Kalpa-sutra (Lives of the Jinas)

by Hermann Jacobi | 1884 | 24,941 words | ISBN-10: 8120801237 | ISBN-13: 9788120801233

The English translation of the Kalpa Sutra of Bhadrabahu, which represents one of the Cheda-sutras in Shvetambara Jainism. Traditionally dated to the 4th-century BCE, it contains the biographies of Mahavira and Parshvanatha, two of the twenty-four Tirthankaras. Alternative titles: Kalpa-sūtra (कल्प-सूत्र) or Kalpasūtra (कल्पसूत्र, kalpasutra)...

List of the Sthaviras

At that period, at that age the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra had nine Gaṇas and eleven Gaṇadharas.

‘Why, now, has it been said, that the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra had nine Gaṇas, but eleven Gaṇadharas?’

'The oldest monk of the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra was Indrabhūti of the Gautama gotra, who instructed five hundred Śramaṇas; the middle-aged monk was Agnibhūti of the Gautama gotra, who instructed five hundred Sramaṇas; the youngest was Vāyubhūti of the Gautama gotra, who instructed five hundred Śramaṇas. The Sthavira Ārya-Vyakta of the Bhāradvāja gotra instructed five hundred Śramaṇas; the Sthavira Ārya-Sudharman of the Agniveśyāyana gotra instructed five hundred Śramaṇas; the Sthavira Maṇḍikaputra[1] of the Vāsiṣṭha gotra instructed two hundred and fifty Śramaṇas; the Sthavira Mauryaputra of the Kāśyapa gotra instructed two hundred and fifty Śramaṇas; the Sthavira Akampita of the Gautama gotra and Sthavira Acalabhrātṛ of the Hāritāyana gotra, both Sthaviras instructed together three hundred Śramaṇas each; the Sthaviras Metārya and Prabhāsa, both of the Kauṇḍiṇya gotra, instructed together three hundred Śramaṇas each[2]. Therefore, Sir, has it been said that the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra had nine Gaṇas, but eleven Gaṇadharas: (1)

All these eleven Gaṇadharas of the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra, who knew the twelve Aṅgas, the fourteen Pūrvas, and the whole Siddhānta of the Gaṇins, died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains in Rājagṛha after fasting a month without drinking water. The Sthaviras Indrabhūti and Ārya Sudharman both died after the Nirvāṇa of Mahāvira. The Nirgrantha Śramaṇas of the present time are all (spiritual) descendants of the monk Ārya Sudharman, the rest of the Gaṇadharas left no descendants. (2)

The Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra was of the Kāśyapa gotra. His disciple was[3]:

1. Ārya Sudharman of the Agniveśyāyana gotra; 
2. Ārya Jambūnāman of the Kāśyapa gotra; 
3. Ārya Prabhava of the Kātyāyana gotra; 
4. Ārya Śayyambha, father of Manaka, was of the Vatsa gotra;
5. Ārya Yaśobhadra of the Tuṅgikāyana gotra. (3)

In the short redaction the list of Sthaviras after .Ārya Yaśobhadra is the following:

6. Ārya Sambhūtavijaya of the Māṭhara gotra and Ārya Bhadrabāhu of the Prācīna gotra; 
7. Ārya Sthūlabhadra of the Gautama gotra; 
8. i. Ārya Mahāgiri of the Ailāpatya gotra and 
   ii. Ārya Suhastin of the Vāsiṣṭha gotra;

9. Susthita and Supratibuddha, surnamed Koṭika and Kākandaka, of the Vyāghrāpatya gotra; 
10. Ārya Indradatta (Indadinna) of the Kauśika gotra; 
11. Ārya Datta (Dinna) of the Gautama gotra; 
12. Ārya Siṃhagiri Jātismara of the Kauśika gotra; 
13. Ārya Vajra of the Gautama gotra; 
14. Ārya Vajrasena of the Utkṛṣṭa gotra[4].

