Shakha, Sakha, Sākhā, Śākhā, Śākha, Sākha: 27 definitions
Shakha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Śākhā and Śākha can be transliterated into English as Sakha or Shakha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Śākhā (शाखा):—A Sanskrit technical term referring to the branches or limbs of the human body, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. Śākhā is said to be one of the three “pathways of diseases” (rogamārga). The branches or limbs (śākhā) refers to the bodily elements (dhātus), for example: blood (rakta), skin (tvac) and so on. This pathway is also called “the peripheral (bāhya) pathway of disease”.Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
1) Śākhā (शाखा) refers to the “branches sprouting out of a tree trunk”, as mentioned in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Śākhā] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.
2) Śākhā (शाखा) also refers to the “fibrous roots” (of trees or plants), as mentioned in a list of five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) verse 29b.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana
Śākha (शाख) is the name of a gaṇa (attendant of Śiva), mentioned in the Skandapurāṇa 4.2.53. In this chapter, Śiva (Giriśa) summons his attendants (gaṇas) and ask them to venture towards the city Vārāṇasī (Kāśī) in order to find out what the yoginīs, the sun-god, Vidhi (Brahmā) were doing there.
While the gaṇas such as Śākha were staying at Kāśī, they were desirous but unable of finding a weakness in king Divodaśa who was ruling there. Kāśī is described as a fascinating place beyond the range of Giriśa’s vision, and as a place where yoginīs become ayoginīs, after having come in contact with it. Kāśī is described as having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.
The Skandapurāṇa narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is the largest Mahāpurāṇa composed of over 81,000 metrical verses, with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Śākha (शाख).—According to one view Śākha was the younger brother of Subrahmaṇya while there are others who maintain that he was Subrahmaṇya’s son. In verse 37, Chapter 44 of Śalya Parva it is stated that Śākha was the son of the Vasu Anala and the younger brother of Subrahmaṇya and that he had two brothers called Vaiśākha and Naigameya. It is stated in Chapter 15, part 1 of Viṣṇu Purāṇa as follows:— "Āpa, Dhruva, Soma, Dharma, Anila, Agni, Pratyūṣa and Prabhāsa are the aṣṭavasus. Vaitaṇḍa, Śrama, Śānta, and Dhvani were sons of Āpa. Kāla, who annihilates the entire world is the son of Dhruva and Varccas is Soma’s son. Varccas gives people the vital glow. Draviṇa, Hutahavyavaha, Śiśvara, Prāṇa and Varuṇa were the sons of Dharma by Manoharā. Anila’s wife was Śivā, and two sons, Manojava and Avijñatagati were born to the couple. Kumāra, son of Agni was born in Śarastamba and he had three brothers called Śākha, Viśākha and Naigameya."
The following story about the birth of Śākha is from Taraṅga 6, Lāvāṇakalambaka of Kathāsaritsāgara: Defeated in battle by Tārakāsura, Indra decided to have no more fight with him and retired to Mount Mahāmeru. Devas and maharṣis sought asylum with Subrahmaṇya, who gave them protection. Indra came to know of it and fought with Subrahmaṇya feeling that the latter had captured his kingdom. Two sons, Śākha and Viśākha were born from the face of Subrahmaṇya wounded by the Vajrāyudha of Indra.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 25; Matsya-purāṇa 5. 26; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 24; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 115.
- 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 280.
Śākha (शाख) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.23) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śākha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Śākhā (शाखा, “branch”) refers to ‘various movements of the hand’. It is one of the three aspects of abhinaya (“histrionic representation”), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature.
2) Śākhā (शाखा) refers to one of the representations through which the body (śārīra) expresse itself, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. It is also known by the name Śākhābhinaya. These bodily expressions, or representations (abhinaya), are to be executed in accordance with the psychological states (bhāva) and sentiments (rasa) available in the dramatic play (nāṭya). It forms a part of sāmānyābhinaya, or “harmonious representation”.
