Kundala, Kuṇḍala, Kundalā: 22 definitions

Introduction

Kundala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल)—One of the Heavenly ornaments according to the Vāyu Purāṇa. Used by the Rākṣasas and by the people of the Kuru country. Bali, Lord of Pātāla, is called Kuṇḍalin.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल).—A serpent born in the Kaurava dynasty. It was burnt to death at the serpent yajña of Janamejaya. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 16).

2) Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल).—An urban region in ancient India. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 63).

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.12, I.57, I.89.51) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kuṇḍala) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Kuṇḍalā also refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.20).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Google Books: Elements of Hindu iconography

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल).—The ear-ornament is known by the general name of Kuṇḍala. At least five different kinds of Kuṇḍalas are known, namely,

  1. the patrakuṇḍala,
  2. the nakrakuṇḍala (which is the same as the makarakuṇḍala),
  3. the śaṅkhapatrakuṇḍala,
  4. the ratnakuṇḍala
  5. and the sarpakuṇḍala.

It appears to be probable that in the early periouds of India civilization men and women considered it a beauty to have large ear-ornaments attached to the ear-lobes, which were often specially bored and dilated for the purpose.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल) refers to an “ear-ring” and is classified as an ornament (ābharaṇa) for the ears (karṇa) to be worn by males, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. It is of the āvedhya type, or “ornaments that are to be fixed by piercing the limbs”. It is to be worn in the lower lobe of the ear. Such ornaments for males should be used in cases of gods and kings.

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल) also refers to a type of ornament (ābharaṇa) for the ears (karṇa) to be worn by females. Such ornaments for females should be used in cases of human females and celestial beings (gods and goddesses).

Ābharaṇa (‘ornaments’, eg., kuṇḍala) is a category of alaṃkāra, or “decorations”, which in turn is a category of nepathya, or “costumes and make-up”, the perfection of which forms the main concern of the Āhāryābhinaya, or “extraneous representation”, a critical component for a successful dramatic play.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Kundala: Daughter of the king of Devaputta. Once she was a bitch in Kakubandhakandara and a samanera, Tissa, had given her a little food. Later, when Tissa was on his way to the Bodhi tree (in Gaya) she saw him, and, remembering her past existence, invited him to the palace and entertained him. Later she built a vihara for him, where he attained arahantship. Ras.i.103f.

2. An arahant. He came of a brahmin family of Savatthi and entered the Order, but from want of mental balance he could not concentrate his thoughts. Then, one day, while begging for alms, he saw how men conducted water whither they wished by digging channels, how the fletcher fixed the arrow shaft in his lathe surveying it from the corner of his eye, how the chariot makers planed axle and tire and hub. Dwelling on these things, he soon attained arahantship.

In the past he was a park keeper, and gave a coconut to the Buddha Vipassi, which the Buddha accepted while travelling through the air (ThagA.i.71f). Perhaps he is to be identified with Nalikeradayaka Thera of the Apadana (ii.447f). The same Apadana verses, however, are also ascribed to Khitaka Thera (ThagA.i.315f). The verse attributed to Kundala in the Theragatha (Thag.19) occurs twice in the Dhammapada, and is in the Dhammapada Commentary mentioned as having been preached once in reference to Pandita Samanera (DhA.ii.147), and once in reference to Sukha Samanera (DhA.iii.99).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Google Books: Vajrayogini

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल) refers to “earrings” and represents one of the five mudrās (tantric ornaments) of Vajravārāhī, according to the 12th-century Abhisamayamañjarī. These mudrās are depicted upon Vajravārāhī’s body and are all made of human bone. They are made to represent the five signs of kāpālika observance.

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल) refers to one of the eight trees (vṛkṣa) of the Jñānacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jñānacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Kuṇḍala is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Hāhārava and with the direction-guardian (dikpāla) named Ravitana.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल) is the shorter name of Kuṇḍaladvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Kuṇḍalasamudra (or simply Kuṇḍala), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.

