Kshanti, aka: Kṣānti; 11 Definition(s)
Kshanti means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Kṣānti can be transliterated into English as Ksanti or Kshanti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Kṣāntī (क्षान्ती).—The main stream of Krauñcadvīpa.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 55.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
1) Kṣānti (क्षान्ति) or Kṣāntiṛṣi is the name of a Bhikṣu according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter VII).—“When people come to insult him, strike him, beat him, slash him, tear off his skin, cut him to pieces and take his life, his mind feels no hatred (dveṣa). Thus, when king Kia li (Kali) cut off his hands (hasta), feet (pāda), ears (karṇa) and nose (nāsā), the Bhikṣu Tchan (Kṣānti) kept a strong mind (dṛḍha-citta) without emotion (acala)”.
Note: In the Mahāvastu his name is Kṣāntivādin or Kṣāntivāda. He was born under the name of Kuṇḍaka into a rich family from Kāsi or Benares or into a brahmin family in the city of Pūtana in southern India.
2) Kṣānti (क्षान्ति) refers to a set of “two patiences”, representing qualities acquired by the Bodhisattvas accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X. There are two kinds of patiences (kṣānti):
- patience towards beings (sattvakṣānti),
- patience towards dharmas (dharmakṣānti).
According to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XIV, “There are two kinds of patience (kṣānti): i) the patience toward beings (sattvakṣānti); ii) the patience toward the Dharma (dharmakṣānti). The Bodhisattva who practices patience toward beings acquires immense merit (apramāṇa-puṇya); the Bodhisattva who practices patience toward the Dharma acquires immense wisdom (apramāṇa-prajñā). Endowed with these two benefits, merit and wisdom, he obtains the realization of all his wishes (yatheṣṭa-siddhi): he is like the person who, having eyes and feet, can go wherever he wishes”.Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)
1) Kṣānti (क्षान्ति, “patience”) or kṣāntipāramitā represents the third of the “six perferctions” (ṣaṭpāramitā) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 17). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., ṣaṣ-pāramitā and kṣānti). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
Kṣānti forms, besides a part of the “six perferctions” (ṣaṭpāramitā), also a part of the “ten perfections” (daśa-pāramitā).
Kṣānti or Kṣāntibala refers to the “the strength of patience” and represents one of the “ten strengths of the Bodhisattvas” (bala) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 75).
2) Kṣānti also refers to “manifold receptivities” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 107):
- dharmanidhyāna-kṣānti receptivity from seeing the dharma),
- duḥkhādhivāsanā-kṣānti (receptivity from forbearance with suffering),
- paropakāradharma-kṣānti (receptivity from the state of helping others).
Kṣānti (क्षान्ति, “patient endurance”).—Śāntideva divides patient endurance (kṣānti) into three major varieties: first, enduring suffering (duṣkhādhivāsanakṣānti); second, dharmic patience, the patient endurance that comes from reflecting on the Buddha’s teaching, the dharma (dharmanidhyānakṣānti); and third, patience toward others’ wrongdoing (parāpakāramarṣanakṣānti, Śikṣāsamuccaya 179).
Śāntideva does not link these phenomena under the rubric of patient endurance (kṣānti) merely for the sake of convenience or etymology; rather, patient endurance has common elements that pervade them all. In all three cases, one remains calm and even happy in the face of various undesired events — pains, frustrations, wrongs — that one might face.Source: IEP: Śāntideva (fl. 8th c.)
General definition (in Jainism)
Kṣānti (क्षान्ति, “equanimity”) refers to “renunciation of anger and other passions and maintaining an attitude of forgiveness” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of karmas extending pleasant feelings (sātāvedanīya).
Kṣānti is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Kṣānti.—(CII 1), forgiveness. Note: kṣānti is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
kṣānti (क्षांति).—f S Forbearing, forgiving; forbearance, forgiveness. 2 Patience, sufferance, endurance.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kṣānti (क्षांति).—f Forbearance, patience, forgiveness.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Kṣānti (क्षान्ति).—f. [kṣam-bhāve ktin]
1) Patience, forbearance, forgiveness; क्षान्तिश्चेद्वचनेन किम् (kṣāntiścedvacanena kim) Bh.2.21; अहिंसा क्षान्ति- रार्जवम् (ahiṃsā kṣānti- rārjavam) Bg.13.7;18.42.
2) The state of saintly abstraction.
