Madya: 28 definitions


Madya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Madya (मद्य) refers to “wine”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Madya is recommended as a drink on the New Snow-fall Day and Irāmañjari-pūjana. The expression irāpuṣpasamāyuktaṃ pānam refers to the wine distilled from flowers (verses 465, 675). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Madya (मद्य).—Wine. There is a story in the seventh Skandha of Devī Bhāgavata showing how Madya happened to be an intoxicant. Once Indra sent out the Aśvinīdevas from Devaloka and banned wine to them. They took refuge in Cyavana a great sage. Cyavana conducted a special Yāga and invited the Aśvinīdevas to partake of the Yajñāṃśa. Indra objected to this and Cyavana had to face Indra in a fight. Then Cyavana produced from the sacrificial fire a demon named Mada and he rushed at Indra to kill him. Indra then bowed down before Cyavana and craved for pardon. Cyavana withdrew the demon and tearing him into four pieces put one each in dice, hunting, wine and women. That was how all the four became intoxicating.

In ancient India there were certain social conventions regarding drinking of alcoholic preparations. All those drinks which were intoxicants were not listed as 'Alcohol'. Wine, honey, toddy, juice of sugarcane, juice of Iruppa and Kuṭampuli, and sweet toddy of palm tree were not considered alcohol. Surā (liquor) chiefly meant Paiṣṭī (liquor made out of rice paste). Drinking of Surā was banned to the three castes, Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya and Vaiśya. If they drank Surā they had to perform a penance for a year drinking only water or eat long pepper for a year. To be free from the sin of drinking Surā one should wear dress made of animal hair. Even if one drinks water in a pot in which Surā was taken, one should observe Vrata for seven days. (Chapter 173, Agni Purāṇa).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Madya (मद्य) refers to “liquors”, which a Śiva-devotee should refrain from consuming, according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.25, while explaining the greatness of Rudrākṣa:—“[...] a devotee of Śiva shall refrain from eating meat, garlic, onion, red garlic, potherb, Śleṣmātaka, pig of rubbish and liquors [viz., Madya]”.

2) Madya (मद्य) refers to “wine”, which is considered as having evil influences (vyasana), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.17. Accordingly, “[...] who is he that is not broken up by the evil influences (vyasana) of hunting (mṛgayā), wine (madya), slander (paiśunya), untruth (anṛta), theft (caura), gambling (durodara) and prostitutes (vāradāra)? The wicked fellow (Guṇanidhi) used to lay his hands on whatever he could see in the house, a cloth, a base metal etc. and take it to the gambling den, there to lose the same to his brother gamblers (dyūtakāra)”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Madya (मद्य).—Liquor: Brahmanas forbidden to take it: prāyascitta for it: used in the worship of the mother goddess and the Śaktis.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 7. 66, 73-6; 8. 41.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Madya (मद्य) refers to a type of wine, according to the Raghuvaṃśa IV.42, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Different types of wines are described in the works of Kālidāsa. Madya and madira are described in Ṛtusamhāra, āsava, madhu and śīdhu in Raghuvaṃśa, vāruṇī in Kumārasaṃbhava and kādambarī in Abhijñānaśākuntala.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Madya (मद्य):—The liquid doses form containing alcohols obtained by fermentation process

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Madya (मद्य) refers to the “(the true spiritual) liquor”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] The nectar that flows from that energy (kalā) is the radiant power (tejas) of the Great Bhairava. O Lord of the god of the gods, that is (the true spiritual) liquor (madya) not that produced from grapes and sugar cane. [...]”.

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (shaktism)

Madya (मद्य) refers to “wine”, according to the 17th century Kaulagajamardana (“crushing the Kaula elephant”) authored by Kāśīnātha or Kṛṣṇānandācala.—Accordingly, [as Īśvara said to Pārvatī]: “Listen, O Pārvatī, I shall give a critique of the Pāṣaṇḍas. Knowing this, a wise man is not defeated by them. [...] He who wears ash from the cremation ground and delights in wine (madya) and flesh [madyamāṃsarataśca yaḥ]; he who performs such [rites] as bathing and the junctures for [mere] worldly rewards; and he who is the vilest [of them all,] having become a hater of Viṣṇu, destroys everything; [all of them] are called Pāṣaṇḍas. [Now,] my dear, hear about the Kāpālika. [...]”

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Madya (मद्य) refers to “wine”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[...] He should treat [all phenomena] as one, not as separate. He should not drink [alcohol] or eat meat idly [with no ritual purpose]. He should not drink wine (madya) without first purifying it [with mantras], and he should consume meat after he has purified it with that [wine]. He should not answer the call of nature, should not sip water, etc., while reciting mantras or in an assembly. If he does so out of folly, the curse of the Yoginīs will fall on him. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Madya (मद्य) refers to “wine”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Mars presides over citizens, farmers, chemists, firemen, soldiers, forest-men, citadels, chief towns, butchers, sinners, haughty men, kings, children, elephants, fops, infanticides, shepherds, red fruits, red flowers, corals, commanders of armies, jaggery, wine (madya), cruel men, storehouses, Agnihotrins, metal mines, the Śākyas in red robes, the Buddhists, thieves, rogues, vindictive and gluttonous persons. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Madya (मद्य) refers to “wine”, according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—Accordingly, [while describing a haṭha-sādhana (foreceful practice)]: “[When the Sādhaka] remains [in the hole] for up to one day, he is freed from all sins. By the second day he [gains] the desired Siddhi [arising from] the mantra. By day three, he accomplishes the rite of [magically] summoning wine (madya-ākarṣa-vidhāna). On the fourth, he is sure to see [the Yoginī,] Pūtanā, along with the Mothers. [...]”

