Parikara: 21 definitions


Parikara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Parikar.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Parikara (परिकर, “enlargement”) refers to ‘indirectly intimating the coming events’. Parikara represents one of the twelve mukhasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. Mukhasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the opening part (mukha)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka). (Description:) Enlargement (parikara) is the amplification of the object originated. Describing it (i.e. the object) thoroughly is called Establishment (pariṇyāsa).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Parikara (परिकर) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).The figure of speech parikara has been admitted by many rhetoricians like Ruyyaka, Mammaṭa, Viśvanātha Jagnnātha and Jayadeva.

Cirañjīva has given a definition of parikara. He has said—“alaṅkāraḥ parikaraḥ sā’bhiprāye viśeṣaṇe”.—“When the epithets are pithy and conceived of suggestive meaning the figure is parikara”. The word sā’bhiprāya used in the definition of parikara has been explained by Ruyyaka in his Alaṃkāra-sarvasva.

Example of the parikara-alaṃkāra:—

devānarcaya sañcaya pratidinaṃ puṇyāni janmāntare bhogāya prayato mahākratuvidhau svargāya hiṃsāṃ kuru |
itthaṃ vañcakavañcanotpathagatā buddhistvadīyā cirā- dpratyakṣapadārthasārtharahitaṃ panthānamārohatu ||

“Worship the gods, attain virtue everyday to enjoy in another birth, having good faith in the rights of great sacrifices, practice cruelty to animals for attaining heaven. In this way your inclination is going through the evil course of cheating by deceiver, attain the route which is devoid of non-perceptible objects”.

Notes: This is the speech of a person who believes in the philosophy of Cārvāka. In this verse the epithet apratyakṣapadārthasārtharahitam, is given by the poet to signify some special meaning. It means that the way which advocates the existence of non-perceptible and non-existing heaven etc. of those who believe in sacrificial rights etc is despicable due to the fact that non-perceptible things are not authentic. In the case of Cārvākas such type of non-perceptible things like heaven etc. are not at all admitted. So their way is right and acceptable.

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Tadguṇa (तद्गुण, “Parikara”) refers to one of the various Alaṅkāras (‘figures of speech’) classified as Artha (‘sense’), as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—The poet has made a wonderful use of ‘parikara-alaṅkāra’ in his poem. An illustration is found in XII.56 of the Bhīṣmacarita, wherein the poet has accurately described significant traits of Vicitravīrya as having stout form, devoted to wife, expert in sexual pleasure, attracting the minds of people etc. which are rare qualities to be found.

Kavyashastra book cover
context information

Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Parikara in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Parikara (परिकर) refers to “followers”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.16 (“Brahmā consoles the gods”).—Accordingly, as the Gods said to Brahmā: “[...] O dear, lord of all, we are extremely harassed and agitated due to Tāraka. Agni, Yama, Varuṇa, Nirṛti, Vāyu and other guardians of the deities are under his control. None of them is ever independent. All serve him in the manner of human beings accompanied by their followers [i.e., parikara]. Being harassed by him, the gods have become subservient of him. They are engaged in carrying out his wishes. All of us are his servants. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Catalogue of Pancaratra Agama Texts

Parikara (परिकर) or Parikarasādhana refers to “utilizing mantras related to the lord’s weapons”, as discussed in the thirtieth chapter of the Jayākhyasaṃhitā: a Pāñcarātra Āgama text composed of 4500 verses in 33 chapters dealing with topics such as mantra (formulas), japa (repetitions), dhyāna (meditations), mudrā (gesticulations), nyāsa (concentrations) etc.—Description of the chapter [parikara-sādhana]:—Bhagavān here turns to the mantras addressed to the cosmic weapons and how to achieve mastery of these—kaustubhamantra and its mastery (16b-31), [...].

