Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the nature of pleasant-feeling karmas which is verse 6.12 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 12 of the chapter Influx of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 6.12 - The nature of Pleasant-feeling Karmas

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 6.12:

भूतव्रत्यनुकम्पादानसरागसंयमादियोगः शान्तिः शौचमिति सद्वेद्यस्य ॥ ६.१२ ॥

bhūtavratyanukampādānasarāgasaṃyamādiyogaḥ śāntiḥ śaucamiti sadvedyasya || 6.12 ||

Compassion (anukampā) towards the living-beings (bhūta) in general and the devout (vratī) in particular, charity (dāna), restraint-with-attachment (sarāgasaṃyama), etc.[1], contemplation on the aforementioned, equanimity (kṣānti), and purity (śauca)–freedom-from-greed–lead to the influx (āsrava) of karmas that cause pleasant-feeling (sātā vedanīya). (12)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [भूतव्रत्यनुकम्पा] प्राणियों के प्रति और व्रतधारियों के प्रति अनुकम्पा-दया, [दानसरागसंयमादियोगः] दान, सराग संयमादि के योग, [क्षान्तिः शौचमिति] क्षमा और शौच, अर्हन्त भक्ति इत्यादि [सद्वेद्यस्य] सातावेदनीय कर्म के आस्रव के कारण हैं।

Anvayartha: [bhutavratyanukampa] praniyom ke prati aura vratadhariyom ke prati anukampa-daya, [danasaragasamyamadiyogah] dana, saraga samyamadi ke yoga, [kshantih shaucamiti] kshama aura shauca, arhanta bhakti ityadi [sadvedyasya] satavedaniya karma ke asrava ke karana haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

The causes that lead to the influx of karmas which bring about unpleasant-feeling (asātā vedanīya) have been described. Now the causes of the influx of karmas that produce pleasant-feeling (sātā vedanīya) are described.

Living-beings (bhūta) are those who are born in different conditions of existence owing to the rise of karmas. The devout (vratī) are those who observe the five vows such as non-injury (ahiṃsā). They are the householders, called ‘saṃyatāsaṃyata’, and the ascetics, called ‘saṃyata’, who renounce the world. Fellow-feeling for or distress at the sufferings of others, as if these were one’s own, is compassion (anukampā). Compassion is towards all living beings in general and to those who practise the five vows in particular. Bestowing gifts on others with the object of benefiting them is charity (dāna). The one who makes an effort to put an end to worldly existence, but has not given up his attachment (rāga), is called ‘sarāga’. To restrain oneself from undesirable activities towards living-beings and control one’s senses is ‘saṃyama’–restraint. The ‘saṃyama’–restraint–of one who is with attachment (sarāga), or restraint-with-attachment, is ‘sarāgasaṃyama’. ‘Saṃyamasaṃyama’, ‘akāmanirjarā’, and ‘bālatapa’ are also included by the word ‘ādi’. ‘Yoga’ is concentration or application of the mind. The application of the mind in these–compassion (anukampā), charity (dāna), and restraint-with-attachment (sarāgasaṃyama), etc.–is intended in the sūtra. Equanimity (kṣānti) is the renunciation of the four passions (kaṣāya) like anger (krodha). Freedom-from-greed is purity (śauca).

The word ‘iti’ in the sūtra indicates ‘these types’. Thus, the worship of Lord Arhat and rendering help or service–vaiyāvṛattya–to the young and the old ascetics are also included herein. Though the term living-beings (bhūta) includes those who observe vows, they are mentioned separately in order to indicate that they deserve compassion chiefly or pre-eminently. All these lead to the influx (āsrava) of karmas that cause pleasant-feeling (sātā vedanīya).

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

These are: restraint-with-attachment (sarāgasaṃyama), restraint-cum-non-restraint (saṃyamāsaṃyama), involuntary-dissociation (akāmanirjarā) and childish-austerities (bālatapa).

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