Ardhasama, Ardha-sama: 5 definitions



Ardhasama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Ardhasama (अर्धसम, “semi-even”) refers to a class syllabic metres (vṛtta), of which the first and third pādas (‘feet’) are different from the second and fourth, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

[«previous (A) next»] — Ardhasama in Chandas glossary
Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Ardhasama (अर्धसम) or Antarasama refers to a type of catuṣpadi metres (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—The Ardhasama-catuṣpadis or the Antarasama-catuṣpadis as they are properly called by Svayambhū and Hemacandra also play an important role in Apabhraṃśa poetry. They are however generally employed for Lyrics and Dhrupadas. The peculiarity of these catuṣpadis is that, though the 1st and the 3rd pādas are equal and similar, yet they are not rhymed and on that account, they have often the look of a Dvipadi. It is probably for this reason, that the Apabhraṃśa metricians do not usually mention the Dvipadis of medium length. They define on the one hand, the shorter Dvipadis containing from 4 to 12 mātrās in their lines, and then on the other, the longer ones having from 27 to 44 mātrās in a line. They indeed theoretically admit the possibility of the Dvipadis of intermediate length, but the actual practice of the bards seems to treat such ones as Antarasama-catuṣpadis. Thus for example, a Dvipadi containing 24 mātrās in its line, may actually be considered as an Antarasama-catuṣpadi, having 7 & 17 or 8 & 16, or 9 & 15, or 10 & 14, or 11 & 13, (or the reverse of this)—mātrās in its odd and even lines respectively.

It is laid down by Hemacandra that the odd lines of the Antarasama-catuṣpadis must contain from 7 to 16 mātrās in them, while the even ones must have from 8 to 17 only. See also Kavidarpaṇa II.29 commentary (p. 40) and Svayambhūchandas VI.1ff. This means that the two lines of each half of the Antarasama-catuṣpadis may contain from 15 to 33 mātrās in them together. Even this leaves some possibility of a confusion between a Dvipadi with 27 mātrās in a line and a catuṣpadi whose halves contain as many mātrās in them. The same also applies to Dvipadis with 28 to 33 mātrās; for we have seen above that such Dvipadis were quite common and in vogue along with the Antarasama-catuṣpadis whose halves contained from 28 to 33 mātrās.

The Antarasama-catuṣpadis are said to be 110 in number, according as they contain from 7 to 16 mātrās in their odd lines and from 8 to 17 mātrās in the even ones or vice versa. No special mātrā-gaṇas are prescribed for their formation and every one of these is given a separate name. That these names are based on a pretty old tradition is evident from the fact that though Hemacandra and Svayambhū at times differ from each other, they normally give the same names. Both Hemacandra and Svayambhū must have borrowed them from the older metricians, whose existence cannot be doubted.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous (A) next»] — Ardhasama in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ardhasama (अर्धसम).—a. equal to a half.

-mam Name of a class of metres in which the 1st and 3rd and 2nd and 4th lines have the same syllables and Gaṇas; such as पुष्पिताग्रा (puṣpitāgrā).

Ardhasama is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms ardha and sama (सम).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ardhasama (अर्धसम):—[=ardha-sama] mfn. ‘half equal’, Name of metres, in which the first and third and the second and fourth Pādas are equal

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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