Kshana, Kṣaṇa, Kṣāṇa: 13 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Kshana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kṣaṇa and Kṣāṇa can be transliterated into English as Ksana or Kshana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kṣaṇa (क्षण).—A measure of time.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 11. 7; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 24. 56; III. 72 29; IV. 1. 211; 32. 14.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Kṣaṇa (क्षण, “moment”) refers to a unit of time according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXV).—Accordingly, “In the time of a finger-snap (acchaṭā-mātra), there are sixty moments (kṣaṇa); in each kṣaṇa, the mind is born (utpāda) and ceases (bhaṅga); but as it arises in a series, we know that this is a mind of desire (rāgacitta), that, a mind of anger (dveṣacitta), or a mind of delusion (mohacitta), a mind of faith (prasādacitta), or a pure mind (viśuddhacitta) of wisdom (prajñā) or rapture (dhyāna)”.

Note: The kṣaṇa, moment, is the shortest time. Buddhists of the Lesser Vehicle agree in saying that Dharmas are kṣaṇika, momentary, but disagree on the meaning of this epithet. Pāli scholars and the Sarvāstivādin-Vaibhāṣikas, who accept the existence of the past and the future and who recognize in the kṣaṇika dharma two, three or four characteristics of the conditioned dharma (saṃskṛtadharma-lakṣaṇa), are of the opinion that the dharma arises, perdures and perishes in the space of one kṣaṇa (cf. Visuddhimagga; Abhidhammaṭṭhasaṃgha; Kośa; Saṃghabhadra).

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṣaṇa (क्षण).—m (S) A measure of time equal to the twelfth of a muhūrtta or to four minutes. 2 A minute portion of time generally, a moment, an instant. 3 (From the implied moderateness of the invitation, that a kṣaṇa or short moment may be granted, and the presence vouchsafed.) The placing of the grass darbha on the hand of the invited (and arrived) Brahman, in order to summon him to the Shraddha formally. This is one of the karmēṃ or ceremonies composing this obsequial rite. 4 The fibre of darbha presented to a Brahman on inviting his attendance at a Shraddh. In modern day it is given to him after his arrival at the house. v dē, ghē. Hence the word comes to signify śrāddhabhōjana; as brāhmaṇa kṣaṇāsa basalā -ālā -gēlā &c. na lāgatāṃ kṣaṇa In less than a moment.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kṣaṇa (क्षण).—m A measure of time equal to 4 minutes. A moment. na lāgatāṃ kṣaṇa In less than a moment.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṣaṇa (क्षण).—[kṣaṇoti duḥkhaṃ kṣaṇ-ac]

1) An instant, moment, measure of time equal to 4/5 of a second; न हि कश्चित्क्षणमपि (na hi kaścitkṣaṇamapi) Bg.3.5; क्षणमात्रमृषिस्तस्थौ सुप्तमीन इव ह्रदः (kṣaṇamātramṛṣistasthau suptamīna iva hradaḥ) R.1.73;2.6; Me.26; क्षणमवतिष्ठस्व (kṣaṇamavatiṣṭhasva) wait a moment.

2) Leisure; अहमपि लब्धक्षणः स्वगेहं गच्छामि (ahamapi labdhakṣaṇaḥ svagehaṃ gacchāmi) M.1; Pt.1.138; गृहीतः क्षणः (gṛhītaḥ kṣaṇaḥ) Ś.2 'my leisure is at your disposal' i. e. I pledge my word to do your work.

3) A fit moment or opportunity; रहो नास्ति क्षणो नास्ति नास्ति प्रार्थयिता नरः (raho nāsti kṣaṇo nāsti nāsti prārthayitā naraḥ) Pt.1.138; Me.64; अधिगतक्षणः (adhigatakṣaṇaḥ) Dk.147.

4) An auspicious or lucky moment.

5) A festival, joy, delight; तदेव वीरोऽभिजगाम तोरणं कृतक्षणः काल इव प्रजाक्षये (tadeva vīro'bhijagāma toraṇaṃ kṛtakṣaṇaḥ kāla iva prajākṣaye) Rām. 5.47.38.

