Nayana: 25 definitions


Nayana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Nayan.

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In Hinduism

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra

Nayana (नयन, “eye”).—Besides āyādiṣaḍvarga, three other astrological principles are also mentioned in passing in the text (Mānasāra chapter 9), without always giving their full list or the formula to ascertain them: rāśī, “zodiacal sign”, gaṇa, literally, “cluster”, and nayana, literally, “eye”.

For nayana, the formula is given as follows: the total days of the week, seven, is multiplied by three, and to it is added the nakṣatra of the day. The sum is then divided by seven. The remainder gives the nayana, in the order of ekanetra, one-eyed, dvinetra, two-eyed, and so on (netra being a synonym of nayana). It is not clear from this account how this principle is brought into relation with the architectural or iconographic object because no measurement of the object is engaged in the formula.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Nayana (नयन) or “eyes” refers to one of the thirteen sources of Jaṅgama (mobile) poison, as described in the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Kaśyapa states in the fourth Adhyāya that Śiva taught him that poisons are of five kinds viz. immobile, mobile, artificial, caused by planets and (arising out of) doubt. The sources of these five kinds of viṣa, Kaśyapasaṃhitā deals mainly with the sthāvara (immobile), jaṅgama (mobile) poison according to Kaśyapa are thirteen in number [viz., eye (nayana)].

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Nayana (नयन):—Eye

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Nayana (नयन) refers to the “eyes”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 1), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] There was darkness (chaos) in the beginning. Then came water (into existence). On it (floated) a golden-coloured egg, the (divine) seed consisting of the Earth and the Firmament from which there arose Brahmā, the creative agent with the sun and moon for his eyes [i.e., arka-nayana]. Kapila says that the universe had its origin in pradhāna; Kaṇātha in dravya and the like; a few in kāla (time); others in Svabhāva (nature); and some in karma. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Nayana (नयन) refers to the “eyes”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.9.—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Sage Nārada:—“[...] The lord was completely agitated due to Satī’s love and separation from her. He performed his penance there. Pārvatī engaged herself in His service continuously accompanied by two of her maids. Although the lord Śiva was hit and wounded by the arrows of Kāma who was sent thither by the gods to enchant Him, He was not swayed at all. Burning Kāma there by His fiery eye [i.e., sva-vahni-nayana], on remembering my words, the lord became angry with me and vanished from the scene. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Nayanā (नयना) refers to the “eyes” (representing the Sun and Moon), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “She who is KLĪṂ, the goddess Klinnā, accompanied by the Goddess and endowed with the consciousness of the Command is Vakrā whose form is the Triangle. Supreme with (the sacred energy of the) nasal (letters in her Vidyā), she is Parā, the foremost knowledge. She has three eyes. (As) the Sun and Moon she shines as the Ray (of divine light), and is the goddess called Ciñciṇī. I praise her, she who residing in the Void, is the goddess whose eyes are the Sun and Moon (raviśaśi-nayanā) and consists of thirty-two syllables”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Nayana (नयन) represents the number 2 (two) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 2—nayana] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Nayana (नयन) refers to the “eyes”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[The eighteen āveṇika-dharmas (‘special attributes’)]— [...] (10). The Buddha has no loss of wisdom.—He has no loss of wisdom.—[...] Moreover, since his first production of the mind of awakening (prathama-cittotpāda) and for innumerable and incalculable periods (asaṃkhyeyakalpa), the Buddha has accumulated all the wisdoms and, in accordance with his high resolution (adhyāśaya), he has sacrificed his head (śiras), his eyes (nayana), his marrow (majjā) and his skull (mastaka), he has given all his inner and outer possessions, he has entered into fire, he has thrown himself down from mountains, he has flayed his skin, he has nailed his body, etc.; there is no suffering that he has not endured, careful to accumulate wisdom. This is why he has no loss of wisdom. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Nayana.—(IE 8-1-2), ‘two’; cf. netra. Note: nayana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

nayana : (nt.) the eye. (ger.), carrying.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Nayana, (nt.) (Sk. nayana, to nayati=the leader cp. also netra=P. netta) the eye Th. 2, 381; Vv 353; Dhs. 597; Vbh. 71 sq.; Miln. 365; ThA. 255; VvA. 161 (=cakkhu); PvA. 40 (nettāni nayanāni), 152; Sdhp. 448, 621. (Page 347)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nayana (नयन).—n (S) An eye. nayanātēṃ or nayanīṃ udaka yēṇēṃ g. of s. To have tears coming into the eyes. Ex. darbhanirmita tayā śayanā- tēṃ || dēkhatāṃ udaka yē nayanātēṃ ||.

