Parikara: 12 definitions



Parikara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Parikara (परिकर, “enlargement”) refers to ‘indirectly intimating the coming events’. Parikara represents one of the twelve mukhasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. Mukhasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the opening part (mukha)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka). (Description:) Enlargement (parikara) is the amplification of the object originated. Describing it (i.e. the object) thoroughly is called Establishment (pariṇyāsa).

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Parikara (परिकर) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).The figure of speech parikara has been admitted by many rhetoricians like Ruyyaka, Mammaṭa, Viśvanātha Jagnnātha and Jayadeva.

Cirañjīva has given a definition of parikara. He has said—“alaṅkāraḥ parikaraḥ sā’bhiprāye viśeṣaṇe”.—“When the epithets are pithy and conceived of suggestive meaning the figure is parikara”. The word sā’bhiprāya used in the definition of parikara has been explained by Ruyyaka in his Alaṃkāra-sarvasva.

Example of the parikara-alaṃkāra:—

devānarcaya sañcaya pratidinaṃ puṇyāni janmāntare bhogāya prayato mahākratuvidhau svargāya hiṃsāṃ kuru |
itthaṃ vañcakavañcanotpathagatā buddhistvadīyā cirā- dpratyakṣapadārthasārtharahitaṃ panthānamārohatu ||

“Worship the gods, attain virtue everyday to enjoy in another birth, having good faith in the rights of great sacrifices, practice cruelty to animals for attaining heaven. In this way your inclination is going through the evil course of cheating by deceiver, attain the route which is devoid of non-perceptible objects”.

Notes: This is the speech of a person who believes in the philosophy of Cārvāka. In this verse the epithet apratyakṣapadārthasārtharahitam, is given by the poet to signify some special meaning. It means that the way which advocates the existence of non-perceptible and non-existing heaven etc. of those who believe in sacrificial rights etc is despicable due to the fact that non-perceptible things are not authentic. In the case of Cārvākas such type of non-perceptible things like heaven etc. are not at all admitted. So their way is right and acceptable.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Parikara.—(IE 8-5; CII 4), same as uparikara, occasional or minor taxes; cf. sa-parikara (EI 23) which is the same as s-opari- kara. (SITI), requisites of a village. (HA), accessory decoration round the figure of a Jina, the motifs being taken from the Jain conception of the eight chief objects attendant upon a Jina (aṣṭa-mahāprātihāryāṇi, viz. the wheel of law, the caitya-tree, the lion-seat, the aureole behind the head, two attendant flywhisk-bearers, drum-beaters and pipe-players, and garland-bearers). Note: parikara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Parikāra.—(SITI), a servant. Note: parikāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Parikara in Pali glossary
Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Parikara, (fr. pari+kṛ; a similar formation belonging to same root, but with fig. meaning is to be found in parikkhāra, which is also explained by parivara cp. parikaroti=parivāreti) “doing round, ” i.e. girdle, loincloth J. IV, 149; DhA. I, 352.—In cpd. ovāda° it is v. l. SS at D. I, 137 for paṭikara (q. v.). (Page 422)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parikara (परिकर).—m S A cincture for the waist, a zone, girdle, sash.

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parikara (परिकर).—m (Poetry. For prakāra S) Way, mode, manner. 2 Sort or kind. Ex. aisē santācē bōla pa0 aikōni paramānandēṃ śrīdhara || sāṣṭāṅga ghālōni namaskāra ||; also kuṇḍalī tīrtha pavitra || parama pa0 sthāna jē ||.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parikara (परिकर).—

1) Retinue, train, attendants, followers.

2) A multitude, collection, crowd; संध्याकृष्टावशिष्टस्वकर- परिकरस्पृष्टहेमारपङ्क्तिः (saṃdhyākṛṣṭāvaśiṣṭasvakara- parikaraspṛṣṭahemārapaṅktiḥ) Ratn.3.5.

3) A beginning, commencement; गतानामारम्भः किसलयितलीलापरिकरः (gatānāmārambhaḥ kisalayitalīlāparikaraḥ) Bh.1.6.

4) A girth, waist-band, cloth worn round the loins; अहिपरिकरभाजः (ahiparikarabhājaḥ) Śi.4.65; परिकरं बन्ध् (parikaraṃ bandh) or कृ (kṛ) 'to gird up one's loins, to make oneself ready, prepare oneself for any action'; बध्नन् सवेगं परिकरम् (badhnan savegaṃ parikaram) K.17; कृतपरिकरः कर्मसु जनः (kṛtaparikaraḥ karmasu janaḥ) Śivamahimna 2; कृतपरिकरस्य भवादृशस्य त्रैलोक्यमपि न क्षमं परिपन्थीभवितुम् (kṛtaparikarasya bhavādṛśasya trailokyamapi na kṣamaṃ paripanthībhavitum) Ve.3; G. L.47; बद्धो मानपरिग्रहे परिकरः सिद्धिस्तु दैवे स्थिता (baddho mānaparigrahe parikaraḥ siddhistu daive sthitā) Amaru.97; U.5.12.

5) A sofa.

6) (in Rhet.) Name of a figure of speech which consists in the use of significant epithets; विशेषणैर्यत् साकूतैरुक्तिः परिकरस्तु सः (viśeṣaṇairyat sākūtairuktiḥ parikarastu saḥ) K. P.1; e. g. सुधांशुकलितोत्तंसस्तापं हरतु वः शिवः (sudhāṃśukalitottaṃsastāpaṃ haratu vaḥ śivaḥ) Chandr.5.59.

7) (In dramaturgy) Covet or indirect intimation of coming events in the plot or a drama, the germ or the बीज (bīja) q. v; see S. D.34.

8) Judgment.

9) A helper, colleague, co-worker.

Derivable forms: parikaraḥ (परिकरः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parikara (परिकर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) Who or what helps or assists. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A sofa, a bed. 2. Dependents, retinue, train. 3. Multitude, numbers, a crowd. 4. A firm girth, a waist, a zone or sash. 5. Commencement. 6. Discrimination, judgment. 7. Covert or indirect intimation of wish or purpose, or of coming events in the plot of a drama. (In dramaturgy.) 8. Unusual meaning or expression. 9. Name of a figure of speech consisting in the employment of suggestive epithets (in rhetoric.) E. pari round about, kara making.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parikara (परिकर).—i. e. pari-kṛ + a, m. 1. Retinue, dependents, Mahābhārata 10, 274. 2. Preparation, commencement, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 26, 200. 3. Effort, Utt. Rāmac 125, 2. 4. Judgment, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 481. 5. A girth, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 3652.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parikara (परिकर).—[masculine] attendance, assistance, followers, servants, troop, multitude (also [plural]); a girdle.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parikara (परिकर):—[=pari-kara] a pari-karman etc. See pari-kṛ, [column]3.

2) [=pari-kara] [from pari-kṛ] b mf(ī)n. who or what helps or assists, [Horace H. Wilson]

3) [v.s. ...] m. (ifc. f(ā). ) attendants, followers, entourage, retinue, train (sg. and [plural]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] m. multitude, abundance, [Bhartṛhari; Bālarāmāyaṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] a girth, zone, waist-band, ([especially]) a girdle to keep up a garment (ram-√bandh, or raṃ-√kṛ, ‘to gird up one’s loins, make preparations’, and so pari-kara = ārambha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature; Rājataraṅgiṇī] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) covert or indirect intimation of coming events in a plot, the germ of the Bīja, [Daśarūpa]

7) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) a [particular] figure in which many significant epithets or adjectives are employed one after the other to give force to a statement, [Kāvyaprakāśa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa] etc.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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