The śākhā representation is meant to accompany recitatives (pāṭhya). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “the representation that is made in due order by the head, the face, shanks, thighs, hands and feet in the manner of branches, is known as the śākhā representation”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Śākha (शाख) is one of the two mighty sons of Kārttikeya that sprung from his body after being struck by Indra’s thunderbolt, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 20. Kārttikeya is the name of Śiva’s son born for the purpose of slaying the asura Tāraka and to protect the realm of Indra.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Śākha, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)
Sākhā (साखा) refers to a “recension” (of any Veda) according to the commentary of the Āpastamba-yajña-paribhāṣā-sūtras 3.—“in order to know the whole of the sacrifice [yajña], one Veda is not sufficient, still less one sākhā (recension) only. The sacrifice is conceived as a whole, and its members (aṅgas) are described in different parts of the three Vedas”.
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)
Sakhā (सखा) refers to “male friend, companion or atten-dant. In the Gītā, this refers to Arjuna”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition
Sakhā (सखा) refers to:—A male friend, companion or attendant. There are four types of sakhās in Vraja: (1) suhṛda–those whose friendship is mixed with a scent of parental mood, who are slightly older than Kṛṣṇa, who bear a staff and other weapons and who always protect Kṛṣṇa from demons; e.g. Subhadra, Maṇḍalībhadra and Balabhadra; (2) sakhā–those whose friendship is mixed with a scent of servitorship, who are slightly younger than Kṛṣṇa and who are exclusively attached to the happiness of rendering service to Him; e.g. Viśāla, Vṛṣabha and Devaprastha; (3) priyasakhā–those who are of the same age as Kṛṣṇa and take the exclusive shelter of the attitude of friendship; e.g. Śrīdāma, Sudāma and Stoka-kṛṣṇa; and (4) priya-narma-sakhā–superior in every way to the three other types of sakhās; they are engaged in extremely confidential services and possess a very special mood, such as Subala, Ujjvala and Madhumaṅgala. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Śākhā (शाखा) in the Rigveda and later denotes the ‘branch’ of a tree. Vayā is more often used in this sense in the Rigveda.Source: Cyclopaedia: Hinduism
A shakha (Sanskrit śākhā, "branch" or "limb"), is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school. An individual follower of a particular school or recension is called a śākhin. The term is also used in Hindu philosophy to refer to an adherent of a particular orthodox system.
A related term caraṇa, ("conduct of life" or "behavior") is also used to refer to such a Vedic school: "although the words caraṇa and śākhā are sometimes used synonymously, yet caraṇa properly applies to the sect or collection of persons united in one school, and śākhā to the traditional text followed, as in the phrase śākhām adhite, ("he recites a particular version of the Veda")".Source: Academia.edu: Some Pearls from the Fourth Chapter of Abhinavabhāratī Table of Contents
Śākhā (शाखा) literally means branch. It is the term used for the various movements of the hands (kara-varhana). All the gestures and movements of the hands are śākhā.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. A deer, a previous birth of Devadatta. See the Nigrodhamiga Jataka. J.i.149 ff.; cf. DhA.i.148; Mtu.i.359.
2. A setthiputta of Rajagaha, a former birth of Devadatta. For his story see the Nigrodha Jataka. J.iv.37ff.; cf. Mil.203.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Śākhā (शाखा, “branch”).—One of the ten kinds of “plant-bodies” (vanaspati) a soul (jīva) can be reborn as due to karma. Śākhā and other plant-bodies are within the animal world (tiryag-gati) which is one of the four divisions of saṃsāra where souls are reborn.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Śākhā.—(CII 3, 4; IA 18, 19), literally, ‘a branch’; a Vedic school following any particular recension of the Vedas. (LL), a section of the Jain community. Note: śākhā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
sakha : (m.) a friend. || sākhā (f.), a branch.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Sākhā, (Vedic śākhā, cp. also śaṅku stick, & Goth. hōha plough) a branch Vin. I, 28; M. I, 135; A. I, 152; II, 165, 200 sq.; III, 19, 43 sq. , 200; IV, 99, 336; V, 314 sq.; Sn. 791; J. V, 393; J. II, 44; a spur of a hill A. I, 243; II, 140; Miln. 36; also sākha (nt.) Mhvs 1, 55; J. I, 52; IV, 350; J. I, 164 (? yāva aggasākhā).—the rib of a parasol Sn. 688. ‹-› adj. sīla-sākha-pasākha whose branches and boughs are like the virtues J. VI, 324. In cpds. sākha° & sākhā°.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śākha (शाख).—f (śāka S) A pot-herb in general; any esculent leaf, flower, fruit, bean, seed, root &c.
