Puta, aka: Puṭa; 11 Definition(s)


Puta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Puṭa (पुट) is a Sanskit technical term referring to “burning pits” (used for calcination process of, for example, minerals). The term is used throughout Rasaśāstra literature.

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Puṭa: Mercury, mica, gold and other similar raw material cannot be used in medicines without subjecting them to pāka (heating process) and this process is called bhasmīkarana (incineration). The Puṭa limits the degree of incineration. Literally Puṭa means hallow space or/in two vessels joined together. It is also a measure of heating arrangement for preparing various kinds of bhasma (cinder) of mahārasa, uparasa and loha etc. Although the Puṭa is an heating process, it entails elaborate arrangements and can be described under yantra. Yantras and puṭas have become very popular after the advent of rasaśāstra in the middle ages.

Source: Academia.edu: Ayurveda and Pharmaceutics (rasashastra)
Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Puṭa (पुट) refers to the “eyelids”. It is one of the parts of the human body with which gestures (āṅgika) are performaned, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures of the eyelids (puṭa) are supposed to follow the corresponding nine movements of the eyeballs (tārā). These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

These are the nine gestures of the eyelids (puṭa), following the movements of the eyeballs (tāra):

  1. unmeṣa (opening),
  2. nimeṣa (closing),
  3. prasṛta (expanding),
  4. kuñcita (contracted),
  5. sama (level),
  6. vivartita (raising up),
  7. sphurita (throbbing),
  8. pihita (resting),
  9. vitāḍita (driven).

2) Puṭa (पुट) is another name for Paṭuvṛtta, which refers to a type of syllabic metre (vṛtta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 16. In this metre, the first six and the tenth syllables of a foot (pāda) are light (laghu), while the rest of the syllables are heavy (guru).


Puṭa falls in the Jagatī class of chandas (rhythm-type), which implies that verses constructed with this metre have four pādas (‘foot’ or ‘quarter-verse’) containing twelve syllables each.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Puṭa (पुट, “eyelids”) refers to one of the twelve “subsidiary limbs” (upāṅga), which represents a division of Āṅgikābhinaya (gesture language of the limbs) as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Āṅgika-abhinaya is the gesture language of the limbs. Dance is an art that expresses itself through the medium of body, and therefore, āṅgikābhinaya is essential for any dance and especially for any classical dance of India. Upāṅgas or the subsidiary limbs consist of the eyes, the eye-brows, [eyelids, viz., Puṭa], pupils, cheeks, nose, jaws, lips, teeth, tongue, chin, face, and the head.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Puṭa (पुट) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (eg., Puṭa) in 20 verses.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

puṭa : (m.; nt.) a container. (usually made of leaves); a pocket; a basket.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Puṭa, (etym. unknown, prob. dialectical, as shown by N. of Pāṭaliputta, where putta=puṭa since unfamiliar in origin) orig. meaning “tube, ” container, hollow, pocket.—1. a container, usually made of leaves (cp. J. IV, 436; V, 441; VI, 236), to carry fruit or other viands, a pocket, basket: ucchu° basket for sugar J. IV, 363; paṇṇa° leaf-basket PvA. 168; phala° fruit basket J. IV, 436=VI, 236; phānita(ssa)° basket of molasses, sugar-basket S. I, 175 (KS. : jar); J. IV, 366; DhA. IV, 232; mālā° basket for garlands or flowers DhA. III, 212 (baddha made, lit. bound). In puṭa-baddha-kummāsa VvA. 308 perhaps meaning “cup. ” — 2. a bag or sack, usually referring to food carried for a journey, thus “knapsack” (or directly “provisions, ” taking the container for what it contains DA. I, 288 puts puṭaṃsa= pātheyya), in bhatta° bag with provisions J. II, 82 (with bandhati), 203; III, 200; DA. I, 270. Also at J. IV, 375 “bag” (tamba-kipillaka°). See below °aṃsa & °bhatta.—3. a tube, hollow, in nāsā° (nāsa°) nostril J. VI, 74; Vism. 195, 263, 362; KhA 65; hattha° the hollow of the hand Miln. 87; vatthi° bladder(—bag) Vism. 264; sippi-puṭa oyster shell J. V, 197, 206. puṭaṃ karoti to form a hollow VbhA. 34.—4. box, container, see °bheda & °bhedana, in pāṭali-puṭa seed box for the P. flower.

