṣāntibala refers to the “the strength of patience” and represents one of the “ten strengths of the Bodhisattvas” (bala) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 75).

2) Kṣānti also refers to “manifold receptivities” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 107):

  1. dharmanidhyāna-kṣānti receptivity from seeing the dharma),
  2. duḥkhādhivāsanā-kṣānti (receptivity from forbearance with suffering),
  3. paropakāradharma-kṣānti (receptivity from the state of helping others).
(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Kṣānti (क्षान्ति, “patient endurance”).—Śāntideva divides patient endurance (kṣānti) into three major varieties: first, enduring suffering (duṣkhādhivāsanakṣānti); second, dharmic patience, the patient endurance that comes from reflecting on the Buddha’s teaching, the dharma (dharmanidhyānakṣānti); and third, patience toward others’ wrongdoing (parāpakāramarṣanakṣānti, Śikṣāsamuccaya 179).

Śāntideva does not link these phenomena under the rubric of patient endurance (kṣānti) merely for the sake of convenience or etymology; rather, patient endurance has common elements that pervade them all. In all three cases, one remains calm and even happy in the face of various undesired events — pains, frustrations, wrongs — that one might face.

(Source): IEP: Śāntideva (fl. 8th c.)

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Kṣānti (क्षान्ति, “equanimity”) refers to “renunciation of anger and other passions and maintaining an attitude of forgiveness” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of karmas extending pleasant feelings (sātāvedanīya).

Kṣānti is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

kṣānti (क्षांति).—f S Forbearing, forgiving; forbearance, forgiveness. 2 Patience, sufferance, endurance.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṣānti (क्षांति).—f Forbearance, patience, forgiveness.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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