Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

यथा वा,
निखिल-गुण-गभीरे क्ष्मा-धरोद्धार-धीरे सकल-सुखद-शीले क्षालिताशेष-पीले ।
सुभग-नव-किशोरे विश्व-चित्ताक्षि-चौरे मुरभिदि युवतीनां हृन् निमग्नं सतीनाम् ॥

yathā vā,
nikhila-guṇa-gabhīre kṣmā-dharoddhāra-dhīre sakala-sukhada-śīle kṣālitāśeṣa-pīle |
subhaga-nava-kiśore viśva-cittākṣi-caure murabhidi yuvatīnāṃ hṛn nimagnaṃ satīnām ||

nikhila—all; guṇa—in the matter of qualities; gabhīre—[in Kṛṣṇa,] deep (or mysterious); kṣmā-dhara—the mountain (“it maintains the Earth”); uddhāra—in holding; dhīre—[in Kṛṣṇa,] who is steady; sakala—all; sukha-da—is to give happiness; śīle—[in Kṛṣṇa,] whose nature; kṣālita—is removed; aśeṣa—unlimited; pīle—[in Kṛṣṇa,] by whom the pain (pīle = pīḍe); subhaga—charming; nava—fresh; kiśore—[in Kṛṣṇa,] an adolescent; viśva—all; citta—of the minds; akṣi—and of the eyes; caure—[in Kṛṣṇa,] the thief; mura-bhidi—in Kṛṣṇa (“the killer of Mura”); yuvatīnām—of the young women; hṛd—the heart; nimagnam—becam immersed; satīnām—virtuous.

The hearts of the virtuous young women became immersed in Kṛṣṇa. He abounds in all qualities, He was stable in holding Govardhana, by nature He gives all kinds of happiness, He completely dispels distress, He is charming, He is in fresh youth, and He steals the minds and eyes of all. (Govinda-līlāmṛta 17.30)

atra caturtha-pāde pāda-traya-padāni hetavaḥ.

Here the adjectival compounds that modify “Kṛṣṇa” are the reason for the meaning “The hearts of the virtuous young women became immersed in Kṛṣṇa.”

Commentary:

The verse features the parikara ornament in the form of kāvya-liṅga. Mammaṭa stated a third category of kāvya-liṅga, called aneka-padārthatā, where the reason is stated in a few words.

This is his example:

praṇayi-sakhī-salīla-parihāsa-rasādhigatair
  lalita-śirīṣa-puṣpa-hananair api tāmyati yat
|
vapuṣi vadhāya tatra tava śastram upakṣipataḥ
  patatu śirasy akāṇḍa-yama-daṇḍa ivaiṣa bhujaḥ
||

“[Mādhava speaks to Aghoraghaṇṭa regarding Mālatī:] Her body fades even just by the strikes, given by her close girlfriends with playful laughter, of a beautiful śirīṣa flower. Let this arm of mine, which is like Yama’s rod appearing before its time, fall on the head of you who are threatening to hurl a weapon on such a body to kill it.” (Bhavabhūti’s Mālatī-mādhava) (Kāvya-prakāśa verse 502)

Here the reason Mādhava lets his arm fall on Aghoraghaṇṭa is the clause: “who are threatening to hurl a weapon on such a body to kill it” (the third line of the verse).[1] That constitutes the kāvya-liṅga.

This is an example of kāvya-liṅga by Jagannātha:

tavālambād amba sphurad-alaghu-garveṇa sahasā
  mayā sarve’vajñā-pura-patham anīyanta vibudhāḥ
|
idānīm audāsyaṃ yadi bhajasi bhāgīrathi tadā
  nirādhāro hā rodimi kathaya keṣām iha puraḥ
||

“O mother Ganges, after I took shelter of you, I, whose great overweening pride quickly becomes obvious, led all the demigods to the path that goes to the city of disrespect. If you show indifference to me now, then alas tell me in front of whom shall I, having become destitute, cry?” (Rasa-gaṅgādhara)

Jagannātha explains that the implied sense derived from “In front of whom shall I, having become destitute, cry?” is the idea that the demigods would feel contempt for the speaker; and the sentence “I led all the demigods to the path that goes to the city of disrespect” is the explanatory reason for their contempt,[2] thus that sentence constitutes kāvya-liṅga. Therefore in this example the kāvya-liṅga is the explanatory reason of an implied sense.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

atra śastropakṣepo bhuja-pāte hetuḥ (Kāvya-pradīpa).

[2]:

atra nirādhāra ity-ādinābhivyakte vaktṛ-niṣṭha-sakala-kartṛka-dveṣe ātma-kartṛkāvajñāpura-patha-nayana-rūpaḥ sub-antārtha-viśeṣitas tiṅ-antārtha upapādakaḥ (Rasa-gaṅgādhara, KM p. 468).

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