—aṃsa “bag-shoulder” (for “shoulder-bag, ” cp. aṃsapuṭa (assapuṭa) & Ger. rucksack=knapsack. Rightly expld by Bdhgh at DA. I, 288), a bag carrying provisions on journeys, hence “provision, ” in phrase puṭaṃsena with provisions (v. l. at all places puṭosena) D. I, 117; M. III, 80; A. II, 183; cp. Dialogues I. 150; see also mutoḷī.—pāka something cooked in a bag (like a meal-pudding) Vism. 500.—baddha kind of moccasins Vin. I, 186, see Vin. Texts II. 15. Spelt puṭa-bandha at Vism. 251=VbhA. 234.—bhatta “bag-food, ” viaticum, provisions for journey J. II, 423; KhA 46.—bheda the breaking of the container (i.e. seed boxes of the Sirīsa plant) VvA. 344 (in vatthu where Sirīsa refers to Pāṭaliputta, cp. Vv 8452, 53).—bhedana breaking of the (seed-) boxes of the Pāṭali plant, referring primarily to the N. of Pāṭali-putta, where putta represents a secondary Pālisation of Sk. °putra which again represents P. (or Non-Aryan) puṭa (see Pischel, Prk. Gr. § 238 & 292). Through popular etym. a wrong conception of the expression arose, which took puṭa in the sense of “wares, provisions, merchandise” (perhaps influenced by puṭaṃsa) and, based on C. on Ud. 88 (bhaṇḍakānaṃ mocara-ṭṭhānaṃ vuttaṃ hoti) gave rise to the (wrong) trsln Dial. II. 92 “a centre for interchange of all kinds of wares. ” See also Miln. trsln I. 2; Buddh. Suttas XVI, — Vin. I, 229=D. II, 87=Ud. 88. After the example of Pāṭaliputta applied to the city of Sāgala at Miln. 1 (nānā-puṭa-bhedanaṃ S° nagaraṃ). Here clearly meant for “merchandise. ” — Rh. D. in a note on puṭabhedana gives expln “a town at the confluence or bend of a river” (cp. Jaina Sūtras 2, 451). Puṭaka (nt.) (fr. puṭa) a bag, pocket, knapsack or basket J. II, 83 (°bhatta=provisions); DA. I, 263; DhA. II, 82 (v. l. piṭaka & kutaka); IV, 132 (pockets of a serpent’s hood). Cp. bhatta. (Page 464)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

puṭa (पुट).—n (S) Anything folded or doubled so as to form a cup or concavity;--as the hands, leaves &c., a valve of a shell &c. Also in comp. as añjalipuṭa, cañcupuṭa, parṇapuṭa, karṇapuṭa. 2 A hemisphere. 3 A single application unto;--as, in preparing medicaments, of fire to bake, of sun, air &c. to dry: also a single dipping into an infusion, a single coating, plastering, smearing, overlay. Gen. in comp. as agnipuṭa, sūryapuṭa, auṣadhapuṭa, rasapuṭa. v . It signifies also the material so used,--the infusion, the plaster &c. 4 In comp. with nāsikā or nāsā or ghrāṇa, as nāsikāpuṭa &c. A nostril. 5 A crucible. Ex. jaisēṃ puṭīṃ paḍatāṃ suvarṇa || tējasvī disē daidīpyamāna ||.

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pūṭa (पूट) [or ठ, ṭha].—n From puṭa which see in its third sense. 2 Powdered substance, powder. 3 Foil, any material put in to set off. pūṭa karaṇēṃ or ghēṇēṃ To estimate and purchase the coming crop of fruit-trees (esp. of the jack, mango, and tamarind). pūṭa dēṇēṃ To sell the coming crop.

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pūta (पूत).—m (putra S through H) A son. Of restricted use. Ex. asō kōṇa māyīcā pūta āhē; pūta supūta kōṭhēṃ ōḷakhāvā jō dunyēmadhyēṃ nāṃva karīla.

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pūta (पूत).—p S Pure, purified, cleansed.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

puṭa (पुट).—n Anything folded so as to form a cup-as the hands, leaves. añjalipuṭa, cañcupuṭa. A hemisphere. A single appli- cation. A nostril. A crucible.

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pūṭa (पूट).—or-ṭha n Powder. Foil.

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pūta (पूत).—m A son.

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pūta (पूत).—p Pure. Purified.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Puṭa (पुट).—[puṭ-ka]

1) A fold.

2) A hollow space, cavity, concavity; भिन्नपल्लवपुटो वनानिलः (bhinnapallavapuṭo vanānilaḥ) R.9.68;11.23; 17.12; M.3.9; अञ्जलिपुट, नासापुट, कर्णपुट (añjalipuṭa, nāsāpuṭa, karṇapuṭa) &c.

3) A cup made of a leaf folded or doubled; a vessel of leaves; दुग्ध्वा पयः पत्रपुटे मदीयम् (dugdhvā payaḥ patrapuṭe madīyam) R.2.65; Ms.6.28.

6) Any shallow receptacle.

5) The pod or capsule which envelops young shoots.

6) A sheath, cover, covering

7) An eye-lid (puṭī also in all these senses).

8) A horse's hoof.

9) A cloth worn to cover the privities.

-ṭaḥ 1 A casket.

2) The contracting of anything.

3) A folding of anything so as to form a cup.

-ṭam 1 A nutmeg.

2) Two vessels joined together for medical purposes.

Derivable forms: puṭaḥ (पुटः), puṭam (पुटम्).

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Pūta (पूत).—p. p. [pū-kta]

1) Purified, cleansed, washed (fig. also); दृष्टिपूतं न्यसेत् पादं वस्त्रपूतं जलं पिबेत् । सत्यपूतां वदेद् वाचं मनःपूतं समाचरेत् (dṛṣṭipūtaṃ nyaset pādaṃ vastrapūtaṃ jalaṃ pibet | satyapūtāṃ vaded vācaṃ manaḥpūtaṃ samācaret) || Ms.6.46; त्रैविद्या मां सोमपाः पूतपापा यज्ञै- रिष्ट्वा स्वर्गतिं प्रार्थयन्ते (traividyā māṃ somapāḥ pūtapāpā yajñai- riṣṭvā svargatiṃ prārthayante) Bg.9.2.

2) Threshed, winnowed.

3) Expiated.

4) Contrived, invented.

5) Stinking, putrid, fetid, foul-smelling.

-taḥ 1 A conch-shell.

2) White Kuśa grass.

-tam Truth.

-tā An epithet of Durgā.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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Puṭapāka (पुटपाक).—1) a particular method of preparing drugs, in which the various ingredients ...
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