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śākha (शाख).—f ē A mango plump and well-filled (upon the tree) and bordering upon ripeness. In this stage the flavor is considered as exquisite.
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śākhā (शाखा).—f (S) A branch or bough. 2 fig. A section or subdivision (of a subject, a book &c.), a branch. 3 A sect or party.
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sakha (सख).—m n (ṣaṭka S) An aggregate of six. See saka.
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sakha (सख).—m S The friend of. In comp. as indrasakha The friend of Indra, marutsakha, ētatsakha, tatsakha &c.
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sakhā (सखा).—m (S) A friend, a companion, an associate.
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sakhā (सखा).—& sakhāsōyarā Commonly sagā & sagāsōyarā.
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sākha (साख).—f (sākṣya S) Mercantile credit: also good repute or honorable character generally.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
śākhā (शाखा).—f A branch, bough. Fig. A section; a sect.
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sakhā (सखा).—m A friend, a companion, an associate. a Own, closely related
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sākha (साख).—f Mercantile credit; good repute.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Śākha (शाख).—Name of Kārtikeya.
Derivable forms: śākhaḥ (शाखः).
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1) A branch (as of a tree); आवर्ज्य शाखाः (āvarjya śākhāḥ) R. 16.19.
2) An arm.
3) A party, section, faction.
4) A part of subdivision of a work.
5) A school, branch, sect.
6) A part or division of an animal.
7) A school or traditional recension of the Veda, the traditional text followed by a school; as in शाखलशाखा, आश्वलायनशाखा, बाष्कलशाखा (śākhalaśākhā, āśvalāyanaśākhā, bāṣkalaśākhā) &c.
8) A branch of any science.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-khaḥ) A plant, (Galedupa arborea.) f.
(-khā) 1. A branch, the branch of a tree. 2. A branch or sub-division of the Vedas, consisting of the several Sanhitas or collections of prayers in each Veda, as received in different schools, modified more or less either in the arrangement of the whole text, or in particular portions of it. 3. An arm. 4. A sect, a faction, a party. 5. Any sub-division. 6. Any part of an animal not endowed with sensibility, as a horn, &c. E. śākh to pervade, aff. ac .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śākhā (शाखा).—f. 1. The branch of a tree, [Pañcatantra] 148, 5. 2. An arm. 3. Any part of an animal devoid of sensibility, as a horn. 4. A division, a sect. 5. A subdivision of the Vedas, according to the different schools and redactions of the holy writings, Windischmann, Sankara, 112. 6. A part, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] [distich] 29.
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Sakha (सख).—[-sakha], a substitute for sakhi at the end of comp. words; e. g. nara-, m. Friend of Nārāyana, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 3. priya-, I. m. 1. A dear friend,
1) Śākha (शाख):—[from śākh] m. Name of a manifestation of Skanda or of his son, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]
2) [v.s. ...] Pongamia Glabra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) [v.s. ...] mn. Name of a place, [Catalogue(s)]
4) Śākhā (शाखा):—[from śākha > śākh] a f. See next.
5) [v.s. ...] b f. (ifc. f(ā or ī). ) a branch ([literally] and [figuratively]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
6) [v.s. ...] a limb of the body, arm or leg, [Suśruta]
7) [v.s. ...] a finger, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska ii, 5]
8) [v.s. ...] the surface of the body, [Caraka]
9) [v.s. ...] a door-post, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] (cf. dvāra-ś)
10) [v.s. ...] the wing of a building, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
11) [v.s. ...] a division, subdivision, [Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
12) [v.s. ...] the third part of an astrological Saṃhitā (also khā-skandha, m.), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
13) [v.s. ...] a branch or school of the Veda (each school adhering to its own traditional text and interpretation; in the Caraṇa-vyūha, a work by Śaunaka treating of these various schools, five Śākhās are enumerated of the Ṛg-veda, viz. those of the Śākalas, Bāṣkalas, Āśvalāyanas, Śāṅkhāyanas, and Māṇḍukāyanas; forty-two or forty-four out of eighty-six of the Yajur-veda, fifteen of which belong to the Vājasaneyins, including those of the Kāṇvas and Mādhyaṃdinas; twelve out of a thousand said to have once existed of the Sāma-veda and nine of the Atharva-veda; of all these, however, the Ṛg-veda is said to be now extant in one only, viz. the Śākala-śākhā, the Yajur-veda in five and partially in six, the Sāma-veda in one or perhaps two, and the Atharva-veda in one: although the words caraṇa and śākhā are sometimes used synonymously, yet caraṇa properly applies to the sect or collection of persons united in one school, and śākhā to the traditional text followed, as in the phrase śākhām adhīte, he recites a particular version of the Veda), [Prātiśākhya; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
14) [v.s. ...] a branch of any science, [Caraka]
15) [v.s. ...] a year, [Śrīkaṇṭha-carita]
16) [v.s. ...] = pakṣāntara, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) [v.s. ...] = antika, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) Sakha (सख):—[from sac] m. (ifc. for sakhi cf. [Pāṇini 5-4, 91]) a friend, companion, [Rāmāyaṇa; Kālidāsa] etc.
