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Shurpanakha, aka: Surpanakha, Śūrpaṇakhā; 6 Definition(s)

Introduction

Shurpanakha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śūrpaṇakhā can be transliterated into English as Surpanakha or Shurpanakha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Itihāsa (narrative history)

Śūrpaṇakhā (शूर्पणखा).—Now Rāvaṇa (the notorious demon king of Laṅkā) had a sister, Śūrpaṇakhā (lit., a woman having nails as big as a winnowing fan) by name, who was foul and cruel as a serpent. She once went to Pañcavaṭī and was smitten with pangs of passion at the sight of the two princes.

Source: Srimatham: Śrī Rāmacaritamānasa
context information

Itihāsa (इतिहास) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Purāṇas, 2) the Mahābhārata and 3) the Rāmāyaṇa. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smṛti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to śruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

Purāṇa

Śūrpaṇakhā (शूर्पणखा).—A daughter of Viśravas and Kaikasī;1 sister of Rāvaṇa;2 disfigured by Rāma.3

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 41.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 47.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 10. 4.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana IndexPurāṇa book cover
context information

The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Śūrpaṇakhā (शूर्पणखा, “sharp nails”):—In Vedic hinduism, she is the sister of Kubera, who was the Vedic God of wealth presiding over all earthly treasures.

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Shurpanakha was the sister of Ravana, the Asura king of Lanka. Their father was a sage named Vishrava and their mother a Asura woman named Kaikasi. They had two more children, Vibhishana and Kumbhakarna. Kubera is her half-brother, born to another wife of Vishrava.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Surpanakha is one of the most important characters in the Ramayana. Indeed, Valmiki comes close to claiming that if there had been no Kaikeyi and no Surpanakha, then there would have been no Ramayana and no war with Ravana. In fact, Surpanakha was the arrow that set in motion the chain of events leading directly to the destruction of Ravana. Soorpanaka, therefore, like Kaikeyi before her, often gets the blame from Hindus as being the evil genius behind, and the sole cause of the Ramayana war.

etymology: Surpanakha (Sanskrit for "sharp, long nails"; Indonesian: Sarpakenaka; Khmer: Surpanakhar; Malay: Surapandaki; Thai: Sammanakkha; Tamil: Curppanakai.) or Shurpanakha

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Śūrpaṇakhā (शूर्पणखा) is the name of the sister of Rāvaṇa, the eighth Prativāsudeva according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara sources. She is also known by the name Candraṇakhā. Jain legends describe nine such Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes) usually appearing as powerful but evil antagonists instigating Vāsudeva by subjugating large portions of Bharata-land. As such, they are closely related with the twin brothers known as the Vāsudevas (“violent heroes”) and the Baladevas (“gentle heroes”).

According to the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita 7.1, the mother of Śūrpaṇakhā and Rāvaṇa is named Ratnaśravas and his mother Kaikasī. They have another brother named Bhānukarṇa (or Kumbhakarṇa) and another brother named Bibhīṣeṇa.

The Prativāsudevas (such as Daśamukha) fight against the twin-heroes with their cakra-weapon but at the final moment are killed by the Vāsudevas. Their stories are narrated in the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Relevant definitions

Search found 11 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Ravana
King Ravana of Ramayana era (5677-5577 BCE).—Rajavaliya, a Simhalese chronicle mentions that Si...
Kumbhakarna
Kumbhakarṇa (कुम्भकर्ण) is another name of Bhānukarṇa, who is a brother of Rāvaṇa: the eighth P...
Vibhishana
King Vibhishana of Ramayana era (5677-5577 BCE) and King Vibhishana of Mahabharata era (3162 BC...
Kaikasi
Kaikasī (कैकसी) is the name of the mother of Rāvaṇa, the eighth Prativāsudeva according to both...
Bibhishana
Bibhīṣaṇa (बिभीषण) is the name of a brother of Rāvaṇa, the eighth Prativāsudeva according to bo...
Bhanukarna
Bhānukarṇa (भानुकर्ण) is the name of a brother of Rāvaṇa, the eighth Prativāsudeva according to...
Lankesha
Laṅkeśa (लङ्केश) is another name for Rāvaṇa: the eighth Prativāsudeva according to both Śvetāmb...
Dashamukha
Daśamukha (दशमुख) is another name for Rāvaṇa, the eighth Prativāsudeva according to both Śvetām...
Ratnashravas
Ratnaśravas (रत्नश्रवस्) is the name of the father of Rāvaṇa, the eighth Prativāsudeva accordin...
Candranakha
Candraṇakhā (चन्द्रणखा) is the name of the sister of Rāvaṇa, the eighth Prativāsudeva according...
Vishrava
1a) Viśrava (विश्रव).—A son of Pulastya and Iḍivilā and of great tapas. Father of Kubera ...

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Search found books containing Shurpanakha, Surpanakha or Śūrpaṇakhā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:

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