6) Dependence, servitude.

7) The centre, the middle.

8) A certain day of the fortnight (as the full moon).

9) Rule, resolution; गन्तुं भूमीं कृतक्षणाः (gantuṃ bhūmīṃ kṛtakṣaṇāḥ) Mb.1.64.51. (In comp. kṣaṇa is translated by 'momentary', 'temporary'. [kṣaṇāt, -kṣaṇen] in a moment, at once, immediately).

-kṣaṇekṣaṇe ind. Every instant, moment; क्षणेक्षणे यन्नवतामुपैति तदेव रूपं रमणीयतायाः आरब्धै- र्व्यसनैर्भूम्ना क्षीणकोशः क्षणे क्षणे (kṣaṇekṣaṇe yannavatāmupaiti tadeva rūpaṃ ramaṇīyatāyāḥ ārabdhai- rvyasanairbhūmnā kṣīṇakośaḥ kṣaṇe kṣaṇe) Rāj. T.5.166.

Derivable forms: kṣaṇaḥ (क्षणः).

See also (synonyms): kṣaṇam.

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Kṣāṇa (क्षाण).—Burning, what is burnt; निमित्तं हि उपसंप्राप्तं क्षाणं नाम (nimittaṃ hi upasaṃprāptaṃ kṣāṇaṃ nāma) ŚB. on MS.6.4.18; एकदेशक्षाणमपि क्षाणमेव (ekadeśakṣāṇamapi kṣāṇameva) ŚB. on MS. 6.4.18.

Derivable forms: kṣāṇam (क्षाणम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kṣaṇa (क्षण).—m. (= Pali khaṇa), birth under favorable conditions. There are 8 akṣaṇa (q.v.) but only 1 kṣaṇa, viz., birth as a man in the ‘middle region’, where a Buddha is to be expected, at a time when he is born, and with the mental capacity to assimilate his doctrine (Pali Aṅguttaranikāya (Pali) iv.227.8 ff.): Mahāvastu ii.363.4 kṣaṇaṃ (acc.) ekaṃ buddhotpādaṃ suśo- bhanam; Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 41.(13—)14(—15) (bhavantu aṣṭākṣaṇavīti- vṛttāḥ, so read) āsādayantu kṣaṇarājam (the supreme favorable birth) uttamaṃ, (labhantu buddhehi samāgamaṃ sadā); Śikṣāsamuccaya 2.4; 114.15 kṣaṇasampad, the good luck of (this) favorable birth; 282.1 kṣaṇa-gati-pratilabdhena having obtained the lot of…; Kāraṇḍavvūha 18.19 sarvakṣaṇopapannāḥ sattvā(ḥ), all creatures born under (the described) favorable conditions, compare Asaṅga (Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra) xiii.10 kṣaṇopapatti.(In Mahāvastu ii.378.1 Senart kṣaṇāṃś ca, but keep kṣaṇāc ca with mss., and instantly.) Once, however, kṣaṇa in this sense seems to be [Page198-b+ 71] pluralized: Mahāvastu ii.392.5—6 so akṣaṇāni parivarjayitvā, kṣaṇā ca tasya bhavanti viśiṣṭā (but mss. bhavati viśiṣṭo, taking kṣaṇā as n. sg., § 8.24); the same verse Śikṣāsamuccaya 306.1 even makes 8 kṣaṇa, obviously as mechanical pendant to the 8 akṣaṇa; so akṣaṇaṃ vai vijahāti sarvaṃ, aṣṭakṣa- ṇāś cāsya viśiṣṭa bhonti.This is a secondary distortion. In Lalitavistara 327.12 dullabho 'dya labhitaḥ kṣaṇavaro amṛto, today has been obtained the immortal (nectar-like?) excellent favorable birth that is hard to obtain, followed by 13… varjitā (a)kṣaṇaduḥkhā asurasurapure, avoided the pains of unfavorable births in the cities of asuras and gods; evidently both kṣaṇa and akṣaṇa (the latter includes birth as a god!) are used in their standard meanings; but here the use of kṣaṇa is not strictly logical, since the Bodhisattva himself is speaking! [In Divyāvadāna 76.25; 465.23 read kṣūṇa, q.v.]