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Parikara (परिकर) refers to an “abundance (of jeweled radiance)”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Homage be to you, homage be to you, homage be to you, homage, homage, With devotion I bow to you, Guru protector be pleased with me. By whose bright rays of light, the true self suddenly appears, With an abundance of jeweled radiance (ratnaprabhā-parikara), defeating darkness, Rightly understanding with clear eyes, with intense playfulness, This adoration is offered to them, to the illuminating Guru”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Parikara.—(IE 8-5; CII 4), same as uparikara, occasional or minor taxes; cf. sa-parikara (EI 23) which is the same as s-opari- kara. (SITI), requisites of a village. (HA), accessory decoration round the figure of a Jina, the motifs being taken from the Jain conception of the eight chief objects attendant upon a Jina (aṣṭa-mahāprātihāryāṇi, viz. the wheel of law, the caitya-tree, the lion-seat, the aureole behind the head, two attendant flywhisk-bearers, drum-beaters and pipe-players, and garland-bearers). Note: parikara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Parikāra.—(SITI), a servant. Note: parikāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parikara in Pali glossary
Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Parikara, (fr. pari+kṛ; a similar formation belonging to same root, but with fig. meaning is to be found in parikkhāra, which is also explained by parivara cp. parikaroti=parivāreti) “doing round, ” i.e. girdle, loincloth J. IV, 149; DhA. I, 352.—In cpd. ovāda° it is v. l. SS at D. I, 137 for paṭikara (q. v.). (Page 422)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parikara (परिकर).—m S A cincture for the waist, a zone, girdle, sash.

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parikara (परिकर).—m (Poetry. For prakāra S) Way, mode, manner. 2 Sort or kind. Ex. aisē santācē bōla pa0 aikōni paramānandēṃ śrīdhara || sāṣṭāṅga ghālōni namaskāra ||; also kuṇḍalī tīrtha pavitra || parama pa0 sthāna jē ||.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parikara (परिकर).—

1) Retinue, train, attendants, followers.

2) A multitude, collection, crowd; संध्याकृष्टावशिष्टस्वकर- परिकरस्पृष्टहेमारपङ्क्तिः (saṃdhyākṛṣṭāvaśiṣṭasvakara- parikaraspṛṣṭahemārapaṅktiḥ) Ratnāvalī 3.5.

3) A beginning, commencement; गतानामारम्भः किसलयितलीलापरिकरः (gatānāmārambhaḥ kisalayitalīlāparikaraḥ) Bhartṛhari 1.6.

4) A girth, waist-band, cloth worn round the loins; अहिपरिकरभाजः (ahiparikarabhājaḥ) Śiśupālavadha 4.65; परिकरं बन्ध् (parikaraṃ bandh) or कृ (kṛ) 'to gird up one's loins, to make oneself ready, prepare oneself for any action'; बध्नन् सवेगं परिकरम् (badhnan savegaṃ parikaram) K.17; कृतपरिकरः कर्मसु जनः (kṛtaparikaraḥ karmasu janaḥ) Śivamahimna 2; कृतपरिकरस्य भवादृशस्य त्रैलोक्यमपि न क्षमं परिपन्थीभवितुम् (kṛtaparikarasya bhavādṛśasya trailokyamapi na kṣamaṃ paripanthībhavitum) Ve.3; G. L.47; बद्धो मानपरिग्रहे परिकरः सिद्धिस्तु दैवे स्थिता (baddho mānaparigrahe parikaraḥ siddhistu daive sthitā) Amaruśataka 97; Uttararāmacarita 5.12.

5) A sofa.

6) (in Rhet.) Name of a figure of speech which consists in the use of significant epithets; विशेषणैर्यत् साकूतैरुक्तिः परिकरस्तु सः (viśeṣaṇairyat sākūtairuktiḥ parikarastu saḥ) K. P.1; e. g. सुधांशुकलितोत्तंसस्तापं हरतु वः शिवः (sudhāṃśukalitottaṃsastāpaṃ haratu vaḥ śivaḥ) Chandr.5.59.

7) (In dramaturgy) Covet or indirect intimation of coming events in the plot or a drama, the germ or the बीज (bīja) q. v; see S. D.34.

8) Judgment.

9) A helper, colleague, co-worker.