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Madya (मद्य, “wine”) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXII).—Accordingly, “There are three kinds of wine (madhya): i) cereal wine (surā), ii) fruit wine (phalamadya), iii) herb wine (oṣadhimadya). Briefly, liquors, dry or wet, clear or cloudy, that cause excitation (kampana) or weakness (pramāda) in the human mind are called wine (madhya). They should not be consumed, and this is what is called abstaining from liquor (madyavirati)”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Madya (मद्य) refers to “wine”, according to the Bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhi section of Jagaddarpaṇa’s Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya, a text within Tantric Buddhism dealing with construction manual for monasteries etc.—Accordingly, “[...] If a parasol, lotus, banner, muraja drum, flagpole, ornament, a woman of the court, fish, milk, the best curd, wine (madya), blazing fire, and fruits [are seen], then there are victory, extraordinary increase of grain, property, [the number of] sons, and other [merits], and the completion of duties. [...]”.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Madya (मद्य) refers to “(pleasurable) intoxicants”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “I confess to making pleasurable intoxicants (anumodita-madya), depositing faults, completely, in front again, making the most excellent union, disciple Khaḍga Jinottama, Arhat, Buddha, capable, good, agreeable (and) awake, I bow completely, the triad, Jinaratna, etc., I am taking as much refuge, with my whole soul, bestowing awakened mind, the best path, practicing yoga in this manner. Vow being, knowledge being, observe one motion”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Jaina Yoga

Madya (मद्य, “alcohol”) refers to one of the ten classifications of food (āhāra), also known as vikṛtis, according to the 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.130) by Hemacandra. Madya refers to alcohol, which may be of two kinds: from sugar-cane juice or from the fermentation of grain.

Alcohol (madya) is forbidden to consume for Jain laymen. The five udumbara fruits and three forbidden vikṛtis: meat (māṃsa), alcohol (madya), and honey (madhu)—from which abstention is enjoined have one aspect in common: they are all used as offerings to the spirits of the ancestors (pitṛs). For Amitagati, in the Subhāṣita-ratna-sandoha, the common characteristic of meat, alcohol, and honey is their aphrodisiac quality.

While some writers tend to stress the pernicious effects of alcohol (madya) in befuddling the mind of the drinker others are more concerned with the inevitable hiṃsā involved in the process of fermentation. Thus Somadeva, in his Yaśastilaka, and Āśādhara, in his Sāgāra-dharmāmṛta (v2.8) refer to the immense number of jīvas transformed into a drop of alcohol and the former adds that sometimes in the cycle of transmigration beings are metamorphosed into wine to bemuse the minds of men. This same honey is unclean because it is derived from the vomit or spittle of insects and even though it may possess medicinal properties it will still lead to hell. Hemacandra, in his Yogaśāstra verse 3.41 mentions especially the use of honey in the Śaivite deva-snāna, and the false idea that it is holy.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

madya (मद्य).—n (S) Vinous or spirituous liquor.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

madya (मद्य).—n Vinous liquor. madyapāna n Drinking of spirits.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Madya (मद्य).—a. [mādyatyanena karaṇe yat]

1) Intoxicating.

2) Gladdening, exhilarating.

-dyam Spirituous liquor, wine, any intoxicating drink; रणक्षितिः शोणितमद्यकुल्या (raṇakṣitiḥ śoṇitamadyakulyā) R.7.49; Manusmṛti 5.56;9.84;1.89; भिक्षो मांसनिषेवणं प्रकुरुषे किं तेन मद्यं विना (bhikṣo māṃsaniṣevaṇaṃ prakuruṣe kiṃ tena madyaṃ vinā) S. D.525.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madya (मद्य).—n.

(-dyaṃ) Wine, vinous or spirituous liquor. f.

(-dyā) 1. Intoxicating. 2. Gladdening. E. mada to be intoxicated, (by it), aff. yat .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madya (मद्य).—[mad + ya], n. Spirituous liquor, wine, [Pañcatantra] 35, 15.

--- OR ---

Mādya (माद्य).—[Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 183, 3, but I prefer correcting māndya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madya (मद्य).—[adjective] exhilarating, intoxicating, charming, pleasant. [neuter] intoxicating drink, spirituous liquor.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Madya (मद्य):—[from mad] 1. madya (for 2. See p. 779, col. 1) [Nominal verb] [Parasmaipada] yati, [Pāṇini 7-2, 98 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

2) [from mad] 2. madya mf(ā)n. (for 1. See p. 777, col. 2) intoxicating. exhilarating, gladdening, lovely, [Ṛg-veda]

3) [v.s. ...] n. any intoxicating drink, vinous or spiritous liquor, wine, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata etc.]

4) a 1. 2. See pp. 777 and 779.

5) Mādya (माद्य):—[wrong reading] for māndya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madya (मद्य):—(dyaṃ) 1. n. Wine, spirituous liquor.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Madya (मद्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Majja.

[Sanskrit to German]

Madya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Madya (मद्य) [Also spelled mady]:—(nm) wine, liquor, spirit; -[nirmāṇaśālā] a distillery; ~[pa/pāyī] one who consumes liquor/drinks; -[pāna] drinking, consuming liquor; intoxication.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Madya (ಮದ್ಯ):—[adjective] causing intoxication; intoxicating; intoxicant.

--- OR ---

Madya (ಮದ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] an intoxicating drink, as an alcoholic liquor.

2) [noun] the food of the gods.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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