He had four disciples: Ārya Nāgila, Ārya Padmila, Ārya Jayanta, and Ārya Tāpasa, each of whom founded a Śākhā called after his name, viz. the Aryanāgilā Śākhā, the Āryapadmilā Śākhā, the Āryajayantī Śākhā, and the Āryatāpasī Śākhā. (4)

In the detailed redaction the list of Sthaviras after Ārya Yaśobhadra is the following:

 6. i. Ārya Bhadrabāhu of the Prācīna gotra, who had four disciples of the Kāśyapa gotra: 
    a. Godāsa, founder of the Godāsa Gaṇa[5], which was divided into four Śākhās
      α. The Tāmraliptikā Śākhā, 
      β. The Koṭivarṣīyā Śākhā, 
      γ. The Puṇḍravardhanīyā Śākhā, and 
      δ. The Dāsīkharbaṭikā Śākhā.

    b. Agnidatta, 
    c. Janadatta, 
    d. Somadatta. 

   ii. Ārya Sambhutavijaya of the Māṭhara gotra, who had twelve disciples:

 7.  a. Nandanabhadra, 
    b. Upananda, 
    c. Tiṣyabhadra[6]
    d. Yaśobhadra, 
    e. Sumanobhadra[7]
    f. Maṇibhadra
    g. Puṇyabhadra[8]
    h. Sthūlabhadra of the Gautama gotra, 
    i. Rijumati, 
    k. Jambū
    l. Dīrghabhadra, and 
    m. Pāṇḍubhadra;

and seven female disciples: 
    a. Yakṣā
    b. Yakṣadattā (Yakṣadinnā), 
    c. Bhūtā
    d. Bhūtadattā (Bhūtadinnā), 
    e. Senā (also Eṇā), 
    f. Veṇā
    g Reṇā.

 8. i. Ārya Mahāgiri of the Ailāpatya gotra, who had eight disciples: 
    a. Uttara
    b. Balissaha, who both together founded the Uttarabalissaha Gaṇa, which was divided into four Śākhās 
      α. Kauśambikā, 
      β. Sautaptikā (Pr. Soittiyā), 
      γ. Kauṭumbinī (or Kuṇḍadharī), 
      δ. Candanāgarī.

     c. Dhanarddhi (Pr. Dhaṇaḍḍha), 
    d. Śirarddhi (Pr. Siriḍḍha), 
    e. Koḍiṇya, 
    f. Nāga
    g. Nāgaputra, 
    h. Chaluka Rohagupta of the Kauśika gotra, founder of the Trairāśika Śākhā.

    ii. Ārya Suhastin[9] of the Vāsiṣṭha gotra, who had twelve disciples:

 9.  a. Ārya Rohaṇa of the Kāśyapa gotra, founder of the Uddeha Gaṇa, which was divided into four Śākhās: 
      α. Udumbarikā (Pr. Udumbarijjiyā), 
      β. Māsapūrikā, 
      γ. Matipatrikā, 
      δ. Pūrṇapatrikā (Pr. Punnapattiyā, Panna°, Sunna°, or Suvanna°);

and into six Kulas
      α´. Nāgabhūta, 
      β´. Somabhūta, 
      γ´. Ullagaccha (or Ārdrakaccha?), 
      δ´. Hastilipta (Pr. Hatthilijja), 
      ε´. Nāndika (Pr. Nandijja), 
      ζ´. Parihāsaka.

     b. Bhadrayaśas of the Bhāradvāja gotra, who founded the Uḍuvāṭika Gaṇa, which was divided into four Śākhās: 
      α. Kampīyikā (Pr. Kaṃpijjiyā), 
      β. Bhadrīyikā (Pr. Bhaddijjiyā), 
      γ. Kākandikā, 
      δ. Mekhalīyikā (Pr. Mehalijjiyā);

and into three Kulas: 
      α´. Bhadrayaska (Pr. Bhaddajasiya), 
      β´. Bhadraguptika, 
      γ´. Yaśobhadra (Pr. Jasabhadda). 

    c. Megha
    d. Kāmarddhi (Pr. Kāmiḍḍhi) of the Kuṇḍala gotra, who founded the Veśavāṭika Gaṇa, which was divided into four Śākhās: 
      α. Śrāvastikā, 
      β. Rājyapālikā (Pr. Rajjapāliyā), 
      γ. Antarañjikā (Pr. Antarijjiyā), 
      δ. Kṣemaliptikā (Pr. Khemalijjiyā);

and into four Kulas: 
      α´. Gaṇika
      β´. Maighika, 
      γ´. Kāmarddhika, 
      δ´. Indrapuraka. 