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nayana (नयन).—n S Leading, guiding, directing.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nayana (नयन).—n An eye. nayanātēṃ or nayanīṃ udaka yēṇēṃ To have tears coming into the eyes. Guiding.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nayana (नयन).—[nī-karaṇe lyuṭ]

1) Leading, guiding, conducting managing.

2) Taking, bringing to or near, drawing; पापापहं स्वर्नयनं दुस्तरं पार्थिवर्षभैः (pāpāpahaṃ svarnayanaṃ dustaraṃ pārthivarṣabhaiḥ) Rām.1.14.58.

3) Ruling, governing, polity; वाक्यैः पवित्रार्थपदैर्नयनैः प्राकृतैरपि (vākyaiḥ pavitrārthapadairnayanaiḥ prākṛtairapi) Bhāg. 1.5.34.

4) Obtaining.

5) The eye.

6) Passing, spending (as time).

-nā, -nī The pupil of the eye.

Derivable forms: nayanam (नयनम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nayana (नयन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. The eye. 2. Leading, guiding, (literally or figuratively.) 3. Attaining, obtaining. 4. Bringing. f.

(-nā) The pupil of the eye. E. ṇī to guide, affix karaṇe lyuṭ . nīyate vuddhi vṛttiḥ svasaṃyuktaviṣayān anena .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nayana (नयन).—i. e. nī + ana, n. 1. Leading, Mahābhārata 12, 458. 2. Ruling, 1, 2580. 3. Leading to, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 71, 14. 4. Bringing, [Pañcatantra] 174, 19. 5. Theeye, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 59, 16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nayana (नयन).—[masculine] a man’s name; [neuter] leading, conduct, the eye as the leader (adj. —° [feminine] ā, [rarely] ī).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nayana (नयन):—[from naya] m. Name of a man, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

2) Nayanā (नयना):—[from nayana > naya] f. the pupil of the eye, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Nayana (नयन):—[from naya] n. leading, directing, managing, conducting

4) [v.s. ...] carrying, bringing, [Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature; Pañcatantra] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] (kālasya) fixing, [Mahābhārata i, 2580; Nīlakaṇṭha]

6) [v.s. ...] drawing, moving (a man or piece in a game cf. naya and naya-pīṭhī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; ([plural]) prudent, conduct, polity, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa x, 50, 34]

7) [v.s. ...] n. ‘the leading organ’, the eye (ifc. f(ā or ī). ), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature; Suśruta etc.]

8) Nāyana (नायन):—mf(ī)n. ([from] nayana) relating to the eye, ocular, [Nyāyasūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nayana (नयन):—(naṃ) 1. n. The eye; leading. f. () Pupil of the eye.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Nayana (नयन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ṇayaṇa, Ṇeāvaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Nayana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Nayana (नयन) [Also spelled nayan]:—(nm) an eye; —[kora] extreme end of the eye; ~[gocara] visible, tangible; ~[chada/paṭa] an eyelid; ~[jala/vāri/salila] tear(s); ~[patha] the visual range; —[viṣaya] a visual object.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Ṇayaṇa (णयण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Nayana.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Nayaṇa (ನಯಣ):—[noun] an open hall raised on stone pillars, that has stone slabs for its roof, by the side of a mountain.

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Nayana (ನಯನ):—

1) [noun] the act or an instance of conveying (something from one place to another).

2) [noun] the act of moving, travelling.

3) [noun] the organ of sight; the eye.

4) [noun] a means of conveyance; a vehicle.

5) [noun] a way of applying or method of applying or using; application.

6) [noun] a bringing up with care; fostering.

7) [noun] a symbol for the number two.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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