Derivable forms: parikaraḥ (परिकरः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parikara (परिकर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) Who or what helps or assists. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A sofa, a bed. 2. Dependents, retinue, train. 3. Multitude, numbers, a crowd. 4. A firm girth, a waist, a zone or sash. 5. Commencement. 6. Discrimination, judgment. 7. Covert or indirect intimation of wish or purpose, or of coming events in the plot of a drama. (In dramaturgy.) 8. Unusual meaning or expression. 9. Name of a figure of speech consisting in the employment of suggestive epithets (in rhetoric.) E. pari round about, kara making.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parikara (परिकर).—i. e. pari-kṛ + a, m. 1. Retinue, dependents, Mahābhārata 10, 274. 2. Preparation, commencement, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 26, 200. 3. Effort, Utt. Rāmac 125, 2. 4. Judgment, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 481. 5. A girth, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 3652.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parikara (परिकर).—[masculine] attendance, assistance, followers, servants, troop, multitude (also [plural]); a girdle.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parikara (परिकर):—[=pari-kara] a pari-karman etc. See pari-kṛ, [column]3.

2) [=pari-kara] [from pari-kṛ] b mf(ī)n. who or what helps or assists, [Horace H. Wilson]

3) [v.s. ...] m. (ifc. f(ā). ) attendants, followers, entourage, retinue, train (sg. and [plural]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] m. multitude, abundance, [Bhartṛhari; Bālarāmāyaṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] a girth, zone, waist-band, ([especially]) a girdle to keep up a garment (ram-√bandh, or raṃ-√kṛ, ‘to gird up one’s loins, make preparations’, and so pari-kara = ārambha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature; Rājataraṅgiṇī] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) covert or indirect intimation of coming events in a plot, the germ of the Bīja, [Daśarūpa]

7) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) a [particular] figure in which many significant epithets or adjectives are employed one after the other to give force to a statement, [Kāvyaprakāśa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa] etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parikara (परिकर):—[pari-kara] (raḥ) 1. m. A bed; retinue, multitude; girth; beginning; judgment; hint. a. Helping.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parikara (परिकर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Paḍiara, Pariara, Parigara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parikara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parikara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parikara (परिकर) [Also spelled parikar]:—(nm) in traditional Rhetorics, a figure of speech; coterie, circle.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Parikara (ಪರಿಕರ):—

1) [noun] a group of persons accompanying a person or joined together in a procession.

2) [noun] a group of people; a crowd.

3) [noun] the act or time of commencing; beginning; commencement.

4) [noun] a belt or band for tying round the waist.

5) [noun] a flat, rectangular cloth case filled with cotton, feathers, down, foam rubber, etc. to sleep on; a bed.

6) [noun] rational thinking; judgement.

7) [noun] a man who is associated with or is accompanying another; a companion; an associate.

8) [noun] a body of assistants, followers or servants attending a person of rank or importance.

9) [noun] any article or device used or needed in a given activity, as a tool, instrument, utensil, etc.

10) [noun] a side dish, used in small quantity to enhance the taste or to increase the appetite.

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Parikara (ಪರಿಕರ):—[noun] = ಪರಿಕಾರ [parikara]2.

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Parikāra (ಪರಿಕಾರ):—

1) [noun] a group of persons accompanying a person or joined together in a procession.

2) [noun] any of several spices, condiments used for seasoning food.

3) [noun] a seasoning of food using spices, salt, etc.

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Parikāra (ಪರಿಕಾರ):—[noun] a lose garment, having no separate coverings for legs, worn by young girls, covering from the shoulder to the ankles.

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Parikāṟa (ಪರಿಕಾಱ):—

1) [noun] he who runs fast.

2) [noun] a man who runs errands, carries messages; a runner.

3) [noun] a man who takes an elephant by walk.

4) [noun] a man who is travelling; a traveller.

5) [noun] a telling or indicating about something beforehand.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parikara in Nepali glossary
Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

1) Parikara (परिकर):—n. 1. retinue; train; attendants; 2. a multitude; collection; crowd; 3. a girth; waistband; cloth worn round the loins; 4. a sofa; 5. Rhet. name of a figure of speech which consists in the use of significant epithets; 6. (in dramaturgy) covert or indirect intimation of coming events in the plot of a drama;

2) Parikāra (परिकार):—n. varieties of food; a dish (of food);

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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