Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

यथा वा,

yathā vā,

This is another example of sambhoga śṛṅgāra-rasa,

dorbhyāṃ saṃyamitaḥ payodhara-bhareṇāpīḍitaḥ pāṇijair āviddho daśanaiḥ kṣatādhara-puṭaḥ śroṇī-taṭenāhataḥ |
hastenānamitaḥ kace’dhara-sudhā-pānena[1] sammohitaḥ kāntaḥ kām api tṛptim āpa tad aho kāmasya vāmā gatiḥ ||

dorbhyām—with both arms; saṃyamitaḥ—put under control; payodhara—of the breasts; bhareṇa—by the weight; āpīḍitaḥ—pressed; pāṇijaiḥ—by the fingernails (“born from the hand”); āviddhaḥ—pierced; daśanaiḥ—by the teeth; kṣata—are wounded; adhara-puṭaḥ—He whose cup in the form of lips; śroṇī—of the hips; taṭena—by the edge; āhataḥ—pounded; hastena—with the hand; ānamitaḥ—made to bend; kace—on the hair; adhara-sudhā—nectar in the form of lips; pānena—by drinking; sammohitaḥ—enraptured; kāntaḥ—the male lover; kām api—some particular (some indescribable); tṛptim—satisfaction; āpa—got; tat—therefore (or at that time); aho—how amazing; kāmasya—of love; vāmā—contrary; gatiḥ—the course.

Her lover, Kṛṣṇa, was put under control with Her arms, was pressed by the weight of Her breasts, and was cut by Her fingernails. His lower lip, the form of the rim of a cup, was wounded by Her teeth. He was pounded with the edge of Her hips. She grabbed His head by the hair, and He became enraptured by drinking the nectar of Her lips. He achieved some indescribable satisfaction, therefore: How amazing is the reverse course of love! (Gīta-govinda 12.11)


With the words vāmā gatiḥ (reverse course), Jayadeva makes a double meaning on the word vāma (reverse, contrary), in reference to viparīta-līlā (reverse position) and to Rādhikā’s vāma nature (being hard to get).

Furthermore, according to Viśvanātha Kavirāja, sometimes a sthāyī technically turns into a rasa although a customary aspect—a vibhāva, an anubhāva, or a vyabhicārī—is not mentioned and is necessarily implied. Similarly, on occasion a vyabhicāri-bhāva is necessarily implied although its corresponding effect (anubhāva) is not mentioned.

He states:

sad-bhāvaś ced vibhāvāder dvayor ekasya vā bhavet, jhaṭity anya-samākṣepe tadā doṣo na vidyate,

“If, out of vibhāva, anubhāva, and vyabhicāri-bhāva, one or two are already taking place and the other one or the other ones are at once necessarily implied, there is no discrepancy” (Sāhitya-darpaṇa 3.16-17).

He gives an example:

dīrghākṣaṃ śarad-indu-kānti-vadanaṃ bāhū natāv aṃsayoḥ saṅkṣiptaṃ niviḍonnata-stanam uraḥ pārśve pramṛṣṭe iva |
madhyaḥ pāṇi-mito nitambi jaghanaṃ pādāv udagrāṅgulī chando nartayitur yathaiva manasaḥ sṛṣṭaṃ tathāsyā vapuḥ ||

“Her eyes are wide and the radiance of her face resembles the glow of the autumnal moon. Her arms are low at the shoulders, her chest is not broad, and her raised breasts are close to one another. The skin on her two sides is as if polished, and her waist can be measured with the span of a hand. Her hips have nice buttocks, and her feet have long toes. The creator fashioned her body to the liking of the mind of a dancer” (Kālidāsa’s Mālavikāgnimitram 2.3).

Viśvanātha explains:

atra mālavikām abhilaṣato’gnimitrasya mālavikā-rūpa-vibhāva-mātra-varṇane’pi sañcāriṇām ausukyādīnām anubhāvānāṃ ca nayana-visphārādīnām aucityād evākṣepaḥ. evam anyākṣepe’py ūhyam,

“On account of appropriateness, even in a mere description, by Agnimitra, who longs for Mālavikā, of the uddīpanas of Mālavikā’s body, there is an inkling of sañcāri-bhāvas such as autsukya (eagerness) and of anubhāvas such as a widening of the eyes” (Sāhitya-darpaṇa 3.17).

Therefore the verse features śṛṅgāra-rasa proper.

Footnotes and references:


kace’dhara-madhu-syandena (Gīta-govinda 12.11).

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