    e. Śrīgupta of the Hārita gotra, founder of the Cāraṇa Gaṇa, which was divided into four Śākhās: 
      α. Hāritamālākārī, 
      β. Saṃkāśikā, 
      γ. Gavedhukā, 
      δ. Vajranāgarī;

and into seven Kulas: 
      α´. Vātsalīya (Pr. Vacchalijja), 
      β´. Prītidharmika, 
      γ´. Hāridraka (Pr. Hālijja), 
      δ´. Puṣyamitrika (Pr. Pūsamittijja), 
      ε´. Mālyaka (Pr. Mālijja), 
      ζ´. Āryaceṭaka, 
      η´. Kṛṣṇasakha (Pr. Kanhasaha). 

    f. Ṛṣigupta Kākandaka of the Vāsiṣṭha gotra, founder of the Mānava Gaṇa, which was divided into four Śākhās: 
      α. Kāśyapīyā (Pr. Kāsavijjiyā), 
      β. Gautamīyā (Pr. Goyamejjiyā), 
      γ. Vāsiṣṭhīyā (Pr. Vāsiṭṭhiyā), 
      δ. Saurāṣṭrikā;

and into three Kulas: 
      α´. Ṛṣiguptika, 
      β´. Ṛṣidattika, 
      γ´. Abhiyaśasa. 

    g. and h. Susthita and Supratibuddha, surnamed Kauṭika and Kākandaka, of the Vyāghrāpatya gotra, founders of the Kauṭika Gaṇa, which was divided into four Śākhās: 
      α. Uccanāgarī, 
      β. Vidyādharī, 
      γ. Vajrī, 
      δ. Madhyamikā (Pr. Majjhimilla);

and into four Kulas: 
      α´. Brahmaliptaka (Pr. Baṃbhaligja), 
      β´. Vātsalīya (Pr. Vacchalijja, cf. e. α´.), 
      γ´. Vāṇīya (Pr. Vāṇijja), 
      δ´. Praśnavāhanaka.

Both Sthaviras had together five disciples:

 10. a. Ārya Indradatta (Pr. Indadinna) of the Kāśyapa gotra,  
   b. Priyagantha, founder of the Madhyamā Śākhā, 
    c. Vidyādharagopāla of the Kāśyapa gotra, founder of the Vidyādharī Śākhā, 
    d. Ṛṣidatta
    e. Arhaddatta (Pr. Arihadatta).

 11. Ārya Datta (Pr. Dinna) of the Gautama gotra, who had two disciples:

 12. i. Ārya Śāntisenika of the Māṭhara gotra, founder of the Uccanāgarī Śākhā, who had four disciples: 
    a. Ārya Senika, founder of the Āryasenikā Śākhā, 
    b. Ārya Tāpasa, founder of the Āryatāpasī Śākhā, 
    c. Ārya Kubera, founder of the Āryakuberā Śākhā, and 
    d. Ārya Ṛṣipālita, founder of the Āryaṛṣipālitā Śākhā. 

   ii. Ārya Siṃhagiri Jātismara of the Gautama gotra, who had four disciples:

13. a. Dhanagiri, 
    b. Ārya Samita of the Gautama gotra, founder of the Brahmadvīpikā Śākhā, 
    c. Ārya Vajra of the Gautama gotra, founder of the Āryavajrā Śākhā, 
    d. Arhaddatta (Pr. Arihadinna).

 14. i. Ārya Vajrasena, founder of the Aryanāgilā Śākhā, 
   ii. Ārya Padma, founder of the Āryapadmā Śākhā, 
   iii. Ārya Ratha of the Vatsa gotra, founder of the Āryajayantī Śākhā.

 15. Ārya Puṣyagiri of the Kauśika gotra.

 16. Ārya Phalgumitra of the Gautama gotra.

 17. Ārya Dhanagiri of the Vāsiṣṭha gotra.

 18. Ārya Śivabhūti of the Kautsa gotra.

 19. Ārya Bhadra of the Kāśyapa gotra.

 20. Ārya Nakṣatra of the Kāśyapa gotra.