Derivable forms: kṣāntiḥ (क्षान्तिः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kṣānti (क्षान्ति).—f. (= Pali khanti, used in this sense but not properly defined in Dictt., see AbhidhK. La V—P. vi.165, n. 2, et alibi, see Index; good statement Lévi, Sūtrāl. Transl. p. 123, compare text xi.52 and comm.; Suzuki, Studies in Laṅk., 125—7 et alibi), intellectual receptivity; the being ready in advance to accept knowledge; a preliminary stage leading to jñāna but distinguished from jñāna by the fact that it is still characterized by doubt, AbhidhK. vii.1—2; the 8 kṣānti there referred to are paired with 8 corresponding jñāna to make up the 16 citta-kṣaṇāḥ Mvy 1217 ff., = caturāryasatyeṣu ṣoḍaśa kṣānti-jñāna- lakṣaṇāḥ Dharmas 96; in this list are 8 pairs of jñāna- kṣānt and jñāna, e.g., first, duḥkhe dharma-jñāna- kṣānti, receptivity to knowledge of the truth in respect to misery, then duḥkhe dharmajñāna, du° 'nvayajñāna- kṣānti, du° 'nvayajñāna; and so with samudaye, nirodhe, and mārge instead of duḥkhe. So anutpattika-dharma- kṣānti, q.v., receptivity to the fact that states-of-being have no origination; dharmanidhyāna-kṣānti, receptivity to reflection on the states of being, Sutrāl. xiv.26 comm., see transl. n.3; similarly, sarvadharmasvabhāvanidhyāna- kṣāntiḥ Gv 248.4; dharmanidhyānādhimukti-kṣāntiḥ Bbh 195.10; samyaksaṃtīraṇā-kṣāntiḥ Bbh 81.22; avaivartika- kṣānti-pratilabdhāś ca bhaviṣyanti SP 259.13, and will become possessed of the intellectual receptivity of non-re- turners (see avaivartika); ānulomikī kṣāntiḥ Mvy 6571; Dbh 53.24; ānulomika-dharma-kṣānti-dharmālokamukham LV 35.20; nāhaṃ…teṣāṃ…ānulomikām api kṣāntiṃ vadāmi, kutaḥ punar buddhajñānam RP 34.13—14, I do not attribute to them even the intellectual receptivity that conforms (to continued religious development), still less Buddha-knowledge!; ghoṣānugā kṣānti, see ghoṣānuga; this with ānulomikī (or equivalent) and anutpattika- dharma- (or equivalent) form a triad of kṣānti, Samādh p. 22 1.4 ff.; Sukh 55.13 (see Régamey, cited s.v. gho- ṣānuga); anutpāda- (and °de) kṣāntiḥ, q.v., and anupa- lambhadharma-kṣ° RP 12.2, both = anutpattika- dharma-kṣ°; a different triad of kṣānti, Dharmas 107 (dharmanidhyāna-, duḥkhādhivāsanā-, paropakāradha(r)- ma-); kṣānti is the 3d of the nirvedha-bhaga, q.v., Mvy 1214 (Sūtrāl. xiv.26, comm.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
(-ntiḥ) Patience, forbearance, endurance. E. kṣam to be patient, affix ktin.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Kṣāntipāramitā (क्षान्तिपारमिता) or simply kṣānti refers to the “perfection of patience” and re...
Adhimātrakṣānti (अधिमात्रक्षान्ति) refers to “utmost patience” and represents a quality acquire...
Sattvakṣānti (सत्त्वक्षान्ति) refers to “patience towards beings” and represents a type of kṣān...
Kṣāntibala (क्षान्तिबल) or simply Kṣānti refers to the “strength of patience” and represents on...
Kṣāntirṣi (क्षान्तिर्षि) is the name of a Ṛṣi mentioned in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśā...
Duḥkhādhivāsanākṣānti (दुःखाधिवासनाक्षान्ति) or simply Duḥkhādhivāsanā refers to “receptivity f...
Samatākṣānti (समताक्षान्ति) refers to the “patience of equanimity” according to the 2nd century...
Paropakāradharmakṣānti (परोपकारधर्मक्षान्ति) or simply Paropakāradharma refers to “receptivity ...
Dharmakṣānti (धर्मक्षान्ति) refers to “patience towards dharmas” according to the Mahāprajñāpār...
Dharmanidhyānakṣānti (धर्मनिध्यानक्षान्ति) or simply Dharmanidhyāna refers to “receptivity from...
Anutpādakṣānti (अनुत्पादक्षान्ति).—see अनुत्पत्तिधर्मक्षान्ति (anutpattidharmakṣānti).Anutpādak...
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Search found 27 books and stories containing Kshanti or Kṣānti. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Appendix 6 - The preparatory path (prayogamārga) in the Śrāvaka system < [Chapter XLII - The Great Loving-kindness and the Great Compassion of the Buddhas]
Appendix 5 - The story of the bhikṣu Kṣānti < [Chapter VIII - The Bodhisattvas]
Bodhisattva quality 3: the equalities (samatā) and the patiences (kṣānti) < [Chapter X - The Qualities of the Bodhisattvas]
The Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra (by Charles Luk)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Tattva 6: Saṃvara (methods of impeding karma) < [Appendix 1.4: The nine tattvas]
Part 9: Sermon on yatidharma < [Chapter III - Sumatināthacaritra]
Part 17: Incarnation as Nandana < [Chapter I - Previous births of Mahāvīra]
Chapter XXXVI - On Bodhisattva Lion's Roar (d) < [Section Seven]
Chapter XL - On Bodhisattva Kasyapa (a) < [Section Eight]
Chapter XXI - On Pure Actions (a) < [Section Three]
The Gautami Mahatmya (by G. P. Bhatt)