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Kṣaṇā (क्षणा).—[, f., according to Divyāvadāna 643.2, = Sanskrit kṣaṇa, of a definite unit of time; but in line 3 the word is nt., kṣaṇāny; and in the parallel 644.11 it seems to have been recorded first as m., kṣaṇaḥ (mss. however are corrupt), then nt., as in 643.3. See the passages, s.v. tatkṣaṇa. Prob. the fem. kṣaṇā is a mere corruption.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣaṇa (क्षण).—m.

(-ṇaḥ) 1. A measure of time equal to thirty Kalas or four minn tes. 2. A moment. 3. A festival. 4. Vacation from work, state of being unemployed. 5. Leisure, opportunity. 6. A certain day of the fortnight, as the full, change, &c. see parbban 7. Dependence, servitude. 8. The centre, the middle. n. adv.

(-ṇaṃ) For a moment. E. kṣaṇ to injure, affix ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣaṇa (क्षण).— (probably for īkṣaṇa, i. e. īkṣ + ana), m. and n. 1. A moment, [Nala] 5, 1 2. A measure of time = 4 minutes, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 11, 7. 3. Leisure, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] 8, 9. 4. Opportunity, Mahābhārata 4, 666. 5. A festival, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 3, 21. 6. Loc. ṇe and abl. ṇāt, a. In an instant, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 42, 44; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 246; b. After a moment, [Nala] 2, 3; [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 50, 5. 7. kṣaṇekṣaṇe, Every moment, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 165.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣaṇa (क्षण).—[masculine] ([neuter]) instant, moment, little while; suitable time, opportunity of (—°); feast. °—, [ablative], & [instrumental] instantly, immediately; [locative] (also doubled) every moment.

kṣaṇaṃ kṛ wait a moment (also grah) or give an opportunity (also ); kṣaṇaṃ labh find an opportunity.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṣaṇa (क्षण):—1. kṣaṇa m. any instantaneous point of time, instant, twinkling of an eye, moment, [Nalopākhyāna; Śakuntalā; Raghuvaṃśa] etc.

2) a moment regarded as a measure of time (equal to thirty Kalās or four minutes, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; or (in [astronomy]) to 48 minutes, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.; or 4/5 or 24/35 seconds, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iii, 11, 7 and 8])

3) a leisure moment, vacant time, leisure (e.g. kṣaṇaṃ-√kṛ, to have leisure for, wait patiently for, [Mahābhārata]; cf. kṛta-kṣaṇa)

4) a fit or suitable moment, opportunity (kṣaṇaṃ-√kṛ, to give an opportunity, [Mahābhārata iv, 666]; cf. datta-kṣaṇa and labdha-kṣ)

5) a festival, [Meghadūta; Daśakumāra-carita; Bhāgavata-purāṇa iii, 3, 21]

6) a certain day of the fortnight (as the full moon, change of the moon, etc.), [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

7) dependence, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) the centre, middle, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) n. an instant, moment, [Bhartṛhari] (= [Subhāṣitāvali])

10) n. in a moment, [Raghuvaṃśa xii, 36; Śāntiśataka] (cf. tat-kṣaṇam)

11) n. tataḥ kṣaṇāt (= tat-kṣaṇāt q.v.), immediately upon that, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

12) [kṣaṇāt-kṣaṇāt], in this moment in that moment, [Rājataraṅgiṇī viii, 898]

13) n. kṣaṇe kṣaṇe, every instant, every moment, [Rājataraṅgiṇī v, 165 and 337.]

14) 2a ṇatu, ṇana, etc. See √kṣan.

15) [from kṣan] 2b m. killing (= māraṇa), [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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