Kuṇḍala is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Kuṇḍala] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Kuṇḍalā (कुण्डला) is the name of a Yoginī mentioned in various Jaina manuscripts, often being part of a list of sixty-four such deities. How the cult of the Tantrik Yoginīs originated among the vegetarian Jainas is unknown. The Yoginīs (viz., Kuṇḍalā) are known as attendants on Śiva or Pārvatī. But in the case of Jainism, we may suppose, as seen before that they are subordinates to Kṣetrapāla, the chief of the Bhairavas.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Vākāṭakas

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल) refers to “jewelled ear-ornaments”, which was worn by kings during the reign of the Vākāṭakas (mid-3rd century CE).—Ajaṇṭā paintings give us a clear idea of the costume and jewellery worn by men and women in Vidarbha in the age of the Vākāṭakas. [...] Men and women were very fond of jewellery in the Vākāṭaka age. Merchants, middle class people and servants generally appear without jewellery on their person, but kings, princes, high officers, queens and wives of rich people as also their maids are represented with a variety of ornaments. [...] Kings used to wear a high jewelled diadem. They also put on jewelled ear-ornaments (kuṇḍalas) and necklaces of pearls or gems. Their arms were adorned with jewelled armlets (aṅgadas), with strings of pearls hanging from them.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (K) next»] — Kundala in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kuṇḍala : (nt.) an earring; a curl.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kuṇḍala, (cp. kuṇḍa, orig. bending, i.e. winding) a ring esp. earring A. I, 254=III, 16; J. IV, 358 (su° with beautiful earrings); DhA. I, 25. Frequent as maṇi°, a jewelled earring Vin. II, 156; S. I, 77; M. I, 366; Pv. II, 950; sīha° or sīhamukha° an earring with a jewel called “lion’s mouth” J. V, 205 (=kuñcita), 438. In sāgara° it means the ocean belt Miln. 220=J. III, 32 (where expl. as sāgaramajjhe dīpavasena ṭhitattā tassa kuṇḍalabhūtaṃ). Cp. also rajju° a rope as belt VvA. 212.—kuṇḍalavatta turning, twisting round D. II, 18 (of the hair of a Mahāpurisa). (Page 220)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kuṇḍala (कुंडल).—n (S) An ear-ring. 2 A ring or circle (of metal &c.)

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kuṇḍalā (कुंडला).—m (kuṇḍala S) A bowl of stone or earth (for grinding snuff &c.)

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kuṇḍalā (कुंडला).—m A bowl of stone or earth.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल).—[kuṇḍa-matvarthe la]

1) An ear-ring; श्रोत्रं श्रुतेनैव न कुण्डलेन (śrotraṃ śrutenaiva na kuṇḍalena) Bh.2.71; Ch. P.11; Ṛs.2.2,3.19; R.11.15.

2) A bracelet; Śi.6.27.

3) The coil of a rope.

4) A fetter, tie, collar.

Derivable forms: kuṇḍalaḥ (कुण्डलः), kuṇḍalam (कुण्डलम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल).—(1) (nt.) coil (of rope): Jm 23.11 anyatra rajju-kuṇḍalād dātrāc caikasmāt; see next (1); (2) in LV 276.22 nīla-mṛdu-kuṇḍala-jāta-pradakṣiṇa-nandyā- [Page186-a+ 71] varta-kācilindika-sukhasaṃsparśaiś ca tṛṇair, the word kuṇḍala (vv.ll. kuntala, kuṇṭaka) is obscure; it is omitted from the cpd. in Foucaux's Tibetan; a late Sanskrit Lex. records the meaning thick for kuṇṭaka; this meaning would fit here but there is no other support for a word kuṇṭaka. On the other hand, perhaps kuṇḍala-jāta-means simply curling (of blades of grass, tṛṇa); compare kuṇḍalaka (2) -jāta, of hair; Foucaux's Note p. 167, bottom, actually cites this form of the cpd. as the reading of one ms., but adds that Tibetan indicates a reading kuśa-jāta (of this his Tibetan text and its transl. contain no trace); curling seems to me a curious epithet to be applied to grass; (3) (compare Sanskrit Lex. id. = pāśa), a ring as a kind of fetter: Gv 353.12, see s.v. kaṭaka; (4) m., n. of a form of a mendicant, created magically by Māra to obstruct Buddha: Mv i.270.13.

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Kuṇḍalā (कुण्डला).—n. of a yakṣiṇī: Mv i.253.1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṇḍala (कुण्डल).—n.

(-laṃ) 1. An earring. 2. A bracelet. 3. A fetter, a tie, a collar. f. (-lī) 1. Mountain ebony: see kāñcana. 2. Guruchi, a plant, (Menispermum glabrum.) see guḍūcī. 3. Cowach. E. kuḍi to preserve, kalac aff.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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