19) [v.s. ...] attended or accompanied by ([compound]), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.
20) [v.s. ...] the tree Mimosa Catechu, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+19): Sakhala, Sakhanagara, Shakhabahu, Shakhabhaji, Shakhabheda, Shakhabhinaya, Shakhabhrit, Shakhacandranyaya, Shakhacankramana, Shakhachandranyaya, Shakhachankramana, Shakhada, Shakhadhyetri, Shakhadi, Shakhamaya, Shakhamla, Shakhamriga, Shakhamrigaganayuta, Shakhamriganikapati, Shakhamrigatva.
Ends with (+48): Adhahshakha, Anyashakha, Ashakha, Avaishakha, Avakshakha, Avarohashakha, Avashakha, Bahishakha, Bahushakha, Bashkalashakha, Bhadrashakha, Bhallavishakha, Catuhshakha, Dhanuhshakha, Dipashakha, Dirghashakha, Dushakha, Dvarashakha, Ekashakha, Kandashakha.
Full-text (+327): Pratishakhya, Shakhi, Vishakha, Madhushakha, Shakhabhrit, Pavamanasakha, Dirghashakha, Smarasakha, Pancashakha, Ramasakha, Shatashakhatva, Ekashakha, Pratishakha, Shakhapura, Shakhamriga, Avakshakha, Mahashakha, Priyanarma-sakha, Sagasoyara, Pasakha.
Search found 63 books and stories containing Shakha, Sakha, Sākhā, Śākhā, Śākha, Sākha, Sakhā; (plurals include: Shakhas, Sakhas, Sākhās, Śākhās, Śākhas, Sākhas, Sakhās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brahma Sutras (Shankara Bhashya) (by Swami Vireshwarananda)
Chapter III, Section III, Adhikarana XXXI < [Section III]
Chapter III, Section III, Adhikarana X < [Section III]
Chapter III, Section III, Adhikarana I < [Section III]
Brahma Sutras (Vedanta Sutras) (by George Thibaut)
III, 3, 55 < [Third Adhyāya, Third Pāda]
III, 3, 56 < [Third Adhyāya, Third Pāda]
III, 3, 19 < [Third Adhyāya, Third Pāda]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 3.3.37 < [Part 3 - Fraternal Devotion (sakhya-rasa)]
Verse 3.3.94 < [Part 3 - Fraternal Devotion (sakhya-rasa)]
Verse 3.3.39 < [Part 3 - Fraternal Devotion (sakhya-rasa)]
Bhajana-Rahasya (by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura Mahasaya)
Text 27 < [Chapter 6 - Ṣaṣṭha-yāma-sādhana (Sāyaṃ-kālīya-bhajana–bhāva)]
Text 22 < [Chapter 5 - Pañcama-yāma-sādhana (Aparāhna-kālīya-bhajana–kṛṣṇa-āsakti)]
Settlement in Early Historic Ganga Plain (by Chirantani Das)
Part 5 - Pre-Buddhist education and corporate character < [Chapter III - Nālandā: Evidence for rise and progress of the settlement]
Part 1 - Cultural back ground of Vārāṇasī as an emerging nodal centre < [Chapter V - Rise of Vārāṇasī as a Nodal Centre]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 2 - The names of the Upaniṣads; Non-Brahmanic influence < [Chapter III - The Earlier Upaniṣads (700 B.c.— 600 B.c.)]