 21. Ārya Rakṣa of the Kāśyapa gotra.

 22. Ārya Nāga of the Gautama gotra.

 23. Ārya Jehila[10] of the Vāsiṣṭha gotra.

 24. Ārya Viṣṇu of the Mātḥara gotra.

 25. Ārya Kālaka of the Gautama gotra.

 26. Ārya Sampalita and Bhadra, both of the Gautama gotra.

 27. Ārya Vṛddha of the Gautama gotra.

 28. Ārya Saṅghapālita of the Gautama gotra.

 29. Ārya Hastin of the Kāśyapa gotra.

 30. Ārya Dharma of the Suvrata gotra.

 31. Ārya Siṃha of the Kāśyapa gotra.

 32. Ārya Dharma of the Kāśyapa gotra.

 33. Ārya Śāṇḍilya[11].

Bowing down my head, I pay my reverence to the Sthavira Jambū of the Gautama gotra, who possessed steady virtue, good conduct, and knowledge. ix.

I prostrate myself before the Sthavira Nandita of Kāśyapa gotra, who is possessed of great clemency and of knowledge, intuition, and good conduct. x.

Then I adore the Kṣamāśramaṇa Deśigaṇin of the Kāśyapa gotra, who, steady in his conduct, possesses the highest righteousness and virtue. xi.

Then I prostrate myself before the Kṣamāśramaṇa Sthiragupta of the Vātsya gotra, the preserver of the sacred lore, the wise one, the ocean of wisdom, him of great virtue. xii.

Then I adore the Sthavira prince, Dharma, the virtuous Gaṇin, who stands well in knowledge, intuition, good conduct, and penance, and is rich in virtues[12]. xiii.

I revere the Kṣamāśramaṇa Devarddhi of the Kāśyapa gotra, who wears, as it were, the jewel of the right understanding of the Sūtras, and possesses the virtues of patience, self-restraint, and clemency. xiv.

_______________________

End of the List of the Sthaviras.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Some spell this name Maṇḍiṭaputra; he and Mauryaputra were sons of the same mother, Vijayadevī, but different fathers; the former of Dhanadeva, the other of Maurya. I do not know any legend which connects this Maurya with a king of the Maurya dynasty, which besides would be impossible from a chronological point of view.

[2]:

The sum total of Śramaṇas is therefore 4711, while in § 134 it is stated to have been 14,000.

[3]:

I only give the facts. The names of those Sthaviras who continue the line are spaced. The names are given in their Sanskrit form which in many cases is well known, in others can easily be made out. In doubtful cases I have put the Prākrit form in brackets.

[4]:

He is left out in some MSS.

[5]:

It is not quite clear what is meant by Gaṇa, Kula, and Śākhā. Gaṇa designates the school which is derived from one teacher; Kula the succession of teachers in one line; Śākhā the lines which branch off from each teacher. These terms seem to be disused in modern times, for the four principal divisions called after Nāgendra, Candra, Nivṛtti, and Vidyādhara are generally called Kulas, but also occasionally Sākhās. They go back to Vajra according to some, to Vajrasena according to others. The modern Gaccha appears equivalent with the ancient Gaṇa.

[6]:

Tīsabhadda, translated Tridaśabhadra.

[8]:

Or Pūrṇibhadra.

[9]:

Suhastin is said to have converted Samprati, grandson and successor of Aśoka. The correctness of this statement is open to doubt; but at any rate Suhastin must have been one of the most important patriarchs, for under and immediately after him the spread of Jainism must have been uncommonly vigorous, as is proved by the great number of Kulas and Śākhās at that time.

[10]:

A various reading has Jeṭṭhila = Jyeṣṭha.

[11]:

This list in prose from 17 down to 33 is wanting in some MSS. I think that Śāṇḍilya is the same as Skandila, who was president of the council of Mathurā, which seems to have been the rival of that in Valabhī; see notes to my edition of the Kalpa Sūtra, p. 117.

[12]:

The Sthaviras named in verses ix-xiii are probably not to be regarded as following each other in a continuous line, but rather as famous Sthaviras praised here for some reason or other (pūjārtham). At least the first, Jambū, seems to be the same with Jambū, the second of the list, who was also a Kāśyapa.

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